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Office Organization,

Management And Role of

Design Staf

Presented By : 12613, 12617, 12636 & 12637

Definition of Office Organisation

Office organisation is the arrangement of work
such that the activities of an enterprise are
divided among its personnel and duties and
responsibilities are allocated.
It comprises the formal inter-relationship
established among the personnel by virtue of
their duties and responsibilities.
It requires the creation of departments and
The diferent departments provide efficient
information, planning, control and financial

Establishment of Architects Office &

its Organisation.
An Architect in practice needs to set up his office in a professional manner right from
day one, in order to establish himself as a credible professional. He needs to take
care of following critical areas of professional concern.
Location and Site of Office:
Every Architect must decide for himself as to where and of what size of office he is
going to set up. There are number of options available. The choice will depend
upon finances available, ease of commuting, type of life-style desired and
management and location of important projects in hand.
For Example
Most building regulations permit establishment of a small professional Office in
one's own residential premises. In Mumbai the D C Regulations 1991 permit
conversion of a part of residential premises into an office to the extent of 30 sq.
The next best his thing is to either hire or buy premises in a convenient location.
Lately commercial banks in India have started lending money for buying officepremises. Agencies like HDFC do provide loans for buying premises.
Government and semi-Government agencies dealing with housing, auction
commercial premises; at time on hire-purchase" basis. One has to find money for
the initial payment. The balance is paid in monthly instalments over a period of 15
to 20 years at a rate of interest which is lower than that charged by banks.

Types of Architectural Organizations

1. Single Proprietorship firm
> The architect as the principal will be solely responsible for all the
decisions involved in running the office be it in bringing in
projects or to ensure preparation, progress and completion of the
project or getting diferent types of licenses and issuing of
> He can employ assistants in his office but he has to give direction
to others in all decisions. As a proprietor, one can enjoy freedom in
design and management, all profits, and fame if the work is good.
> However one shall also have to bear all the losses, less freedom if
the project is too big-where the decision makers may be many; and
blame for mistakes occurring in project. Further he may be liable to
be sued for lack of discharging, his duties and supervision.
Indecision may also delay projects or when he is ill the work may

Types of Architectural Organizations

2. Partnership Firm
> Here generally there will be two partners. But there can be more
number of partners also.
> An agreement has to be prepared between two or among more
partners to establish and run a firm under a designated name and style
and symbol. The agreement also states the duties and responsibilities of
partnership, sharing of profits and losses, liabilities and options along
with procedure for one or more partners to leave partnership.
> Its advantages include sharing of responsibilities as no one individual
will be liable for everything:, ability to organize large organization of
employees, ability to take up large scale projects and hence more
profits, can take greater risks, can operate from multiple locations.
Unlike in single proprietorship firm, partnership firm can ofer more
services under one roof. The partners can be from same professional
background or diferent backgrounds enabling the firm to provide varied
services. Partner may be architect, structural engineer, mechanical
engineer or electrical engineer or a management specialist.
>However this type of firm can be slow in taking decisions due to large

Types of Architectural Organizations

3. Limited Company
> One of the recent trends in the field is for Architect's office to convert
itself into a joint stock company or a limited company format, as under
Company Law. Hence the company will have a board of directors.
>A bigger version of partnership type but with a more defined structure
and a large and diversified project profile or range. This type of
organization is needed when the office grows from a medium scale to a
large scale outfit.
>As a limited company (private) it can have many directors both
technical and non technical to take up wide range of projects and
services which are not possible by smaller firms.
> It can raise capital, can ofer multiple services, can have multiple
offices, can employ a range of people with diversified specializations,
can have access to latest technology and management services through
high investments.
>There can be subsidiaries under the main company ofering specialist

Types of Architectural Organizations

4. Large Scale Consulting Company
> Large scale consulting corporations which take up turn key projects
providing all types of services needed for a project. They can raise
capital from public apart from initial capital.
>They operate globally and are capable of taking up large scale projects
due to their access to the best available technology and human
resources (specialists) e.g.: townships, high-rise and high tech buildings,
recreation complexes.
>They can under take projects not possible by smaller organizations.
Their survival depends on their level of efficiency.
>The corporation has to, invest heavily in corporate campus buildings
for distinct corporate image requiring heavy capital investment

Types of Architectural Organizations

5. Very Large Offices
> They have corporate status in organization. They focus on separate
specializations and ofer services in these specialized areas like city
planning, urban design, landscape, interior design, project management,
structural design, H.V.A.C. Consultancy, project feasibility reports, retail
and merchandise service, accessories design as an extension of interior
design, graphic design, product design, exhibition design, visual design,
apart from regular architectural design.
> Separate units/departments are formed within the same firm for each
of the specialization or subsidiary firms can be formed to handle the
parent firms and also to take up outside projects too. This method is
also used to save income tax.
> The reach of these companies can be trans national as their expertise
can tackle complex problems needing heavy capital investment and
multiple skills to be integrated both in linear/horizontal and vertical
hierarchies. Further they can have multiple offices spread across the
country and globe

Office Management
Office is a place where records are prepared, handled and preserved
for future reference. It is an administrative centre of business where
relevant records are prepared, preserved and made available for the
purpose of efficient management of the organization.
Administrative function relates to communication, safety, security.
coordination, planning, cost reduction and public relation, apart from
achieving project goal.
It is necessary for the office to
1. Improve upon existing informative system.
2. Reduce amount of paper work. Use of computers in all possible
3. Encourage creative thinking and employee participation.
4. Improve and maintain public relations.
5. Attract, acquire and retain talent .
6. Endeavour for cost efficient office service.
7. Decentralise as many functions as possible.
8. Achieve greater productivity through incentives and incorporating
employees ideas in all areas of productivity e.g. cost, meeting
deadlines, etc.

Office Management
Office management is a profession involving the design, implementation,
evaluation, and maintenance of the process of work within an office or
organization, in order to maintain and improve efficiency and productivity.
Office Manager
An office manager is responsible for monitoring and reviewing systems,
usually focusing on specific outcomes such as improved timescales, turnover,
output, sales, etc. They may supervise or manage a team of administrators,
allocating roles, recruiting and training, and issuing assignments and projects.
As such the role is varied, often including responsibilities across a diverse
range of functions such as:
Customer Service
Sales and Marketing
Report Writing
Records Management
Budget Management
Form/Template Design
Database Management
Website Maintenance
Systems Analysis
Project Management
Process Mapping
Management Consultancy
Facilities Management
Space Management
Human Resources
Risk Management

Functions of Office Management

Since office management is similar to the general or administrative
management, it performs the same functions as are performed by the
The functions of office management are
Planning is concerned with dealing in advance what is to be done. Planning
is the selecting and relating of facts, and making and using the
assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formulation of
proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results.
Organisation is the process of combining the works done by a individual or
a group to perform with facilities necessary form its execution, that the
duties so performed provide the best channel for the efficient, systematic,
positive and co-ordinated application of the available eforts.
Staffing an organisation refers to the selection of men for the various jobs.
It refers to choosing and preparing men so that the selection, recruitment,
training, development, promotion and remuneration of employees.

Functions of Office Management

The process of direction refers to the way an executives issues instructions to his
It includes leadership, Communication and supervision.
Leadership : The quality of leadership is the ability to influence people to strive willingly for
the realization of mutual objectives.
Communication : It is the process of passing information from one person to another person.
It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding.
Supervision: Supervision attempts to bring about conformity between planned and actual
Motivating : Motivating is a process of stimulating an individual to take action which will bring
about the satisfaction of a need and the accomplishment of a desired goal. Motivation moves
a person to action. It is achieved by,
(a) The use of power, or force.
(b) Providing inducements and incentives to employees.
(c) By satisfying the needs of the employees.
It means monitoring, balancing and keeping the team together by ensuring a suitable
allocation of tasks to the various members, and by seeing to it that these tasks are
performed with an opinion among the members themselves.

Design Objectives
Each design objective described herein is significantly important, yet
it is just one aspect of what it takes to achieve a successful project.
Pertains to building elements, heights and clearances implemented
to address the specific needs of disabled people.
Pertains to the physical appearance and image of building
elements and spaces as well as the integrated design process.
Pertains to selecting building elements on the basis of life-cycle
costs (weighing options during concepts, design development, and
value engineering) as well as basic cost estimating and budget
Functional / Operational
Pertains to functional programmingspatial needs and
requirements, system performance as well as durability and efficient
maintenance of building elements.

Historic Preservation
Pertains to specific actions within a historic district or afecting a
historic building whereby building elements and strategies are
classifiable into one of the four approaches: preservation,
Productive restoration, or reconstruction
Pertains to occupants' well-beingphysical and psychological comfort
including building elements such as air distribution, lighting,
workspaces, systems, and technology
Pertains to environmental performance of building elements and

A site engineer ofers advice in the planning, co-ordination and
supervision of technical aspects of construction projects. A site
engineer's role is vital to a construction project: they have a
number of responsibilities including solving technical issues,
advice, management
The civil engineer
is in charge of
to minimize pollution
other hazardous efects of the commercial establishment to the
The civil engineer analyzes the best option to take in order to
minimize cost of construction without compromising safety rules and
The civil engineer will be responsible for making sure that all
local and state zoning laws are complied with.
The civil engineer supervises the testing and inspection of all the
work done to ensure high quality results in the development of the
commercial project.

A Licensed or Registered Surveyor is the only person who is legally
authorised to perform Land or Cadastral Surveying and sign-of on
projects. They perform the following tasks: ... Plan and provide critical
space according
in land
and procedures.

Provides information or reports on current room utilization
and dimensions.

Maintains information or data on new construction,

renovations, and various remodeling.

Conducts space feasibility and utilization studies and

prepares reports on findings.

Maintains detailed space utilization data and inventory.

Researches and compiles data for various reports; assists in

the preparation of comprehensive, highly technical, or
reports and analyses.
Works closely with others to plan room layout, to include furniture,

equipment, telecommunications, or other pertinent needs.

Landscape engineers also develop plans to restore natural
areas, such as forests and wetlands, which have been afected by
The lighting designer's role in the construction administration
process begins well before the contractor arrives on the scene.
As with most disciplines, a lighting design's success will be
determined, to a large extent, by the quality of its drawings and
specifications. Realization of that design's full potential will rely
on the ability of its construction documentation to coherently
and concisely communicate the intent to the contracting team.
Failure to adequately convey the concept is often the weakest
link in the entire process.

LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is an

internationally-recognized green building certification that
measures efficiency in green design and construction. LEED
recognizes achievements in areas such as water efficiency, energy
efficiency and sustainable building materials. thus role of LEED
EXPERT is to make the project LEED recognized.
Seismic engineer
Prepare seismic margin and / or seismic fragility calculations
considering failure modes including of anchorage, functionality,
and structural integrity;
Develop finite element structural models, perform time-history
seismic analysis, and generate in-structure response spectra

Telecommunications Coordinator:
The IT and telecommunications department or responsible staf
coordinator, will be most familiar with their IT/telecom
infrastructure and how it is integrated into the existing facility(s).
IT will often know about upcoming plans for infrastructure
upgrades and also know more about how IT is likely to be used in
the future by the organization or company.
IT will have important information about the type of wiring
needed to accommodate their future infrastructure, required
locations of data/phone connections, environmental, electrical
and space requirements for data/phone rooms or closets, server
equipment rooms/data center and other infrastructure
equipment that must be considered in the architectural planning.

Archaeologists are specialists who study and work in the field of
past human activity. This is done primarily through the recovery
and analysis of material and environmental features, such as
artifacts, architecture and cultural landscapes. The main aim of
archaeologists is to facilitate long-term conservation and enhance
understanding of historic environments.
Archaeological consultants often work for engineering companies,
providing services such as environmental impact assessments,
impact mitigation and design services.
Archaeological surveys.
Understanding geographical both physical and human
Report writing and publication of findings.
Provision of management considerations to relevant authorities.
Public consultation.
Facilitating the preservation of heritage sites.

The construction manager is generally appointed early in the design process so
that their experience can be used to improve the cost and buildability of
proposals as they develop, as well as to advise on packaging, the risks of
interfaces between packages, and the selection of trade contractors.
Construction manager's are often appointed at the end of the concept design
The services provided by a construction manager might include:
Advising on the development of the brief (if appointed at this stage).
Advising on appointments (such as site inspectors).

Advising on the feasibility, interfaces, buildability, cost and programming

of the design.

Advising on statutory approvals.

Advising on the need for mock ups, samples, tests and inspections.

Cost planning and cost control.

Preparing a construction programme and defining methods of working on


Tendering trade contracts.

Arranging for site accommodation, welfare facilities, fences, hoardings,

roads and walkways, drainage, power and
water supply.
Arranging labour for certain site activities (such as cleaning).

Managing site inspectors.

FM is concerned with the management of facilities in the built
environment at both a strategic and a day-to day level to deliver
operational objectives and to maintain a safe and efficient
Facilities management services can be provided by:
In-house facilities management departments.

FM contractors, sometimes ofering a fixed price and so

taking the risk of facilities management from the client.

Managing agents.

Multi-service companies providing full or partial services.

Facilities management is an interdisciplinary activity that can
Estates strategies.

Asset management.

Space management.


Acquisitions and sales.


The role of the health and safety consultant is to promote a positive health and
safety culture in the workplace. They are primarily responsible for ensuring that
risks in the workplace are controlled and that organizations are successfully
meeting safety standards.
The typical role will include:
Preparation of health and safety strategies.

Undertaking risk assessments.

Investigating any accidents on site and documenting reports and

Undertaking site inspections to ensure that policies and procedures are being
properly implemented.

Delivery of Construction (Design and Management) - CDM - Services. NB CDM

creates a number of specific health and safety roles for design and construction.
See CDM for more information.

Review of contractor documentation.

Interfacing with clients and design teams on a project basis.

Health Consultants can advise on a range of issues which include:

Dealing with deleterious materials, such as asbestos.

Health issues.

Noise and vibration problems.

Stresses and strains.

Assisting people returning to work after a serious injury or illness.

The management contractor is generally appointed by the client early in
the design process. A management contractor might be reimbursed on the
basis of fixed or variable costs (the works contract costs) plus either a
percentage fee, a fixed fee, or on a target-cost basis. The terms of the
appointment must be clear about what is to be provided by the
management contractor (such as the provision of site facilities)
The services of a management contractor might include:
Advising on the development of the brief (if appointed at this stage).

Advising on appointments (such as site inspectors).

Advising on the feasibility, interfaces, buildability, cost and

programming of the design.
Defining key performance indicators for works contractors.
Acting as the principal contractor.
Preparing a construction programme and defining methods of working
on site.

Advising on the packaging of production information.

Tendering works contracts.

Consenting to sub-contracting of work by works contractors.

Arranging for site accommodation, welfare facilities, fences,

hoardings, roads and walkways, drainage, power and water supply.
Managing site inspectors.

Co-ordinating the release of information.


Structural engineers design, assess and inspect structures to ensure that

they are efficient and stable.
The scope of services provided by a structural engineer might include:
Geotechnical and geological investigations - loading and foundation

Supervision of surveys.

Flood analysis.

Contributing to the preparation of briefing documents, feasibility

studies and options appraisals.

Investigating materials.

Retaining walls.

Foundation design.

Structural design and detailing.

Special loads.

Fire protection to the structure.


Building regulations submissions.

Risk assessment.

Site inspection.

Aesthetics and beauty.

The site inspector provides an independent assessment of the works and
will generally report to the contract administrator.. On very large projects it
may be appropriate to have separate site inspectors for mechanical and
electrical services, structural works and architectural works. Site
inspectors in this context do not supervise the works (which might be
perceived as taking some responsibility for the works, when in fact the
contractor is responsible for them), they merely inspect the works in order
to give an independent view to the contract administrator. They are likely
to keep a site diary, attend construction progress meetings and to produce
regular written reports
Their role might include:

Witnessing tests.

Monitoring progress against the programme.

Assessing whether the works comply with legal requirements such as

health and safety legislation.

Assessing whether the works are being carried out in accordance

with the contract documents (which may include taking measurements
and samples).

Monitoring site conditions to ensure that work is undertaken in

accordance with manufacturers recommendations.

Providing regular reports (often weekly), attending construction

progress meetings.
Keeping records of: