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Balancing Training

Part 1

Typical Steps of field


Balancing
Illustration with model 907
E-mail: sales@sendig.com, sendigbj@yahoo.com.cn
Telephone: +8610 82895321
Fax: +8610 82895320
http://www.sendig.com
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An Overview of the
Steps
1.

Collecting Machine data

2.

Preparing Instrument & Sensor

3.

Balancing really required ?

4.

Balancing possible ?

5.

Procedure of balancing

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Step 1 - Collecting Machine


data

Understand the machine to be


balanced as much as possible

Collect machine data

Take a photo of the machine

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Sample: Machine to be balanced


Impeller Parameter:
Diameter: 1400mm
Thickness: 500mm
Bearing1

Bearing2

Blade Number: 12
Material:Fiberglass-

Impeller

Reinforced
Plastics
RPM: 1825 r/min
Bearing Model: ?
Motor Parameter:
Power: 75kW

Motor

RPM: 1500 r/min


Others:
Belt transmission
Spring base
Manufacture: LG

Step 2 - Preparing Instrument &

Sensors

Sendig-904/907 dual-channel
data collector/analyser/balancer
A notebook computer
Sendig-MCM3 Analysis Software

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Sensors & Cable connecting


Attach
reflecting
paper on shaft

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Step 3 - Balancing really


required ?

Use 904/907 to measure overall vibration values


Compare with ISO Standard

2) Use Collector
to measure
vibration

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1) Switch
to
Analyzer
7

Horizontal VELOCITY is the critical parameter


6: Point: Motor-1-Side-2-X
Alarm-mode: Displacement
Freq-Range: 500Hz
Sensor:4.6

New Data Old Data


ACC xxx / xxx
m/s2
VEL 7.2 / 2.1
mm/s
DISP 68
/ 12
m
ENV
xx
/ xx
m/s2

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Comparison with ISO2372

Sample

Overall Value Measurement


Acc.

Disp.

Envelope

RMS mm/s

P_P um

RMS ms-2

Hor. 88.81

9.95

101.5

5.268

Ver. 55.89

5.554

38.77

Peak ms-2

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Vel.

7.362
10

Sample
Not Permissible, Balancing really required

Measurement

9.95
mm/s

Step 4-1: Balancing possible?


single peak spectrum ?

Use 904/907 to measure vibration spectrum


Only single peak spectrum can go for balancing

2) Use Collector
to measure
vibration
3) Use C-Spect to
see velocity
spectrum
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1) Switch
to
Analyzer
12

Sample of non-single peak spectrum- not suitable for Balan

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13

Sample of non-single peak spectrum- Better change bearing before ba

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14

Sample of single peak spectrum


You can reduce the vibration by Balancing

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15

Step 4-2: Balancing possible ?


90o phase
Use 904/907 to
difference
? measure vibration phase difference

between vertical and horizontal directions


Only 90o phase difference can go for balancing

3) See if 90o phase difference


exist?
1) switch to
balancer and use
2-planes balancing
procedure

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2) Page down to Initial


Measurement to
measure vibration
phase at X & Y
16

Sample

Sample of non-90o phase difference


You cannot reduce the vibration by Balanci

Phase Measurement:
Velocity
Vertical:
Horizontal:

Amplitude
9.416
3.08

Phase
320
116

Phase
difference
not 90o

Since phase difference is not 90o nor closer to 90o ,this means the
problem with the fan is something else other than unbalance.
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17

Sample

Sample of nearly 90o phase difference


You can reduce the vibration by Balancing

1. Phase stable
2. Phase Measurement:
Velocity
Vertical:
Horizontal:

Amplitude
0.693
1.569

Phase
73
150

Phase
difference is
77o

?
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18

Balancing Training

Part 2

Procedure of balancing

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19

Different Kinds Of
Imbalance
1-plane
imbalance

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2-plane
imbalance

20

Characteristics Of
Imbalance
1. The vibration frequency is mainly composed of
RPM frequency. For each round the rotor turns, a
vibration is occurred.
2. The wave is an approximate sine wave.
3. There is a difference of 90o between the vertical
vibration phase and the horizontal one.
4. With RPM increasing, the vibration amplitude is
increased
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21

Basic Principle
Of 1 Plane Balancing
1 select a plane to fix trial mass and a
point to measure, draw scale of phase
and sign of 0o phase
2 measure initial vibration A0(phase
and amplitude)

3 fix a trial mass Q on the plane,


measure vibration A1

4 calculate influence coefficients:


A A0
amplitude
phase RPM
1
Q
P A0
5 calculate balancing mass P:
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22

Illustration of 1 Plane Balancing

P
A1- A0
A1

A
0

o
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draw A0 & A1, calculate A1- A0

measure the angle between A1- A0


K and A0
turn Q a along the direction of ,
gain the correct location of balancing
mass.
the weight of balancing mass is as
A0
the following : P Q
A1 A0

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Method of Influence
Coefficients

Method of influence coefficients is


widely used, its step as the following
(1 plane balancing as example):
1 measure initial vibration
2 fix a trial mass
3 measure the vibration with the trial mass
4 calculate the result of balancing mass

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24

IF THE INFLUENCE COEFFICIENTS ARE KNOWN,


THE STEP OF FIXING TRIAL MASS ARE IGNORED

The former steps are simplified as the following:

1) measure initial measurement


2) input influence coefficients
3) calculate the result of balancing mass

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25

NOTICES DURING THE


OPERATION
Confirm the dynamic
balancing are needed
according to spectrum
and phase analysis.
Direction of phase:
reverse to the
direction of rotation

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phase
Reflecting slice

26

SELECTING PARAMETERS

Measure displacement or velocity for middle or low speed machines


Measure velocity or acceleration for high speed machines

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27

CONFIRM whether the trial is


suitable
before and after trial value difference<25% value difference>25%
phase difference<25 increase or move mass move trial mass
phase difference>25

ok

ok

The radius of loading trial mass is as same as loading


the amended mass
The turning speed is steady
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28

1-PLANE BALANCING

Tacho
sensor

Without
influence
coefficients

A
Accelerometer

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907

29

Operation Basic

Prompt is displayed at the last line

Press and key to move the cursor


up and down

Press Enter to select iterm

Press number keys to input digits

To other MENU, press PgDn or PgUp

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30

Always make sure the


Setting is correct before
the balancing
Enter a digit, select 1 set of data from 10

Enter a digit, select plan number

Change by ENTER,
use displacement or
velocity for most machines
Input sensitivity (from
accelerometer certificate)

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31

INITIAL MEASUREMENT

Press Enter to measure


rotation speed first
Press Enter for a moment
to measure vibration after
rotation speed become
steady
After phase and amplitude
become steady, press
Enter for a moment to end
the measurement
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32

TRIAL ESTIMATION

Input the 4
parameters
When cursor on 6th
line, press Enter to
calculate trial range
Stop the machine, fix
a trial mass according
to the range

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33

TRIAL MEASUREMENT

Input phase and weight of the


trial, confirm whether it will be
removed afterward, restart the
machine
Move cursor to 6th line, press
Enter to measure rotation speed
When RPM steady, press Enter a
moment to measure vibration
When amplitude and phase
steady, press Enter for a
moment to end the
measurement

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34

TRIAL RESULT

See what the 6th line


shows
If YES displayed, press
Pg Dn to go on
If NO displayed, stop
the machine, adjust
trial mass, return to
the early page of TRAIL
MEASUREMENT,
measure again

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35

CALCULATION

Cursor on 2nd line, press ENTER to


calculate influence coefficients
The result is shown in 4th line

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Cursor on 2nd line, press Enter


to calculate balancing mass
The result is shown in 3rd line

36

Decomposing/Splitting

Input the 2 angles


Display the results
If nothing displayed
at right side, change
the order of the 2
angles and re-enter Pa2

Pa
Pa1

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37

VERIFICATION

Cursor on 2nd line, press


Enter to measure rotation
speed
When RPM steady, press
Enter a moment to measure
vibration
When amplitude and phase
steady, press Enter for a
moment to end the
measurement
The last 2 lines displays the
results
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38

1-PLANE BALANCING
With influence coefficients,
you do not need to add trial
mass. You need only
measure the initial vibration

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39

SETTING PARAMETERS
Set Yes for the question
of Have influence
Coefficient?

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40

INITIAL MEASUREMENT

Press Enter to measure


rotation speed
Press Enter for a moment
to measure vibration after
rotation speed become
steady
When phase and
amplitude become steady,
press Enter for a moment
to end the measurement
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41

INPUT COEFFICIENTS

Move the cursor to the


4th line, input
amplitude and angle of
coefficient
Press Pg Dn to the next
page

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42

Calculation, Decomposition &


verification

calculate
balancing mass

Decomposition
and verification
are the same as Pa2
illustrated earlier

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Pa
Pa1

43

2-PLANES BALANCING
Without influence coefficients
The main difference than 1-plane:
1.

Need to add trial mass one after


another at the 1st plane and 2nd plane

2.

Need to use 2 vibration sensors

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44

Sensors & Cable connecting


Attach
reflecting
paper on shaft

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45

SETTING PARAMETERS

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46

INITIAL MEASUREMENT &


TRIAL ESTIMATION

Get 2
lines of
reading
here

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47

TRIAL I MEASUREMENT

Input phase
and weight of
the trial on
plane 1,
decide if it
will be
removed,
restart the
machine

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48

TRIAL II MEASUREMENT

Input phase
and weight of
the trial on
plane 2,
decide if it
will be
removed,
restart the
machine

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49

Calculation, Decomposition &


Verification

calculate
balancing mass

Decomposition
and verification
are the same as
illustrated
earlier

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Pa2
Pb2
Pa

Pb

Pb150

2-PLANES BALANCING
With influence coefficients

With influence
coefficients, you do not
need to add trial mass.
You need only measure
the initial vibration.
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