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Md. Atowar Rahman, Ph.D.

Associate Professor Applied Physics and Electronic Engineering University of Rajshahi Contact: 01812695849

Course Contents (Section-A)

Particles Properties of Waves Wave Properties of Particles Quantum Mechanics Linear Harmonic Oscillator

Waves

Quantum theory of light

Photoelectric effect

X-rays, X-rays diffraction

Compton effect

Photons and gravity.

In this chapter we will learn the three experiments that provided evidence that light, which we usually regard as a wave phenomenon, has properties as well that we normally associate with particles.

Review of Electromagnetic Waves

ability to
ability
to

An electromagnetic wave is characterized by its electric field E and magnetic field B.

Both the fields are perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

It

has

the

energy

and

carry

momentum from one place to another.

The special property of waves leads to the phenomena of Interference, Polarization and Diffraction.

An EM wave travelling in z-direction

THE Photoelectric Effect

When a metal surface is illuminated with light, electrons can be emitted from the surface. This phenomenon, known as the photoelectric effect, was discovered by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. The emitted electrons are called photoelectrons.

THE Photoelectric Effect When a metal surface is illuminated with light, electrons can be emitted from
THE Photoelectric Effect When a metal surface is illuminated with light, electrons can be emitted from

The Classical Theory of the Photoelectric Effect

What does the classical wave theory predict about the properties of the emitted photoelectrons?

The maximum kinetic energy of the electrons

should

be proportional to

radiation.

the

intensity of the

The photoelectric effect should occur for light of any frequency or wavelength.

The first electrons should be emitted in a time

interval of the order of seconds radiation begins to strike the surface.

after the

The experimental characteristics of the photoelectric effect

For a fixed value of the wavelength or frequency of the light source, the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted photoelectrons (determined from the stopping potential) is totally independent of the intensity of the light source.

The experimental characteristics of the photoelectric effect For a fixed value of the wavelength or frequency

The photoelectric effect does not occur at all if the frequency of the light source is below a certain value.

The first photoelectrons are emitted virtually instantaneously (within 10 −9 s) after the light source is turned on .

These three experimental results all suggest the complete failure of the wave Theory to account for the photoelectric effect.

The Quantum Theory of the Photoelectric Effect

A

successful

theory

of

the

photoelectric

effect

was

developed in 1905 by Albert Einstein.

The Quantum Theory of the Photoelectric Effect A successful theory of the photoelectric effect was developed

Take Home massage: Exercise all the problems related to the photoelectr in the text book.