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# HVAC SYSTEMS AND

DESIGNS
PSYCHROMETRY OF AIR
CONDITIONING
PROCESSES Processes in
A/C Equipment

## Armando C. Emata PME3045

January 6, 2015
TOPIC OBJECTIVES
Review of Prelim problems
What is bypass factor?
Familiarize with the cooling and dehumidifying coils
Study the sample problem on cooling and dehumidifying
coils
What is apparatus dew point of a coil?
The use of heating coils
Discuss the air washer principles
Problem exercises
Assignment for next meeting
Another look at the Prelim
problems
..\Exams\PRELIM Exam (A) - 072214 - ans sheet.docx
..\Exams\PRELIM Exam (B) - 072214 - ans sheet.docx
BYPASS FACTOR
Some manufacturers use a significant method of
presenting coil performance.
The bypass factor is based on the concept that as air
passes through a coil, a portion is cooled to the surface
temperature of the coil and the rest flows through the coil
unaffected. The air subsequently mixes.
The bypass factor is the X term in the following
equations:
t = t(X) + t (1
S X) (1)
and = (X) + S(1 X) (2)
BYPASS FACTOR
where subscript 1 refers to entering conditions of the air,
subscript 2 to leaving conditions, and subscript S to coil
surface conditions.
In using the bypass factor the straight-line law is
assumed because Eqs. 1 and 2 describe a straight line
for the coil condition curve.
Let X be the BPF (bypass factor) for one row of tubes.
What is the BPF for two or more rows of tubes?
If t is the outlet temperature from the second row of
tubes,
t = Xt + t (1
S X)
BYPASS FACTOR
substituting the value of t from Eq.1,
t= X[t(X) + t S(1 X)] + t S(1 X)
= (t)X + t (1 S X)
or the BPF for two rows,
X = (X)
and for n rows of tubes,
X = (X) n
n
BYPASS FACTOR
If for example, the BPF of one row of tubes is 0.67,
BPF for 2 rows = (0.67) = 0.45
BPF for 4 rows = (0.67) = 0.20
BPF for 8 rows = (0.67) = 0.04, or nearly zero
The validity of the bypass factor method rests upon
several assumptions as follows:
The surface temperature of the coil is uniform, but for reasons
that can be observed in actual practice, it is not uniform.
The bypass factor of each row of tubes is the same. In the actual
case, however, greater turbulence of the air entering the second
row of tubes gives a lower bypass factor for the second row
compared to the first.
BYPASS FACTOR

Air flow

## Typical 5-row evaporator

Section through a typical
coil bank
refrigerant coil
BYPASS FACTOR
By definition:
Bypass factor is the percentage of air that travels
through a tube and fin coil without touching any coil
surface.
In Fig.1 is shown the process that moist air undergoes
while flowing over a surface.
The air enters at 1 and leaves at 2 when the surface is
maintained at S.
In the transfer of heat and water vapour in any air
conditioning process, the particles of air stream come in
contact with a surface.
BYPASS FACTOR
h

h
hs 1

2
S
s

X 1X

ts t t
t
Fig. 1 Bypass factor and leaving air state
BYPASS FACTOR
The state of the contacted air is that of saturated air at
the temperature of the surface.
There is thus the equivalent of perfect contact of a
definite portion of the air particles with the surface or no
contact or an equivalent bypass of the remaining
particles.
The un-contacted air remains at the entering state. The
end state of the air is the same as that produced by the
complex mixing of contacted particles, viz., 2 as shown
in Fig.1.
BYPASS FACTOR
In another way, BPF of the apparatus representing the
fraction of un-contacted air in terms of the states 1, 2
and S, as

t tS S h hS
X = ---------- = ------------- = -----------
t tS S h hS
Conversely, one can define a contact factor (1 X)
representing a fraction of the contacted air.
Ultimately, the bypass factor can be defined in terms of
temperature or specific humidity or enthalpy of air.
BYPASS FACTOR
In the absence of any specific data, values from all the
three may be considered to be the same.
It may be seen in Fig. 1 that the resulting state 2 divides
the line joining 1 to S in the ratio X and 1 X.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## Moist air can be made to flow over a battery of cooling

coils which may be of the direct-expansion type, or may
carry chilled water or brine as the secondary refrigerant
(Fig.2) below. Rows of cooling coil
Refrigerant out

1 2

## Fig.2 Cooling and dehumidifying coil Refrigerant in

COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## Sensible or simple cooling of air takes place when it

flows over dry cooling coil whose surface temperature tS
is lower than the dry bulb temperature of the air as
shown in Fig.3.
The air is cooled along the constant DPT line. The
leaving air state depends on the bypass factor of the coil.
Thus, in Fig.3, the leaving air state is 2 for a bypass
factor of X.
The bypass factor can be decreased and the leaving air
state can be made to approach the coil surface
temperature by increasing the number of rows in the coil
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## thus improving the contact between air and surface.

There is a minimum limit to the coil temperature for
simple cooling, viz., td which is equal to the dew point
temperature of entering air.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Sprayed coil

S 2 Dry coil

2
=
1

X (1 X)

td ts t t
t
Fig. 3 Simple cooling and sprayed coil process
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## Fig.3 also shows a process along a broken line 1 S,

the leaving air state being 2. Such a process would,
however, occur if the coil were wet, say, it were sprayed
with water at temperature tS .
It is seen that the cooling process is accompanied with
humidification. Such coils are used often in the air
conditioning of textile mills.
There is no method by which one can obtain simple
dehumidification of air. Dehumidification processes are
accompanied with either simultaneous cooling or heating
of air.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## Dehumidification will take place along with cooling if

moist air flows over a cooling coil, whose mean surface
temperature tS is below the dew point temperature td of
the entering air, as shown in Fig.4.
The temperature tS of the cold surface is named
apparatus dew point of the coil or simply as coil ADP.
Between the air and the surface, both sensible and latent
heat transfers will take place.
For sensible heat transfer, the driving potential is the
temperature differential (t tS ).
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL
h

td
h Actual
path 1
hS ,p

,p

S 2
S ,ps
Approximate Path
S 1-2-5 and SHF Line

Tangent

Limiting
SHF Line

ts ts t t
t
Fig. 4 Cooling and dehumidification
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## For latent heat transfer, the driving potential is the partial

pressure difference (p ps ) or the corresponding
specific humidity difference ( s ), where ps is the
partial pressure of water vapour in the air in the
immediate vicinity of the cold temperature ts .
The actual path followed in the process will be curve 1S
depending on the heat and mass transfer coefficients.
We shall assume this path to be a straight line 1S.
The leaving air state will then be 2 as a result of the
bypass factor of the coil.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

## There is however a limitation to the practical limit of this

process.
This limit is up to the condition 1S in Fig. 4 where it
becomes a tangent to the saturation line.
A sensible heat factor lower than that of the line 1S
cannot be achieved in any conditioning process with the
given entering air state at 1.
Even for the process 1S, a very low value of the
cooling surface temperature t would be required,
resulting in a low COP of the refrigeration unit.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
39.6 cmm of a mixture of re-circulated room air and
outdoor air enter a cooling coil at 31C DBT and 18.5C
WBT. The effective surface temperature of the coil is
4.4C. The surface area of the coil is such as would give
12.5 kW of refrigeration with the given entering air state.
Determine the dry and wet bulb temperatures of the air
leaving the coil and the coil bypass factor.
Solution:
Refer to Fig. 4.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
Solution contd:
At the apparatus dew point
s= 5.25 g/kg d.a.
h s = 17.7 kJ/kg d.a.
State of entering air
= 8.2 g/kg d.a.
= 0.872 m/kg d.a.
h = 52.5 kJ/kg d.a.
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
Solution contd:
Mass flow rate of dry air,

Q 39.6
= ----- = ---------- = 44.41 kg d.a./min
0.872
Cooling load per kg of dry air

Q= ----------------
h h = ----- (12.5)(60) = 16.89 kJ/kg d.a.
44.41
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
Solution contd:
Enthalpy of air leaving the coil
h = 52.5 16.89 = 35.61 kJ/kg d.a.
Equation for the condition line

h h
------------- = -------------
h hs s

52.5 35.61
--------------------- 8.2
= ----------------
52.5 17.7 8.2 5.25
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
Solution contd:
= 6.77 g w.v./kg d.a.
whence
Dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures of air leaving the
coil for calculated values of h, from psychrometric
chart
t = 18.6C
t = 12.5C
COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
AND APPARATUS DEW POINT OF COIL

Example 15.3
Solution contd:
Coil bypass factor

h h s 35.61 17.7
X= ------------ = --------------------
h hs 52.5 17.7
= 0.515 (very high)
HEATING COILS
Sensible or simple heating of air takes place when it
flows over a heating coil similar to the cooling and
dehumidifying coil of Fig.2, whose surface temperature ts
is higher than the dry bulb temperature of air.
There is no critical limit to the coil temperature for
sensible heating. The heating medium flowing through
the coil is usually steam, or hot gases from a furnace.
In general, three methods are commonly employed for
winter heating of air.
I. Hot water or steam coils
II. Direct-fired furnace gases coils
III. Finned electric strip heaters
HEATING COILS
In hot water coils, boilers are run on light fuel oil.
The boiler provides the hot water at about 92C to the
heating coils. The water returns to the boiler at about
70C.
Furnaces are either oil-fired (at 75% efficiency) or gas-
fired (at 80 85% efficiency).
AIR WASHER
Fig. 5 shows the schematic representation of an air
washer.

## Air in Air out

Make-up
water
Eliminator plates

or cooler

## Fig. 5 Air washer

AIR WASHER
It involves the flow of air through a spray of water.
During the course of flow, the air may be cooled or
heated, humidified or dehumidified, or simply
adiabatically saturated, depending on the mean surface
temperature of the water.
The water is, accordingly, externally cooled or heated or
simply re-circulated by a pump.
Make-up water is added for any loss in the case of
humidification of the air.
Eliminator plates are provided to minimize the loss of
water droplets.
AIR WASHER
Fig. 6 shows the thermodynamic changes of state of air
along paths 1-2 in an air washer, depending on the mean
temperature of the water droplets t whichs is equal to the
actual temperature of the water t . w
Thus, the droplets of water act as wetted surface, and
both sensible and latent heat transfers take place. Their
directions depend on the temperature and vapour
pressure potentials.
AIR WASHER
2B
S

2C
2A
S 2D

S 2E
S 2F

1

2G
S

td t t
t
Fig. 6 Range of psychrometric processes with an air washer
AIR WASHER
The following processes are possible:
Process 1-2A: Heating and humidification (ts > t)
The mean surface temperature of water is greater
than the dry bulb temperature of air. Hence the water is
externally heated.
Process 1-2B: Humidification (ts = t)
The mean surface temperature of water is equal to
the dry bulb temperature of air. The enthalpy of air
increases. Hence the water is required to be externally
heated.
AIR WASHER
Process 1-2C: Cooling and humidification (t < t s < t)
The mean surface temperature of water is less than
the dry bulb temperature of air. Though the air is cooled,
its enthalpy increases as a result of humidification. The
water is, therefore, to be externally heated.
Process 1-2D: Adiabatic saturation(t = ts )
This is the case of pumped re-circulation of water
without any external heating or cooling as discussed
previously. The re-circulated water reaches the
equilibrium temperatures which is equal to the
thermodynamic wet bulb temperature of air.
AIR WASHER
Process 1-2E: Cooling and humidification (td < ts < t)
The process is similar to 1-2C with the difference that
the enthalpy of air decreases in this case. Accordingly,
water is required to be externally cooled.
Process 1-2F: Cooling (ts = td )
The temperature of water is equal to the dew point
temperature of air. Water is required to be cooled.
AIR WASHER
Process 1-2G: Cooling and dehumidification(ts < td )
The mean water surface is lower than the dew point
temperature of air. Air is simultaneously cooled and
dehumidified. The process is exactly similar to that of a
cooling and dehumidifying coil. Again, the limiting
process is along the condition line tangent to the
saturation line drawn from initial state 1.
AIR WASHER
It is thus seen that the air washer affords means for a
year-round air conditioning system.
Consider the energy balance of an air washer, the mass
balance of which is shown in Fig.7.
Let and w be the mass flow rates of dry air and
water respectively.
The energy balance gives
(h h) = w Cpw wt [ w ( )]C t
pw w
(h h) = w Cpw (tw w
t ) + ( )C t
pw w
AIR WASHER 3

Water, w

1 2

[w ( )]

## Fig. 7 Mass balance of an air washer

AIR WASHER
Neglecting the effect of the temperature of water in the
last term, we obtain by combining it with the left-hand
side term
( ) = w Cpw (tw tw )

d = w C pw dtw

## For the case of adiabatic saturation process, d = 0.

Hence dt = 0 andw
t = t w w
AIR WASHER
Thus, the following conclusions can be made:
I. If the spray water is heated external to the washer, the WBT of
air increases.
II. If the spray water is cooled external to the washer, the WBT of air
decreases.
III. If the spray water is neither heated nor cooled external to
washer, the WBT of air is not changed. It is an adiabatic
saturation process.
We define the humidifying efficiency of an air washer as

h h = --------------
H= -------------
hs h s
AIR WASHER
It can be seen that the bypass factor X can be expressed
as

s
X= ------------- = 1 ------------- = 1 H
s s
Thus the humidifying efficiency is the same as the
contact factor.
Problem Exercises
An air flow of 4,250 m/min originally at 27C and 50
percent RH undergoes a cooling to the following
conditions:
a) Saturated at 18C, and

b) Saturated at 12C
For each of the processes, calculate the kgs of water
added or extracted from the air per hour and the tons of
refrigeration required.
Assignment # 8 Jan 8, 2015
1. The temperature of air entering an adiabatic saturator is
42C, and the leaving temperature is 30C. Compute
the humidity ratio and the relative humidity of the
entering air.
2. The conditions inside a room are 25C and 50% degree
of saturation. The inside surface temperature of the
glass window is 10C. Will the moisture condense from
room air upon the window glass?