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Important terms to know about earthquakes

Tectonic Plates:
These are huge layers that make up the earths
upper layers. They continually stretch, move, slide,
and collide against each other. Even though they are
constantly moving, we do not feel it. Each plate is
about 50 to 250 miles (80 to 400 km) thick.

Faults (or Fault plane or fault


lines):
These are weak lines that can develop in the
plates, usually on the surface of the earth.
Seismograph and The Richter
Scale (RS):
How do Earthquakes form?
Earthquakes develop in the crust of
the earth.

The energy stored here causes the


pieces to slide, glide, knock and
move around each piece.

After a period of time, the built up


energy and movement causes huge
tension in the plates and there is
massive pressure on the fault lines.

The seismic waves shake the earth


as they move through it
What are the types of
earthquakes?
Earthquake Waves

P-Waves (Primary
Waves)

S-Waves
(Secondary waves)
Earthquake Hazards

Ground Shaking

If an earthquake generates
a large enough shaking
intensity, structures like
buildings, bridges and
dams can be severely
damaged, and cliffs and
sloping ground
destabilised.
What is a Tsunami?

series of massive ocean waves,


triggered by an earthquake that has
occurred in the sea (or ocean).
Landslides

due to earthquakes
destabilises cliffs and
steep slopes, causing
landslides and
rockfalls as a
significant side-effect.
Subsidence and
Lateral Spreading

Subsidence, or
lowering of the
ground surface,
Liquefaction

Buildings and other


structures can sink
down into the ground
or tilt over, whilst
underground pipes and
tanks may rise up to
the surface.
The higher the
total score, the
more
earthquake-
resistant the
house:

11-12 : Though this


seems safe for now,
please consult
experts for
information.
8 - 10 : This
requires
strengthening, please
consult experts.
0 - 7 : This is
disturbing! Please
Earthquakes and Tsunamis... Did you
know?
The worlds
earliest recorded
earthquake
occurred on
January 23, 1556
in Shaanxi, Central
China

magnitude of 8.0

estimated 830,
000 people were
killed
The largest
recorded
earthquake in
the world was
a magnitude
9.5 in Chile on
May 22, 1960.

approximately
1,655 were
killed, 3,000
injured,
2,000,000
Banda Aceh,
Sumatra, Indonesia

About
228,000
people were
killed as a
result of the
9.1
magnitude
quake and
the giant
waves that
slammed
into
coastlines
JAPAN
On March 11,
2011, a
magnitude-9
earthquake shook
northeastern
Japan, unleashing
a savage tsunami.

With over 15,000


deaths, 3,000
missing, and over
120,000 buildings
flattened.