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SUBMITTED BY:

ABHILASH KUMAR (13/ice/02)


ANIKET PANDEY(13/ICE/010)
PRIYANKA(13/ICE/026)
RICHA CHAUBEY(13/ICE/033)
ROHIT(13/ICE/034)
INTRODUCTION
The process of selecting suitable ingredients of
concrete and determining their relative
amounts with the objective of producing a
concrete of the required, strength, durability,
and workability as economically as possible, is
termed the concrete mix design.
Concrete is a composite product obtained by
mixing cement ,fine aggregates ,coarse
aggregate ,water and admixture in required
proportions.
This method of concrete mix design consist of following 11
steps:

Design specification
Testing of materials
Calculating target strength for mix proportioning
Selecting water/cement ratio
Calculating water content
Calculating cement content
Finding out volume proportions for Coarse aggregate & fine aggregate
Mix calculations
Trial mixing and
Workability measurement (using slump cone method)
Repeat trail mixing and workability measurement until all requirements is
fulfilled.
STEP 1-DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

This is the step where we gather all the required information for
designing a concrete mix:
Grade designation (whether M10, M15, M20 etc)
Type of cement to be used
Maximum nominal size of aggregates
Minimum cement content
Maximum water-cement ratio
Workability
Exposure conditions (As per IS-456-Table-4)
Method of transporting & placing
Type of aggregate (angular, sub angular, rounded etc)
Type of admixture to be used (if any)
STEP 2-TESTING OF MATERIALS
There are various test performed on materials used for
concrete mix design i.e cement ,aggregates ,water
,admixtures.
Types of cement tests
Field tests Laboratory tests

Specific gravity
test

Fineness of cement

Specific surface of
cement

Standard consistency
and setting time

Soundness of cement

Compressive strength of
cement
Standard Consistency Test
Used to determine initial and final setting time.
Plunger size:110mm dia,50mm
Vicads apparatus is used
length
To be penetrated at a depth of 33-
35mm from top

Take 500gm cement


Prepare paste with water 24% by weight of cement used
The vicads apparatus is to be filled within 3-5 minutes
Bring down the plunger
The experiment must be conducted at a temperature of (27-
29)deg Celsius with the humidity of 90%.
Setting time test
Same vicats apparatus used above experiment.
500gms of cement+0.85 times the water of standard
consistency test.
Use stop watch to note the time .
Keep dropping needle till the needle reaches 33-35mm
from top.
Note that time as initial setting time of cement.
Compressive strength test
Compressive test is the most important property of cement for
which it is tested.
Take standard cement for 555gms of mixture of sand and cement
(1:3) i.e. 185gms of cement.
Water=P/4 + 0.3% of weight of mixture used above.
Mix them properly for atleast 3 minutes and not more than 5
minutes.
Put the viberator in the cube for 2 minutes(12000RPM).
Temperature conditions will be same as discussed before..
Remove the cube from the mould and put it in water until taken for
test.
AGGREGATES

Aggregates influence the properties of concrete / mortar


such as water requirement, cohesiveness and workability
of the concrete, while they also influence strength,
density, durability, permeability and surface finish.
CLASSIFICATION
Coarse Aggregates(CA):
Size: 4.75mm (3/16in.) to 50mm (2in.)
Fine Aggregates(FA):
Size :<4.75mm;>75micro-m(0.003in.)
QUALITY OF AGGREGATE
Aggregates are tested for strength, toughness,
hardness, shape and water absorption so in order
to decide the suitability following testes are
carried out:-
TESTS FOR COARSE TESTS FOR FINE
AGGREGATE AGGREGATES
1. Crushing Test 1. Silt Content Test for
2. Abrasion Test Sand
3. Impact Value Test 2. Bulking of Sand
4. Sieve Analysis 3. Sieve Analysis
5. Shape Test 4. Fineness Modulus
6. Specific Gravity and 5. Specific Gravity and
Water Absorption Test for Water Absorption Test for
Coarse Aggregate. Fine Aggregate
Impact
Value
Test
Los
Crushing
Angeles
Strength
Abrasion
Test
Test
STRENGT
H OF
AGGREGA
TE

CRUSHING STRENGTH TEST


Dry aggregate passed through 1 2.5mm IS Sieve and retained on
10mm IS Sieve , filled in a cylinder of 11.5mm dia. and 18cm ht. in 3-
layers tamped 25 times.
Compressive load 40 tones applied at rate of 4 tones per minute and 15
such blows is given.
Crushed aggregate passed through 2.36mm sieve, result is noted.
Value<10=strong aggregate & value >35 weak aggregate.
SIEVE ANALYSIS
Sieve Analysis is done to check gradation of aggregates.
Test:-
1. Calculated amount of Coarse aggregate take is 2.5 kg & for
fine aggregate 0.5 kg.
2. Corse aggregate & fine aggregate sieves are arranged as per
standardized in IS code further are shacked vigorously for at least
2 min.

COARSE AGGREGATE SIEVE FINE AGGREGATE


SIEVE
Grading Limit of Coarse
Aggregate
Grading limit for Fine Aggregate
Shape Test
The Flakiness Index is defined as the percentage by weight
of aggregate particles whose least dimension is less than 0.6
times their mean size.
Flakiness gauge is used for this test.
The elongation index of an aggregate is defined as the
percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension
(length) is 1.8 times their mean dimension.
This test is applicable to aggregate larger than 6.3mm .
Specific Gravity and Water Absorption Test

Specific Gravity of both Coarse & Fine Aggregate is required for calculation of
Concrete Mix Design.
In this the sample should be free from free surface moisture and should be
taken in Surface Dry Condition.
The moisture content and absorption of aggregates are important in
calculating the proportions of concrete mixes since any excess water in the
aggregates will be incorporated in the cement paste and give it a higher
water/cement ratio than expected
SILT CONTENT TEST OF SAND
This test is done so as to determine the silt content in
sand.
If silt content by weighing exceeds 3% then washing of
sand is necessary, so the permissible limit of silt
content in sand must not exceed the values as
specified.
BULKING OF SAND
When sand is damp, the water coating on the surface of each
sand particle causes separation of particles from one another due
to surface tension.
This causes sand to bulk.
Bulked sand occupies more volume and hence if volumetric
measuring is done while proportioning it, bulking correction is
necessary.
FINENESS MODULUS
Fineness modulus is generally used to get an idea of how
coarse and fine the aggregate is.
More fine modulus value indicates that the aggregate is
coarser and small value of fineness modulus indicates that
the aggregate is finer.

TYPE OF SAND FINENESS MODULUS


VALUE
Very fine Sand Below 2.2

Fine Sand 2.2 to 2.6

Medium Sand 2.6 to 2.9

Coarse Sand 2.9 to 3.2

Very Coarse Sand Above 3.2


ADMIXTURES

Admixtures may be define as a material other than water, aggregates,


and cement.
That is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added to the batch
immediately before or during mixing.
Admixtures are used to modify the properties of ordinary concrete so as
to make it more suitable for any situation.
List of Commonly Used Concrete Admixtures:-

Super plasticizers
Set-Retarding
Air-Entrainment
Accelerating
Shrinkage Reducing
Corrosion-Inhibiting
Super plasticizers
The main purpose of using super plasticizers is to produce flowing concrete.
With a high slump in the range of 7-9 inches.
Which is to be used in heavily reinforced structures and in placements where adequate
consolidation by vibration cannot be readily achieved.

Set-Retarding
It is used to delay the chemical reaction that takes place when the concrete starts the setting
process.
These are commonly used to reduce the effect of high temperatures that could produce a faster
initial setting of concrete.
Retarders can also be used to resist cracking due to form deflection that can occur when
horizontal slabs are placed in sections.
Air-Entrainment
The entrained air bubbles act as a physical buffer against the cracking caused by the
stresses.
Air entrainers are compatible with almost all the concrete admixtures.
Typically for every 1% of entrained air, compressive strength will be reduced by about 5%.
BENEFITS:-
High resistance to cycles of wetting and drying
High degree of workability
High degree of durability

Accelerating
Used to reduce concrete setting time.
The most common accelerator is Calcium chloride.
These are especially useful for modifying the properties of concrete in cold weather.
Shrinkage Reducing

These are added to concrete during initial mixing.


This type of admixture could reduce early and long-term drying shrinkage.
It can be used in situations where shrinkage cracking could lead to durability problems.
In some cases, it can reduce strength development both at early and later ages.

Corrosion-Inhibiting
These are used to slow corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete.
These admixtures have little effect on strength at later ages but may accelerate early strength
development.
Calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitors do accelerate the setting times of concretes over a
range of curing temperatures unless they are formulated with a set retarder to offset the
accelerating effect.
STEP 3-TARGET STRENGTH CALCULATION

Determine Target mean strength of concrete as:


ft = fck + k. s
where, ft = target mean compressive strength at 28 days,
fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete at 28
days,
k = a statistical value depending upon risk factor
usually 1.65
s = standard deviation.
STEP 4- SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT
RATIO
From table 5 of IS 456 we can take water cement ratio for our
first trail.
For exposure condition refer to table 3 Environment exposure
condition of IS 456.
STEP 5-SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT
From table 2 of IS 10262 w/c ratio can be calculated according to maximum
size of aggregate used.
The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for angular
coarse aggregate and for a slump value in between 25 to 50mm
Acc. To IS code certain adjustments are made to compute water content for
slump value other than 25-50mm and for other type of aggregate used.
Type of Adjustment required
material/condition
For sub angular aggregate Reduce the selected value by
10kg
For gravel with crushed stone Reduce the selected value by
20kg
For rounded gravel Reduce the selected value by
25kg
For every addition of 25mm Increase the selected value by
slump 3%
If using plasticizer Decrease the selected value
by 5-10%
If using super plasticizer Decrease the selected value
STEP 6-CALCULATION OF CEMENT
CONTENT
From the water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of
cement, calculate the amount of cement material.
After calculating the quantity of cement material, compare it with the
values given in the table 5 of IS 456 .
The greater of two values is adopted as table shows the minimum cement
content.
STEP 7-FINDING OUT VOLUME
PROPORTIONS FOR COARSE
AGGREGATE & FINE AGGREGATE
Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to unit volume of total aggregate
for different zones of fine aggregate is selected from table 3 of IS 10262.
This table is only applicable for w/c ratio of 0.5.For w/c ratio other than 0.5
certain adjustment are made:
1. For Every +0.05 change in W/C ratio: -0.01 is done in proportion of coarse
aggregate
2. For Every -0.05 change in W/C ratio: +0.01is done in proportion of coarse
aggregate
3. For Pumpable Mix : -10 %
STEP 8-MIX CALCULATIONS

Volume of concrete(a) 1m3


Volume of cement(b) (Mass of cement/specific gravity
of cement)*(1/1000)
Volume of water (c) (Mass of water/specific gravity of
water)*(1/1000)
Volume of admixture(d) (Mass of admixture/specific
gravity of admixture)*(1/1000)
Volume of total aggregate [a-(b+c+d)]
(C.A+F.A)=
Mass of coarse aggregate= e*Volume of coarse
aggregate*specific gravity of
coarse aggregate*1000
Mass of fine aggregate= e*Volume of fine
aggregate*specific gravity of fine
aggregate*1000
STEP 9- TRIAL MIX
Now first trail mix is conducted by using the amount of
material calculated.

STEP 10-MEASUREMENT OF
WORKABILITY(By using slump test)
The workability of the trial mix no.1 shall be
measured carefully .
STEP-11.REPEATING TRIAL MIXES

If the required workability or compressive strength is


not obtained from trail mix 1, then various trail mixes
are produced by varying w/c ratio, quantity of
admixture used to get required value.
SOLVED EXAMPLE
GRADE M45
STEP: 1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION
Grade designation M45
Type of cement OPC 43 grades
Maximum nominal size of 20 mm
aggregates

Minimum cement content 320kg/m3

Maximum water-cement 0.45


ratio
Workability 125 mm slump
Exposure conditions severe (RCC)
(As per IS 456 Table-3)

Method of placing concrete Pumping


Type of aggregate crushed angular agg.
Super plasticizer will be used ---------------
STEP: 2- TESTING OF MATERIALS

Concrete Specific Water Free surface Sieve


Ingredients gravity absorption moisture analysis

Cement 3.15 _____ _____ _____

Coarse 2.8 0.5 nil 20 mm


aggregate

Fine 2.7 1 nil Zone 2


aggregate

Admixture 1.1 _____ _____ _____


(if any)
STEP: 3- TARGET STRENGTH
CALCULATION
fck = fck + 1.65* s
Characteristic strength (fck) = 45
Standard deviation (s) = 5
* Standard deviation mentioned in Table 1 of IS 10262:2009
Target mean strength (f ck) = 45 + 1.65 x 5
= 53.25 N/mm2
STEP: 4 - SELECTION OF WATER-
CEMENT RATIO
* water cement ratio as given is IS 456-Table 5 for different environmental
exposure condition
Given Exposure condition :- Severe (RCC)

Water-Cement Ratio :- 0.42


STEP: 5 - SELECTION OF WATER
CONTENT
* Maximum water content as given in IS 10262:2009 -Table 2
Given Coarse aggregate size:- 20mm
Type of aggregate:- angular
Slump:- 125 mm

Maximum water content as per table = 186 litre


* 3% increase for every 25 mm slump over and above 50 mm slump
Estimated water content for 125mm slump = 186 x (9/100) + 186 = 203 litre
* If using super plasticizer Decrease the selected value by 20-30%
Assumed that decrease by 25%
Actual Water content :- 203 x (25/100) = 152 litre
STEP: 6- CALCUL ATION OF
CEMENT CONTENT
Water cement ratio :- 0.42
Water used :- 152 litre
Cement content = (water used / water-cement ratio)= 152 / 0.42 = 362 kg/m3
*
cement content check against minimum cement content given in table 5 of IS 456
362 kg/m3 > 320 kg/m3 OK
Adopted cement content = 362kg/m 3
STEP: 7 - CALCUL ATION OF COARSE AND
FINE AGG. CONTENT
* Volume of coarse aggregate as given in IS 10262:2009 -Table 3
Given Coarse aggregate :- 20 mm, W/C ratio:- 0.42
* The values given in the table only applicable for
Fine aggregate Zone 2
a water-cement ratio of 0.5 and If water-cement
ratio other than 0.5 is to be used then apply
correction

Coarse aggregate is increase at the rate of 0.01


for every decrease in w/c ratio of 0.05
= (0.01/0.05) x (0.08) = 0.016

Volume of C.A= 0.62 + 0.016 = 0.636

*Method of placing concrete is pumping so C.A reduced by 10%

Volume of coarse aggregate = 0.636 x 0.9 = 0.572


volume of fine aggregate = 1 0.572 = 0.43
STEP: 8 - MIX CALCUL ATION
a Volume of =1m3
concrete(a)

b Volume of (Mass of cement/specific = (362/3.15) x (1/1000)


cement(b) gravity of = 0.115 m3
cement)*(1/1000)
c Volume of (Mass of water/specific = (152/1) x (1/1000)
water(c) gravity of water)*(1/1000) = 0.152 m3

d Volume of (Mass of = 1.2% x (362/1.1) x


admixture(d) admixture/specific gravity (1/1000)
of admixture)*(1/1000) = 0.004 m3

*Assuming dosage of 1.2% by


weight of cementitious material
e Volume of =1- (0.115+0.152+0.004)
total [a-(b+c+d)] = 0.271 m3
aggregate

f Mass of e*Volume of coarse =0.729 x 0.57 x 2.8 x 1000


coarse aggregate*specific gravity = 1163 m3
aggregate of coarse aggregate*1000
=

g Mass of e*Volume of fine =0.729 x 0.43 x 2.7 x


fine aggregate*specific gravity 1000
aggregate of fine aggregate*1000 = 846 m3
=
STEP: 9 - TRIAL MIX

CEMENT 362 kg/m3

WATER 352 kg/m3

FINE AGGREGATE 846 kg/m3

COARSE AGGREGATE 1163 kg/m3

CHEMICAL ADMIXTURE 4 kg/m3

WATER CEMENT RATIO 0.42


STEP: 10 - SITE CORRECTION
Absorption of F.A is 1% = (1/100) x 846 = 8.46 litre

Absorption of C.A is 0.5% = (0.5/100) x 1163 = 5.82 litre


Total absorption = 14.28 litre
Actual amount of water to be used = 152+14.28= 166.28
Actual amount of F.A to be used = 846 - 8.46= 837.5
Actual amount of C.A to be used = 1163 - 5.82= 1157.2
CEMENT 362 kg/m3

WATER 1662.28 kg/m3

FINE AGGREGATE 837.5 kg/m3

COARSE AGGREGATE 1157 kg/m3

CHEMICAL ADMIXTURE 4.0 kg/m3

WATER CEMENT RATIO 0.42


Mix proportion can be expressed in this way

Cemen F.A C.A water


t
362 846 1163 152
: : :
Or 1 2.34 3.21 0.42
: : :
Or Proportion for One bag mix
50 117 161 21 (All in kg for saturated
: : : surface dry)
Or proportion in field/site condition is
362 838 1157 166
: : :
Or 1 2.31 3.2 0.46
: : :