mix concrete basic knowledge

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mix concrete basic knowledge

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ANIKET PANDEY(13/ICE/010)

PRIYANKA(13/ICE/026)

RICHA CHAUBEY(13/ICE/033)

ROHIT(13/ICE/034)

INTRODUCTION

The process of selecting suitable ingredients of

concrete and determining their relative

amounts with the objective of producing a

concrete of the required, strength, durability,

and workability as economically as possible, is

termed the concrete mix design.

Concrete is a composite product obtained by

mixing cement ,fine aggregates ,coarse

aggregate ,water and admixture in required

proportions.

This method of concrete mix design consist of following 11

steps:

Design specification

Testing of materials

Calculating target strength for mix proportioning

Selecting water/cement ratio

Calculating water content

Calculating cement content

Finding out volume proportions for Coarse aggregate & fine aggregate

Mix calculations

Trial mixing and

Workability measurement (using slump cone method)

Repeat trail mixing and workability measurement until all requirements is

fulfilled.

STEP 1-DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

This is the step where we gather all the required information for

designing a concrete mix:

Grade designation (whether M10, M15, M20 etc)

Type of cement to be used

Maximum nominal size of aggregates

Minimum cement content

Maximum water-cement ratio

Workability

Exposure conditions (As per IS-456-Table-4)

Method of transporting & placing

Type of aggregate (angular, sub angular, rounded etc)

Type of admixture to be used (if any)

STEP 2-TESTING OF MATERIALS

There are various test performed on materials used for

concrete mix design i.e cement ,aggregates ,water

,admixtures.

Types of cement tests

Field tests Laboratory tests

Specific gravity

test

Fineness of cement

Specific surface of

cement

Standard consistency

and setting time

Soundness of cement

Compressive strength of

cement

Standard Consistency Test

Used to determine initial and final setting time.

Plunger size:110mm dia,50mm

Vicads apparatus is used

length

To be penetrated at a depth of 33-

35mm from top

Prepare paste with water 24% by weight of cement used

The vicads apparatus is to be filled within 3-5 minutes

Bring down the plunger

The experiment must be conducted at a temperature of (27-

29)deg Celsius with the humidity of 90%.

Setting time test

Same vicats apparatus used above experiment.

500gms of cement+0.85 times the water of standard

consistency test.

Use stop watch to note the time .

Keep dropping needle till the needle reaches 33-35mm

from top.

Note that time as initial setting time of cement.

Compressive strength test

Compressive test is the most important property of cement for

which it is tested.

Take standard cement for 555gms of mixture of sand and cement

(1:3) i.e. 185gms of cement.

Water=P/4 + 0.3% of weight of mixture used above.

Mix them properly for atleast 3 minutes and not more than 5

minutes.

Put the viberator in the cube for 2 minutes(12000RPM).

Temperature conditions will be same as discussed before..

Remove the cube from the mould and put it in water until taken for

test.

AGGREGATES

such as water requirement, cohesiveness and workability

of the concrete, while they also influence strength,

density, durability, permeability and surface finish.

CLASSIFICATION

Coarse Aggregates(CA):

Size: 4.75mm (3/16in.) to 50mm (2in.)

Fine Aggregates(FA):

Size :<4.75mm;>75micro-m(0.003in.)

QUALITY OF AGGREGATE

Aggregates are tested for strength, toughness,

hardness, shape and water absorption so in order

to decide the suitability following testes are

carried out:-

TESTS FOR COARSE TESTS FOR FINE

AGGREGATE AGGREGATES

1. Crushing Test 1. Silt Content Test for

2. Abrasion Test Sand

3. Impact Value Test 2. Bulking of Sand

4. Sieve Analysis 3. Sieve Analysis

5. Shape Test 4. Fineness Modulus

6. Specific Gravity and 5. Specific Gravity and

Water Absorption Test for Water Absorption Test for

Coarse Aggregate. Fine Aggregate

Impact

Value

Test

Los

Crushing

Angeles

Strength

Abrasion

Test

Test

STRENGT

H OF

AGGREGA

TE

Dry aggregate passed through 1 2.5mm IS Sieve and retained on

10mm IS Sieve , filled in a cylinder of 11.5mm dia. and 18cm ht. in 3-

layers tamped 25 times.

Compressive load 40 tones applied at rate of 4 tones per minute and 15

such blows is given.

Crushed aggregate passed through 2.36mm sieve, result is noted.

Value<10=strong aggregate & value >35 weak aggregate.

SIEVE ANALYSIS

Sieve Analysis is done to check gradation of aggregates.

Test:-

1. Calculated amount of Coarse aggregate take is 2.5 kg & for

fine aggregate 0.5 kg.

2. Corse aggregate & fine aggregate sieves are arranged as per

standardized in IS code further are shacked vigorously for at least

2 min.

SIEVE

Grading Limit of Coarse

Aggregate

Grading limit for Fine Aggregate

Shape Test

The Flakiness Index is defined as the percentage by weight

of aggregate particles whose least dimension is less than 0.6

times their mean size.

Flakiness gauge is used for this test.

The elongation index of an aggregate is defined as the

percentage by weight of particles whose greatest dimension

(length) is 1.8 times their mean dimension.

This test is applicable to aggregate larger than 6.3mm .

Specific Gravity and Water Absorption Test

Specific Gravity of both Coarse & Fine Aggregate is required for calculation of

Concrete Mix Design.

In this the sample should be free from free surface moisture and should be

taken in Surface Dry Condition.

The moisture content and absorption of aggregates are important in

calculating the proportions of concrete mixes since any excess water in the

aggregates will be incorporated in the cement paste and give it a higher

water/cement ratio than expected

SILT CONTENT TEST OF SAND

This test is done so as to determine the silt content in

sand.

If silt content by weighing exceeds 3% then washing of

sand is necessary, so the permissible limit of silt

content in sand must not exceed the values as

specified.

BULKING OF SAND

When sand is damp, the water coating on the surface of each

sand particle causes separation of particles from one another due

to surface tension.

This causes sand to bulk.

Bulked sand occupies more volume and hence if volumetric

measuring is done while proportioning it, bulking correction is

necessary.

FINENESS MODULUS

Fineness modulus is generally used to get an idea of how

coarse and fine the aggregate is.

More fine modulus value indicates that the aggregate is

coarser and small value of fineness modulus indicates that

the aggregate is finer.

VALUE

Very fine Sand Below 2.2

ADMIXTURES

and cement.

That is used as an ingredient of concrete and is added to the batch

immediately before or during mixing.

Admixtures are used to modify the properties of ordinary concrete so as

to make it more suitable for any situation.

List of Commonly Used Concrete Admixtures:-

Super plasticizers

Set-Retarding

Air-Entrainment

Accelerating

Shrinkage Reducing

Corrosion-Inhibiting

Super plasticizers

The main purpose of using super plasticizers is to produce flowing concrete.

With a high slump in the range of 7-9 inches.

Which is to be used in heavily reinforced structures and in placements where adequate

consolidation by vibration cannot be readily achieved.

Set-Retarding

It is used to delay the chemical reaction that takes place when the concrete starts the setting

process.

These are commonly used to reduce the effect of high temperatures that could produce a faster

initial setting of concrete.

Retarders can also be used to resist cracking due to form deflection that can occur when

horizontal slabs are placed in sections.

Air-Entrainment

The entrained air bubbles act as a physical buffer against the cracking caused by the

stresses.

Air entrainers are compatible with almost all the concrete admixtures.

Typically for every 1% of entrained air, compressive strength will be reduced by about 5%.

BENEFITS:-

High resistance to cycles of wetting and drying

High degree of workability

High degree of durability

Accelerating

Used to reduce concrete setting time.

The most common accelerator is Calcium chloride.

These are especially useful for modifying the properties of concrete in cold weather.

Shrinkage Reducing

This type of admixture could reduce early and long-term drying shrinkage.

It can be used in situations where shrinkage cracking could lead to durability problems.

In some cases, it can reduce strength development both at early and later ages.

Corrosion-Inhibiting

These are used to slow corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete.

These admixtures have little effect on strength at later ages but may accelerate early strength

development.

Calcium nitrite based corrosion inhibitors do accelerate the setting times of concretes over a

range of curing temperatures unless they are formulated with a set retarder to offset the

accelerating effect.

STEP 3-TARGET STRENGTH CALCULATION

ft = fck + k. s

where, ft = target mean compressive strength at 28 days,

fck = Characteristic compressive strength of concrete at 28

days,

k = a statistical value depending upon risk factor

usually 1.65

s = standard deviation.

STEP 4- SELECTION OF WATER-CEMENT

RATIO

From table 5 of IS 456 we can take water cement ratio for our

first trail.

For exposure condition refer to table 3 Environment exposure

condition of IS 456.

STEP 5-SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT

From table 2 of IS 10262 w/c ratio can be calculated according to maximum

size of aggregate used.

The values given in the table shown above is applicable only for angular

coarse aggregate and for a slump value in between 25 to 50mm

Acc. To IS code certain adjustments are made to compute water content for

slump value other than 25-50mm and for other type of aggregate used.

Type of Adjustment required

material/condition

For sub angular aggregate Reduce the selected value by

10kg

For gravel with crushed stone Reduce the selected value by

20kg

For rounded gravel Reduce the selected value by

25kg

For every addition of 25mm Increase the selected value by

slump 3%

If using plasticizer Decrease the selected value

by 5-10%

If using super plasticizer Decrease the selected value

STEP 6-CALCULATION OF CEMENT

CONTENT

From the water cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of

cement, calculate the amount of cement material.

After calculating the quantity of cement material, compare it with the

values given in the table 5 of IS 456 .

The greater of two values is adopted as table shows the minimum cement

content.

STEP 7-FINDING OUT VOLUME

PROPORTIONS FOR COARSE

AGGREGATE & FINE AGGREGATE

Volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to unit volume of total aggregate

for different zones of fine aggregate is selected from table 3 of IS 10262.

This table is only applicable for w/c ratio of 0.5.For w/c ratio other than 0.5

certain adjustment are made:

1. For Every +0.05 change in W/C ratio: -0.01 is done in proportion of coarse

aggregate

2. For Every -0.05 change in W/C ratio: +0.01is done in proportion of coarse

aggregate

3. For Pumpable Mix : -10 %

STEP 8-MIX CALCULATIONS

Volume of cement(b) (Mass of cement/specific gravity

of cement)*(1/1000)

Volume of water (c) (Mass of water/specific gravity of

water)*(1/1000)

Volume of admixture(d) (Mass of admixture/specific

gravity of admixture)*(1/1000)

Volume of total aggregate [a-(b+c+d)]

(C.A+F.A)=

Mass of coarse aggregate= e*Volume of coarse

aggregate*specific gravity of

coarse aggregate*1000

Mass of fine aggregate= e*Volume of fine

aggregate*specific gravity of fine

aggregate*1000

STEP 9- TRIAL MIX

Now first trail mix is conducted by using the amount of

material calculated.

STEP 10-MEASUREMENT OF

WORKABILITY(By using slump test)

The workability of the trial mix no.1 shall be

measured carefully .

STEP-11.REPEATING TRIAL MIXES

not obtained from trail mix 1, then various trail mixes

are produced by varying w/c ratio, quantity of

admixture used to get required value.

SOLVED EXAMPLE

GRADE M45

STEP: 1 DESIGN SPECIFICATION

Grade designation M45

Type of cement OPC 43 grades

Maximum nominal size of 20 mm

aggregates

ratio

Workability 125 mm slump

Exposure conditions severe (RCC)

(As per IS 456 Table-3)

Type of aggregate crushed angular agg.

Super plasticizer will be used ---------------

STEP: 2- TESTING OF MATERIALS

Ingredients gravity absorption moisture analysis

aggregate

aggregate

(if any)

STEP: 3- TARGET STRENGTH

CALCULATION

fck = fck + 1.65* s

Characteristic strength (fck) = 45

Standard deviation (s) = 5

* Standard deviation mentioned in Table 1 of IS 10262:2009

Target mean strength (f ck) = 45 + 1.65 x 5

= 53.25 N/mm2

STEP: 4 - SELECTION OF WATER-

CEMENT RATIO

* water cement ratio as given is IS 456-Table 5 for different environmental

exposure condition

Given Exposure condition :- Severe (RCC)

STEP: 5 - SELECTION OF WATER

CONTENT

* Maximum water content as given in IS 10262:2009 -Table 2

Given Coarse aggregate size:- 20mm

Type of aggregate:- angular

Slump:- 125 mm

* 3% increase for every 25 mm slump over and above 50 mm slump

Estimated water content for 125mm slump = 186 x (9/100) + 186 = 203 litre

* If using super plasticizer Decrease the selected value by 20-30%

Assumed that decrease by 25%

Actual Water content :- 203 x (25/100) = 152 litre

STEP: 6- CALCUL ATION OF

CEMENT CONTENT

Water cement ratio :- 0.42

Water used :- 152 litre

Cement content = (water used / water-cement ratio)= 152 / 0.42 = 362 kg/m3

*

cement content check against minimum cement content given in table 5 of IS 456

362 kg/m3 > 320 kg/m3 OK

Adopted cement content = 362kg/m 3

STEP: 7 - CALCUL ATION OF COARSE AND

FINE AGG. CONTENT

* Volume of coarse aggregate as given in IS 10262:2009 -Table 3

Given Coarse aggregate :- 20 mm, W/C ratio:- 0.42

* The values given in the table only applicable for

Fine aggregate Zone 2

a water-cement ratio of 0.5 and If water-cement

ratio other than 0.5 is to be used then apply

correction

for every decrease in w/c ratio of 0.05

= (0.01/0.05) x (0.08) = 0.016

volume of fine aggregate = 1 0.572 = 0.43

STEP: 8 - MIX CALCUL ATION

a Volume of =1m3

concrete(a)

cement(b) gravity of = 0.115 m3

cement)*(1/1000)

c Volume of (Mass of water/specific = (152/1) x (1/1000)

water(c) gravity of water)*(1/1000) = 0.152 m3

admixture(d) admixture/specific gravity (1/1000)

of admixture)*(1/1000) = 0.004 m3

weight of cementitious material

e Volume of =1- (0.115+0.152+0.004)

total [a-(b+c+d)] = 0.271 m3

aggregate

coarse aggregate*specific gravity = 1163 m3

aggregate of coarse aggregate*1000

=

fine aggregate*specific gravity 1000

aggregate of fine aggregate*1000 = 846 m3

=

STEP: 9 - TRIAL MIX

STEP: 10 - SITE CORRECTION

Absorption of F.A is 1% = (1/100) x 846 = 8.46 litre

Total absorption = 14.28 litre

Actual amount of water to be used = 152+14.28= 166.28

Actual amount of F.A to be used = 846 - 8.46= 837.5

Actual amount of C.A to be used = 1163 - 5.82= 1157.2

CEMENT 362 kg/m3

Mix proportion can be expressed in this way

t

362 846 1163 152

: : :

Or 1 2.34 3.21 0.42

: : :

Or Proportion for One bag mix

50 117 161 21 (All in kg for saturated

: : : surface dry)

Or proportion in field/site condition is

362 838 1157 166

: : :

Or 1 2.31 3.2 0.46

: : :

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