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Mitigasi dan Adaptasi Perubahan

Iklim dengan
Strategi PengembanganGreen
City
DJOKO SANTOSO ABI SUROSO, PHD
PUSAT PERUBAHAN IKLIM DAN
PROGRAM STUDI
PERENCANAAN WILAYAH DAN KOTA
ITB

Kuliah Umum dalam Rangka Hari Bumi


22 April 2014
Badan Geologi, Bandung
Outline
Keterkaitan Sustainable Development
dan Mitigasi/Adaptasi Perubahan Iklim
Evolusi Konsep From Green Economy to
Green City? From Garden City to Green
City? Green City or Green Urban?
Green City di Indonesia: Program
Pengembangan Kota Hijau (P2KH)
Peluang dan Tantangan P2KH
Kesimpulan
Latar Belakang Program
Pengembangan Kota Hijau (P2KH)
menurut Dirjen Penataan Ruang,
Kementerian PU (2011):
Beberapa tahun terakhir,
permasalahan perkotaan semakin berat
karena hadirnya fenomena perubahan
iklim, yang menuntut kita semua untuk
memikirkan secara lebih seksama. dan
mengembangkan gagasan cerdas yang
dituangkan ke dalam kebijakan dan
program yang lebih komprehensif sekaligus
realistis sebagai solusi perubahan iklim.
PENGERTIAN PERUBAHAN IKLIM (1)
Definisi IPCC (Inter Govermental Panel on Climate
Change):
Perubahan iklim merujuk pada variasi signifikan secara
statistik baik keadaan rata-rata iklim maupun
variabilitasnya, untuk kurun waktu panjang (umumnya
puluhan tahun atau lebih). Perubahan iklim dapat
diakibatkan oleh proses internal alam, atau perubahan
komposisi atmosfer oleh aktifitas manusia
Definisi UNFCCC
(antropogenik). (United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change) :
Perubahan rata-rata dari iklim yang disebabkan oleh
aktifitas manusia baik langsung maupun tidak
langsung yang merubah komposisi atmosfer global,
dan juga variabilitas iklim alami yang teramati pada
kurun waktu
Definisi yang terbandingkan.
UU 32/2009:
Perubahan iklim adalah berubahnya iklim yang
diakibatkan langsung atau tidak langsung oleh
aktivitas manusia sehingga menyebabkan perubahan
komposisi atmosfir secara global dan selain itu juga
berupa perubahan variabilitas iklim alamiah yang
teramati pada kurun waktu yang dapat dibandingkan.
Gas Perubahan Iklim Dampak dan
-Perubahan CH Kerentanan
Rumah
-Kenaikan Suhu pada sektor
Kaca - Pertanian
-CO2 -Kenaikan Muka Air Laut
- Air
-Metana -Kejadian Ekstrim - Pesisir
-Nitrous - Kesehatan
Oxide - Ekosistem

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-Aerosol

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Em

da tera
isi

In
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Pola Pembangunan Sosial


go
pe

Ekonomi
ikn

Penggerak utama: pertumbuhan


ekonomi, teknologi, populasi, struktur
pemerintahan, energi dan perubahan
lahan

Mitigasi Adaptasi
Modified from IPCC,
2007
Pembangunan yang sesuai dengan
Perubahan Iklim
(Mitchell & Maxwell 2010)
Indonesia Climate Change Sectoral
Roadmap
Knowledge management: data, informasi, sosialisasi
Perencanaan, pengembangan kebijakan, regulasi,
kelembagaan
Implementasi, kontrol, pemantauan, evaluasi
HUBUNGAN TIMBAL BALIK
PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN
DAN PERUBAHAN IKLIM (IPCC-AR 4)
PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN
DAN ADAPTASI PERUBAHAN IKLIM
(IPCC-AR 4)
Similarities and differences of DRR and CCA. (Source: Gero, A. et al.,
2010. Disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the
Pacific: The challenge of integration. ATRC-NHRL Miscellaneous Report 4)
dalam Damayanti dan Suroso (2012)
Overlap between DRR and CCA. (Source: Mitchell, T., van Aalst, M., 2008)
dalam Damayanti dan Suroso (2012)
From Green Economy To Green City
(LSE Cities, 2012)

The green economy as a concept that focuses


primarily on the intersection between environment
and economy and on the opportunities to advance
economic and environmental goals simultaneously
(UNGA)
Less than 2% of the earths surface is occupied by
urban areas, but this land accommodates half the
worlds 7bn population and accounts for 70% of
the worlds GDP
Cities will have a leading role to play if this
concept is to emerge as a paradigm for the next
economy
From Green Economy To Green City (LSE
Cities, 2012)
The green economy also requires cities to play a
leading role in shaping urban form and new
infrastructure platforms, in order to fully unlock
the potential for a more prosperous, equitable
and greener global future.
Cities have a degree of self-governance, and city
policymakers are often able to deliver integrated
policy programmes that have a more direct
impact on citizens.
Cities may have greater potential for making a
significant impact on sustainable growth
compared to higher tiers of government. Since
the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, cities around the
world have made considerable progress toward
developing sustainability programmes.
Driven partly by the adoption of Agenda 21 in
1972 - Stockholm Earth 2002 - Johannesburg
Summit World Summit
(Environmental Focus) (Social Focus)

1992 - Rio Earth Summit 2012 - Rio +20


(Sustainable (Green Economy &
Development Focus) Governance Focus)

1966 (New Order) 2012

1999 (Reform Order)

Current
Current State State ofof Environment
Environment
Law Law No. 11 of 1967
No. 11 of 1967 onthe
onthe Basic
Basic Provisions
Provisions ofof
Mining
Mining
Current State of
Law Law No.5of1967
No.5of1967 onForestry
onForestry BasicLaw
BasicLaw Environment:
Law Law No.
No. 5
5 of
of 1974
1974 onon Local
Local Government
Government
Law Law No.
No. 4
4 of
of 1982
1982 onPrinciples
onPrinciples ofof
Forest Land Cover
Environmental Management
Environmental Management Critical Land
Law Law No.
No. 23
23 of
of 1997
1997 onPrinciples
onPrinciples ofof
Environmental Management
Environmental Management
Land subsidence
Law Law No.
No. 22
22 of
of 1999
1999 onon Local
Local Government
Government
Law Law No.
No. 32
32 of
of 2004
2004 onon Local
Local Government
Government
Future State
Future State of
of Environment
Environment
Law Law Number 24 of
Number 24 of 2007on
2007on Disaster
Disaster
Management
Management
Law Law Number
Number 26 26 of
of 2007on
2007on Spatial
Spatial Planning
Planning Future State of
LawLaw No.27Year2007on the Management
No.27Year2007on the Management of of
Coastal
Coastal Areas
Areas and
and Small
Small Islands
Islands
Environment:

?
Law
Law No.
No. 32/2009
32/2009 onEnvironmental
onEnvironmental
Protectionand
Protectionand Management
Management
Presidential
Presidential Regulation
Regulation No. No. 61
61 of
of 2011
2011 onon the
the
National Action Plan for Green House
National Action Plan for Green House Gas Gas
Reduction
Reduction
Presidential
Presidential Regulation
Regulation No. No. 321
321 of
of 2011
2011 onon
Master
Master plan
plan of
of Acceleration
Acceleration andand Expansion
Expansion of of
Indonesia
Indonesia Economic
Economic Development
Development 2011-2025
2011-2025
Sejarah Gerakan Lingkungan Global
(Artanti dan Suroso, 2012)
Chart Title

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020


PL5201 Resources and Environment

Planners Triangle:
Three Priorities, Three Conflicts
(Campbell, 1996)
The center cannot
be reached directly, Social Justice,
but only Economic Opportunity,
approximately and Income Equity
indirectly, through
a sustained period
of confronting and
resolving the
The property
triangle conflict
conflict
The development
conflict
(p.296) Green, Profitable and Fair
(Sustainable Development?)

Overall Economic Growth Enviromental


and Efficiency Protection
The resource
conflict

D.S.A. Suroso, Ph.D


Pengertian Kota Hijau
(Panduan P2KH, 2011)
Atribut Kota Hijau
(Panduan P2KH, 2011)
Atribut Kota Hijau
(Panduan P2KH, 2011)
Peluang Program Pengembangan
Kota Hijau
Peraturan Perundangan:
UU 7/2004 Tentang Sumber Daya Air,
UU 32/2004 Tentang Pemerintah Daerah,
UU 24/2007 Tentang Penaggulangan Bencana,
UU 26/2007 Tentang Penataan Ruang,
UU 18/2008 Tentang Pengelolaan Sampah,
UU 32/2009 Tentang Perlindungan dan
Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup,
UU 1/2014 Perubahan UU 27/2007 Tentang
Pesisir dan Pulau Kecil
KSPN (Kebijakan dan Strategi Perkotaan Nasional)
Tantangan Program Pengembangan
Kota Hijau
Komitmen Pemerintah
Kabupaten/Kota Daerah,
Community Awareness,
Funding Sustainability,
Masih fokus di Ruang Terbuka Hijau
(RTH) => karena umumnya luas RTH
masih < 30%
Kesimpulan
Green City merupakan bagian dari Green
Economy dalam mencapai Pembangunan Kota
Berkelanjutan
Green City masih lebih fokus pada Mitigasi
Perubahan Iklim => Green Urban dapat
mencakup Mitigasi dan Adaptasi Perubahan
Iklim
Program Pengembangan Kota Hijau
merupakan program yang prospektif utk
mewujudkan sustainable urban development