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OPTHALMOLOGY

OPTHALMOLOGY?
Ophthalmology is a branch
of medicine that deals
with the anatomy,
physiology and diseases of
the eye ball.
VARIOUS PARTS OF THE EYE WITH
THEIR FUNCTION
Cornea: the cornea is the clear outer part of
the eyes focusing system located at the front of
the eye.

Iris: the iris is the colored part of the eye that


regulates the amount of light entering the eye.

Lens: the lens is a clear part of the eye behind


the iris that helps to focus light or an image on the
retina.
CONTD..
Pupil: The pupil is the opening at the centre of
the iris. The iris adjusts the size of the pupil and
controls the and controls the amount of light that
can enter the eye.
Retina: The retina is the light sensitive tissue
at the back of the eye. The retina converts light
into electrical impulses that are sent to the brain
through the optic nerve.
Vitreous gel: The vitreous gel is a
transparent, colorless mass that fills the rear two
thirds of the eye ball, between the lens and the
retina.
CONTD..
Macula: The macula is the small ,
sensitive area of the retina that gives
central vision. It is located in the centre of
the retina.

Optic nerve: Optic nerve is the largest


sensory nerve of the eye. It carries
impulses for sight from the retina to the
brain.
IMAGE FORMATION BY THE
EYE
Refraction of light by the cornea
- Eye collects light, focuses on
retina and then forms images
COMMON OPTHALMIC
DISORDERS
Chalazion
Stye
Bleharitis
Dacryocystitis
Orbital cellulitis
Conjunctivitis
Glaucoma
Opthalmia neonatorum
CHALAZION
Chalazion is a chronic and focal granulomatous
inflammation of the meibomian gland.
Symptoms:
- Painless swelling in the lid, occasionally blurring
of vision from induced astigmatism, watering.
Signs:
- Well defined subcutaneous nodule in the eyelid.
- Non tender swelling slightly away from the lid
margin.
Treatment:
- Hot compression, antibiotic massage and surgery
STYE
A focal, acute and suppurative inflammation of
glands of Zeis or Moll at the lid margins.
Symptoms:
- Acute pain associated with swelling if lid, mild
watering and photophobia and tenderness.
Signs:
- Localized erythema, tender, swelling at the lid,
margin.
- A pus point associated with the affected cilia.
Treatment:
- Hot compression, epilation and antibiotics
SYMPTOMS
Bumps on eye or eye lid
Burning
Blurred vision
Bloodshot eye
Light sensitivity
Pain or discomfort in eye or eyelid
Swelling around eyes
Watering eyes
Twitching
CAUSES
Certain germs and bacteria
Improper diet
Using the same towels or
clothes with someone who
has the infection
Watching computer or
television for much time
Vitamin deficiency
Intake of less water
External injuries
Thank you