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Stream Function & Velocity Potential

Stream lines/ Stream Function ()


Concept
Relevant Formulas
Examples
Rotation, vorticity
Velocity Potential()
Concept
Relevant Formulas
Examples
Relationship between stream function and velocity potential
Complex velocity potential

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Stream Lines
Consider 2D incompressible flow
Continuity Eqn


Vx V y Vz 0
t x y z

Vx
Vx Vy 0 Vy dy
x
x y
Vx and Vy are related
Can you write a common function for both?
IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005
Stream Function
Assume
Vx
y
Then
V x

2
Vy dy dy
x xy
2
dy
yx x
Instead of two functions, Vx and Vy, we need to solve for only one function
Stream Function
Order of differential eqn increased by one

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Stream Function
What does Stream Function mean?

Equation for streamlines in 2D are given by


= constant
Streamlines may exist in 3D also, but stream function does not
Why? (When we work with velocity potential, we may get a
perspective)
In 3D, streamlines follow the equation

dx dy dz

Vx Vy Vz

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Rotation
Definition of rotation

t + t
Vx ime =
y y T
y y Time=t

Vx y x
Vy Vy
x x x

x
Assume Vy|x < Vy|x+x d
ROTATION z
and Vx|y > Vx|y+y dt 2
IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005
Rotation
To Calculate Rotation

y1
tan = t + t
x Time

y1 Vy x x

t Vy
x
t
y1

arctan
V y x x Vy
x
t
x
Similarly
arctan

Vx y y Vx y t
y
IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005
Rotation
To Calculate Rotation

d 1
ROTATION z lim
t t t
2 t 0 t
dt 2

arctan
V
y x x
Vy
x
t
arctan


V
x y y
Vx y t


x y
1 1
lim lim
2 t 0 t 2 t 0 t
x 0 x 0
y 0
y 0
For very small time and very small element, x, y
and t are close to zero

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Rotation
To Calculate Rotation
For very small i.e.
sin cos 1 tan

arctan

arctan
V
y x x
Vy
x
t V y x x Vy
x
t

x x

arctan
V
y x x
Vy
x
t


V Vy t
y x x x


x x
lim lim
t 0 t t 0 t
x 0 x 0
y 0 y 0
IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005
Rotation
To Calculate Rotation

lim
V y x x Vy
x
V y
x 0 x x

arctan
V
y x x
Vy
x
t
arctan


V
x y y
Vx y t

x y
1 1
z lim lim
2 x t00 t 2 x t 0
0 t
y 0 y 0

Simplifies to
1 Vy Vx
z
2 x y
1 r
z V
2

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005
Rotation in terms of Stream Function
To write rotation in terms of stream functions

Vx Vy
y x

1 Vy Vx 1
2 2
z 2 2
2 x y 2 x y
1
2
2
That is
2 2 z 0

For irrotational flow (z=0)

2 0

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Rotation and Potential
For irrotational flow (z=0)
r
1

z V 0
2

r
V 0

Vy Vx
0
x y
This equation is similar to continuity equation
Vx and Vy are related
Can we find a common function to relate both Vx and Vy ?

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Vy Vx
0
Velocity Potential x y

Assume
Then Vy Vx 2 2
Vx

x x y yx xy


Vy
y

In 3D, similarly it can be shown that



Vz
z
is the velocity potential

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Velocity Potential vs Stream
Function

Stream Function ( ) Velocity Potential ()


only 2D flow all flows
Irrotational (i.e. Inviscid or
viscous or non-viscous flows zero viscosity) flow
Exists
Incompressible flow (steady or Incompressible flow (steady
for
unsteady) or unsteady state)
compressible flow (steady compressible flow (steady or
state only) unsteady state)

In 2D inviscid flow (incompressible flow OR steady state compressible flow), both


functions exist
What is the relationship between them?

IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005


Stream Function- Physical
meaning

Statement: In
2D (viscous or inviscid) flow (incompressible flow
OR steady state compressible flow), = constant represents
the streamline.
Proof

If = constant, then d

d dx dy
x y
Vy dx Vx dy
0 Vy
If = constant, then
dy Vy Vx

dx Vx
IIT-Madras, Momentum Transfer: July 2005-Dec 2005