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Bone Growth &

Development

Charles A Simanjuntak, dr, SpOT(K), FICS, MPd


FKIK Universitas Jambi
Development of bone(1)
Lateral & paraxial plate (somatic layer)
mesodermal from neural crest
Paraxial mesoderm tissue block lateral tu
neural tube a k a somitomere
Somites caudally of occipital region
Somites scleretome & dermomyotome
4th week, sclerotome mesenchyme
(embronic connective tissue)
6th week the limb buds becomes flattened
handplates and footplates
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CharlesASjuntak, FKIK-Unja 3
Development of bone(2)
Flattened limb buds becomes circular
constriction
Later a second & third constriction
divides the proximal portion into 2 or 3
segments, and the main parts of the
extremities can be recognized
Fingers and toes are formed when cell
death in the AER separates this ridge
into five parts
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Development of bone(3)
Development of the upper and lower
limbs is similar but morphogenesis of
the lower limb is 1 to 2 days behind
that of the upper limb

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Development of bone(4)
7th week of gestation the limbs rotate
in opposite directions
Upper limb rotates 90 laterally so that
the extensor muscles lie on the lateral and
posterior surface and the thumbs lie
laterally,
lower limb rotates approximately 90
medially, placing the extensor muscles on
the anterior surface and the big toe
medially.
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Development of bone(5)
By the 6th week of development the
first hyaline cartilage models,
foreshadowing the bones of the
extremities, are formed by these
chondrocytes
Joints are formed in the cartilaginous
condensations when chondrogenesis is
arrested and a joint interzone is
induced.
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Development of bone(6)
Embryoic connective tissue fibroblast,
chondroblast, osteoblast (bone-forming
cells)
Formation of shoulder & pelvic girdles &
long bones of the limbs
all long bones of the limbs differentiated by
the 12th week.
Differentiated by
Intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification
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CharlesASjuntak, FKIK-Unja 9
Development of bone(7)
Primary center in the shaft or diaphysis
of the bone, endochondral ossification
gradually progresses toward the ends of
the cartilaginous model
At birth the diaphysis of the bone is
usually completely ossified, but the two
ends, the epiphyses, are still cartilaginous
Epiphyseal plate, plays an important role
in growth in the length of the bones.
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Development of bone(8)
Endochondral ossification proceeds on both sides of
the plate
When the bone has acquired its full length, the
epiphyseal plates disappear and the epiphyses unite
with the shaft of the bone.
In long bones an epiphyseal plate is found on each
extremity
In smaller bones, such as the phalanges, it is found
only at one extremity
In irregular bones, such as the vertebrae, one or more
primary centers of ossification and usually several
secondary centers are present.
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Growth of the Skeleton(1)
Development of the skeleton, especially the
part played by bone growth, is closely
related to the total development of the
organism
Estimation, radiological examination plays
a major diagnostic role eg estimating
eventual body height
Skeletal age evaluated by fusion of the
epiphyseal and apophyseal disks (growth
disks)
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Growth of the Skeleton(2)
Growth and development depend on
many factors
Body weight and especially growth in
height depend on genetic influences,
but external influences, such as the
quality and quantity of the nutrients
ingested with food, can also be
demonstrated

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Development of Bone Tissue
Reticular bone (woven bone) is formed in the
embryonic period & during healing of a fracture
Reticular bone corresponds to a hardened
connective tissue rich in fibers and can originate
in two different ways:
1. membrane bone develops directly from the
mesenchyme. This type of ossification is called
membranous or desmal ossification
2. cartilaginous bone precursor first forms in the
mesenchyme is then rebuilt into bone (endochondral
bone). This process is called endochondral or
indirect ossification
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Development of a Long Bone(1)
Most bones develop indirectly of a
cartilaginous precursor. Only a few bones
(some bones in the skull, theclavicle) develop
directly by membranous ossification
Parts of a long bone can develop directly by
membranous ossification even where it has
been laid down in cartilage, e. g., the
perichondral bone cuff that originates in the
diaphysis and that provides the base from
which the bone grows in thickness
(perichondral ossification)
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Development of a Long Bone(2)
Bony tissue is laid down indirectly, in that
the cartilage is first removed by cartilage-
absorbing cells (chondroclasts) and then
replaced by chondral ossification.
Where the diaphysis meets the epiphysis,
an epiphyseal plate develops, where
growth in length takes place and in which
the cartilage cells divide until growth
stops

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Development of a Long Bone(3)
The epiphyseal plate is visible in the
radiograph by its lack of calcification.
Bone formation within the epiphyses
(ossific centers) begins only at the time
of birth. Many ossific centers develop
only in the first years of life.
Special ossific centers that develop on
bone for the attachment of muscles are
called apophyses.
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Vertebra
4th week, sclerotome migrate medially
spinal cord & notochord
vertebral body & nucleus pulposus
Nucleus pulposus surrounded by
circular fibers of anulus fibrosis
intervertebral disc

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Question

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