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Nutrition through the

Life Cycle

Adult and Elderly

Definition of Adulthood
With good luck, good genes, and good
habits, adulthood covers a life span of
roughly 60 years.

Early Adulthood by the age of 20, adults

have generally stopped growing
Midlife forties and fifties body composition
shifts, hormones shift, and activity decreases
Old Age after sixty consequences of
earlier lifestyle choices
Physiological Changes
of Adulthood
Growth and maturation are complete by
early adulthood
Nutritional emphasis turns to
maintaining physical status, continuing
to build strength, and avoiding excess
weight gain
Differences between:
Energy Needs

Harris-Benedict Equation

Mifflin-St.Jeor Equation
Dietary Recommendations
Governmental and private groups make food
and nutrition recommendations according to
their missions and goals
Advocating for reduction of specific disease risk
(i.e. American Heart Association)
Ensuring adequate population intake specific
nutrients (i.e. FDA fortification of grain products)
Offering guidance on what and how much to eat.
(i.e. Food Guide Pyramid, Dietary Guidelines for
Weight Change
3500 calories to gain or lose 1 pound of
body weight.
To gain or lose 1 pound / week add or
subtract 500 calories / day
These calories can be a combination of
intake and activity
Healthy People 2010
Increase the number of individuals who are:
At a healthy weight
Eat at least two servings of fruit/day
Eat at least three servings of vegetables/d
Eat at least six servings of grain products/ d (with of
those as whole grains)
Eat less than 10% calories from saturated fat
Eat no more than 30 % of calories from fat
Meet dietary recommendation for calcium
Eat 2400 mg or less of sodium daily
Increase food security and in doing decrease hunger
Increase number physician visits as needed
Water needs
1 ml water per calorie of food ingested
2000 calorie diet = 2000 ml of water
Eight 8 ounce glasses of water/day

Are you receiving enough water?

urine colorless or pale yellow
Physical Activity

30 minutes a day

Intermittent physical activity also

increases caloric expenditure
Definition of Elderly
65-74 years is young old
75-84 years is aged
85 and older is oldest old

Diseases and disabilities are not

inevitable consequences of ageing
The Center for Disease Control and
Prevention suggest that longevity
depends on:
19% genetics
10% access to health care
20% environmental factors
51% lifestyle factors
Physiological Changes

Body composition changes

Weight gain
Taste and smell
Chewing and swallowing
Appetite and thirst
Food Safety
Compromised immune systems
Under reported due to individuals
thinking it is the flu
Causes may be:
Improper temperatures
Poor hygiene
Contaminated equipment
Inadequate cooking time
Physical Activity
On average older adults are less active
An evaluation by a physician is needed
For general health exercise 30 minutes
an day on most days
Drink plenty of water
Do warm up and cool down exercises
Physical Activity
Encouraging physical activity will help
older adults by
Improving strength
Maintaining muscle mass
Improving activities of daily living
Feeling better both mentally and
physically, which may influence changes in
dietary habits.
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs
Governmental programs:
USDAs Food Stamp program
Adult Day Services food programs
Nutritional Assistance Programs for
Senior Nutrition program of the Older
Americans Act
Community Food
and Nutrition Programs

Non governmental home health

programs provide food and nutrition
Home health aides
"To eat is a necessity,
but to eat intelligently is
an art."
- La Rochefoucauld

This material was funded by USDAs Food Stamp Program through the California
Department of Public Healths Network for a Healthy California. These institutions
are equal opportunity providers and employers. The Food Stamp Program provides
nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help buy nutritious foods for a
better diet. For information on the Food Stamp Program, call 1-888-328-3483.