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SDEV 120

COMPUTER LOGIC
Chapter 2: Exponents
Sections 2-3 thru 2-5
SECTION 2-3: POWERS AND
EXPONENTS (PAGE 58)
The product of equal base numbers is a power
b * b is the second power of b
b * b * b is the third power of b
Exponents provide shorthand for powers
b3 = b * b * b (b to the third power)
32 = 3 * 3 (3 to the second power)
Exponents apply only to the base on the left
(order of precedence)
ab2 means a * b * b
Use parentheses to take powers of products
(ab)2 means ab * ab
COMPUTER NOTATION, AND
EXPONENTS 1 AND 0 (PAGE 58-59)
Computers notate powers by base^exponent
b^3 means b3 = b * b * b
3^2 means 32 = 3 * 3
A number to the first power equals itself
Exponent 1 usually not written
A number to the 0 power equals 1
Pattern: 2^3 = 8, 2^2 = 4, 2^1 = 2, so 2^0 = 1
5^0 = 1, 256^0 = 1, (2+5)^0 = 1, (x*y)^0 = 1
Both methods of notation used in these slides
RULES OF EXPONENTS
(PAGE 60)
To multiply like bases, add the exponents
bn * bm = bn+m
23 * 22 = 23+2 = 25 = 32
3 * 32 = 31 * 32 = 31+2 = 33 = 27
Bases must be identical for this to work
Work practice problems on page 60
RULES OF EXPONENTS (CONT.)
(PAGE 60)
To divide like bases, subtract the exponents
bn / bm = bn-m
33 / 32 = 33-2 = 31 = 3
25 / 22 = 25-2 = 23 = 8
However, the denominator b must not = 0
Bases must be identical for this to work
Work practice problems on page 61-62
RULES OF EXPONENTS (CONT.)
(PAGE 62)
To take powers of bases already raised to a
power, multiply the exponents
(bn)m = bn*m
(23)2 = 23*2 = 26 = 64
(32)3 = 32*3 = 36 = 729
Work practice problems on page 62
RULES OF EXPONENTS (CONT.)
(PAGE 62)
The product of several factors (a*b) raised to
the power n is the same as the power applied
to each factor individually
(a*b)n = (an) * (bn)
(2*3)2 = (22) * (32)
(x*y)3 = (x3) * (y3), also written as x3y3
The reverse is also true:
(22) * (32) = (2*3)2
(x3) * (y3) = (x*y)3
Work practice problems on page 63
RULES OF EXPONENTS (CONT.)
(PAGE 63)
A fraction or quotient (a/b) raised to the
power n is the same as the power applied to
both numerator and denominator individually
(a/b)n = (an) / (bn)
(2/3)2 = (22) / (32) = 4 / 9
(x/y)3 = (x3) / (y3)
The reverse is also true:
(an) / (bn) = (a/b)n (when b <> 0)
(x3) / (y3) = (x/y)3 (when b <> 0)
Work practice problems on page 64-65
ZERO POWER PROOF AND FIRST
POWER PROOF (PAGE 65)
Zero power proof:
Show that b0 = 1, for all b<>0
b1 / b1 = 1 (any number divided by itself is 1)
b1 / b1 = b(1-1) = b0 (subtract exponents)
So, b0 = 1
First power proof:
Show that b1 = b
b3 / b2 = (b*b*b) / (b*b) = b (cancel out)
b3 / b2 = b(3-2) = b1 (subtract exponents)
So, b1 = b
RECIPROCALS (PAGE 65)
The reciprocal of a number is 1 divided by that
number
Reciprocal of b is 1/b
Exception is 0: division by 0 is undefined
A number multiplied by its reciprocal is 1
2 * (1/2) = 1, and 3 * (1/3) = 1
Multiplying a number by its reciprocal is the same as
dividing by that number
6 * (1/2) is the same as 6/2
The reciprocal of a fraction is the same as switching
the numerator and denominator
1 / (a/b) = (b*1) / (b * (a/b)) = b/a
Work the practice problems on page 66
NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
(PAGE 67)
The reciprocal of a number b is b-1
1/b = b0 b1 = b0-1 = b-1
Reciprocal of 1000 is 1/1000, or 1000 -1
Reciprocal of a number with a positive
exponent is a result with a negative exponent
Reciprocal of 103 = 1/103 = 10-3
Reciprocal of 22 = 1/22 = 2-2
Reciprocal of a number with a negative
exponent is a result with a positive exponent
Reciprocal of 10-3 = 1 / (10-3) = 103
Reciprocal of 2-2 = 1 / (2-2) = 22
NEGATIVE EXPONENTS
(CONT.)
Rules of arithmetic with exponents apply to
negative exponents
103 * 10-2 = 103+(-2) = 10(3-2) = 101 = 10
103 / 10-2 = 103-(-2) = 10(3+2) = 105 = 100000
(10-3)2 = 10(-3)*2 = 10-6 = 1/106 = 1/1,000,000
FLIPPING AND DOUBLE-FLIPPING
(PAGE 67)
Create reciprocals by flipping exponents
Reciprocal of 32 = 3-2
Reciprocal of 5-3 = 53
Work practice problems on page 68

Keep the same value, but change the sign of


the exponent by double flipping
5-2 is the same as 1 / 52
x-5 is the same as 1 / x5
1 / x-3 is the same as x3
Work the practice problems on page 68
SIGNS OF EXPONENTS VS. SIGNS
OF BASE NUMBERS (PAGE 68)
Negative exponents do not mean negative values
5-2 is the same as 1/25 (a positive number)
Use a minus sign to make the value negative
-(52) = -25 (a negative number)
-(5-2) = -(1/25) (a negative number)
But, (-5)2 = (-5) * (-5) = 25 (a positive number)
Expressions with minus signs inside parens:
If integer exponent is even, drop minus sign
(-3)2 = (-3) * (-3) = 9
If integer exponent is odd, keep minus sign
(-3)3 = (-3) * (-3) * (-3) = -27
Work practice problems on page 69
ROOTS AND FRACTIONAL
EXPONENTS (PAGE 69)
Inverse operation undoes previous operation
Taking a root is the inverse of raising a number to
a power
Taking square root undoes squaring a number
Taking cube root undoes cubing a number
Fractional exponents represent roots
2 can be written as 2(1/2), or 2^(1/2)
Cube root of 3 can be written as 3 (1/3), or 3^(1/3)
(b1/2)2 = b((1/2)*2) = b1 = b
Rules for exponents apply to fractionals
10(1/2) * 10(1/2) = 10( + ) = 101 = 10
Work practice problems on page 71
EXPONENT RULES SUMMARY
(PAGE 72)
Add exponents when multiplying like bases
bn * bm = b(n+m)
Subtract exponents when dividing like bases
bn / bm = b(n-m)
Multiply exponents when raising an exponential
number to a power
(bn)m = b(n*m)
Apply exponents to each term in a product
(ab)n = an + b n
Apply exponents to each term in a quotient
(a/b)n = (an) / (bn)
Work the practice problems on page 73
SECTION 2-4: PROBLEM SOLVING
WITH EXPONENTS (PAGE 74)
Scientific notation used to represent very large
and very small numbers
106 is 1 with 6 zeroes after it
10-2 is 1 divided by 100 (1 with 2 zeroes after it)
Product of:
A decimal value between 1 and 10 (not 10)
A power of 10
The decimal value contains significant digits
2500 is 2.5 * 1000, or 2.5 * 10^3
17500 is 1.75 * 10000, or 1.75 * 10^4
0.000027 is 2.7 * 10^-5 (count decimals to 1 st sd)
-0.000027 is -2.7 * 10^-5
CONVERTING SCIENTIFIC
NOTATION TO DECIMALS (PAGE 75)
Move decimal point to the right to remove
positive exponents
2.5 * 10^3 = 2.500 * 1000 = 2500 (move 3 right)
Move decimal point to the left to remove
negative exponents
-2.7 * 10^-5 = -.000027 (move 5 left)
SIGNIFICANT DIGITS (PAGE 75)
All numbers in the decimal part of scientific
notation are significant
This allows you to express accuracy
2.0 * 10^3 implies 2000 is known to 2 sd
2.000 * 10^3 implies 2000 is known to all 4 sd
2.5 * 10^-3 implies 0.0025 is known to 2 sd
2.500 * 10^-3 implies 0.0025 is known to all 4 sd
Work practice problems on page 76
EVALUATING EXPRESSIONS USING
SCIENTIFIC NOTATION (PAGE 76)
Use scientific notation to multiply and divide
quantities with varying magnitude
Express each number in scientific notation
Multiply and divide decimal and exponent parts
Round to correct number of significant digits
Study example on page 76
Work problems on page 77
EXPONENTIAL CURIOSITITES
(PAGE 76)
Age of universe is 10^17 seconds, or 1
followed by 17 zeroes
Weight of earth in grams is 10^27, or 1
followed by 27 zeroes
Number of particles in the universe is 10^80,
or 1 followed by 80 zeroes
The googol (not to be confused with Google)
is 10^100, or 1 followed by 100 zeroes
Work practice problems on page 78-79
SECTION 2-5: STUDY MATERIALS
(PAGE 80)
Study materials include:
Chapter summary
Rules of exponents
Reciprocals
Roots
Review questions
Problem solutions to even-numbered exercises
SDEV 120
COMPUTER LOGIC
Chapter 2: Exponents
Sections 2-3 thru 2-5