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PART 1

STRUCTURE OF SENTENCE

1. Urutan Kata
Kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris mempunyai
susunan baku yang terdiri atas subyek dan
predikat. Kalimat yang hanya tersusun atas
subyek dan diikuti oleh predikat ini dinamakan
dengan kalimat sederhana.
Subyek berkaitan dengan apa/benda yang
dibicarakan dan siapa/orang yang menjadi
pelaku, sedangkan predikat berkaitan dengan apa
yang terjadi atau dialami oleh subyek
Litmus paper changes to blue color in alkaline solution
Cell of cancer grows double in minutes
Nuclear fission proceeds in a controlled nuclear reactor
Albert Einstein moved from Germany to USA after the
world-war I
Thomson died after discovering electron

Note:
Red color is subject
Yellow color is predicate
Sering pula subyek dari suatu kalimat tidak
disebutkan/ tersembunyi

Elucidate the chemical structure


yang arti sesungguhnya mungkin They elucidate the
chemical structure
Formulate a mathematical equation
yang arti sesungguhnya mungkin I formulate a
mathematical equation
Read a book of Quantum Mechanics
yang arti sesungguhnya mungkin We read a book of
Quantum Mechanics
Selain subyek dan predikat, makna kalimat dalam
bahasa Inggris akan semakin lengkap apabila
susunan subyek dan predikat tersebut diikuti
dengan obyek. Jadi urutan baku dalam menyusun
kalimat bahasa Inggris adalah subyek, predikat
dan kemudian disusul dengan obyek.

Chemist conducts an experiment

Chemist sebagai subyek


conducts sebagai predikat
anexperiment sebagai obyek
A British scientist discovers the worlds oldest
flower

A British scientist sebagai subyek


discovers sebagai predikat
the worlds oldest flower sebagai obyek
Kata keterangan (How ?, Where ?, When ?) biasanya
diletakkan sesudah predikat atau obyek.

Subyek Predikat Obyek Keterangan


How ? Where ? When ?
Chemist conducts an experiment seriously
at the
laboratory
conducted yesterday

Sering pula keterangan waktu diletakkan di awal kalimat.

Yesterday chemist conducted an experiment seriously at


the laboratory
2. Jenis Kalimat

Ada empat jenis kalimat, yaitu:

Kalimat berita : The laboratory closes at 7 tonight


Kalimat tanya : Does the laboratory close at 7 tonight?
Kalimat perintah : Close the door
Kalimat seru : What an excellent experiment this is!
3. Kata Kerja dengan dan
tanpa Obyek
Kata kerja seperti beat, contain, determine, enjoy, hit,
need, oxidise, reduce selalu disertai dengan obyek.
Kata kerja yang memerlukan obyek disebut dengan
kata kerja transitif.

You need a microscope to see most cells.


A mole of any substance contains 6.02 x 1023 particles.
Potassium permanganate oxidises iron to form ferric
oxide.
Sodium tetrahydroborate reduces arsenate and arsenite to
form gaseous arsine.
A meteorite may hit the Earth.
Beberapa kata kerja seperti arrive, come, dissolve,
open,
sleep, snow tidak memerlukan obyek. Kata-kata kerja
ini disebut dengan kata kerja intransitif.

The train has arrived


The laboratory opened
Most salts dissolve in water

Beberapa kata kerja dapat bertindak sebagai kata


kerja
transitif maupun intransitif, misalnya begin, drop, open,
ring, win

Indonesia won the badminton match (transitif)


Indonesia won (intransitif)
Someone rang the bell (transitif)
Latihan
Susunlah kata-kata berikut sehingga didapatkan urutan
kata-kata yang benar dan kalimat yang bermakna

1. hydrogen | oxygen | and | water | each other | to form |


combine
2. three atoms | ozone | in | its molecule | contains
3. result | excellent | what an | this is
4. litmus paper | changes | in | solution | acid | the color of
5. Rutherford | in 1817 | atomic theory | introduced
Kalimat Gabungan
Kalimat gabungan terbentuk dari gabungan dua atau
lebih kalimat sederhana.

Nitric acid is strong acid.


Nitric acid can oxidise carbon compound.
Nitric acid is strong acid and can oxidise carbon
compound.

Kata yang digunakan untuk menggabungkan kalimat-


kalimat sederhana dinamakan dengan kata sambung.
Selain and kata sambung yang lain adalah and then,
but, for, or, so, either or; neither nor; not only
but also.
Apabila kalimat-kalimat yang digabungkan mempunyai

subyek yang sama, subyek itu biasanya tidak


dituliskan berulang.

Acids react with metals. Acids have the ability to change the colour
of indicators. Acids react with metal and have ability to
change the colour of indicators.

Sebaliknya apabila subyeknya berbeda, kedua


subyek
itu tetap harus dituliskan.

At the beginning of reaction, the concentration of product shows


the greatest rate of increase. At the beginning of reaction, the
concentrations of reactants show the highest rate of decrease.
At the beginning of reaction, the concentration of product shows
Contoh-contoh kalimat gabungan:

1. In chemical reaction, some bonds are broken and others are


formed.
2. Add sodium hydroxide to the solution and then warm it.
3. Thermodynamically oxygen can react with hydrogen to form
water, but the reaction is extremely slow.
4. We rarely stay in hotels, for we can not afford it.
5. Please mix the solution using magnetic stirrer or glass stick
6. I can not find Erlenmeyer, so I use a Breaker glass.
7. I can either leave the laboratory now or stay for another
hour.
8. Gas has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume.
9. Insect can be found not only in tropical but also in temperate
regions
Latihan
Lingkarilah satu kata dalam kurung yang
benar.

Acids have the ability to change the colour of indicator.


Some common indicators are litmus (or/and)
phenolphthalein. Litmus is a dyestuff obtained from
plants. When litmus is added to an acidic solution,
(or/and) paper impregnated with litmus is dipped into
an acid, the neutral purple colour changes to pink-red.
Phenolphthalein is red in a basic solution (so/and)
becomes colour-less in a neutral (or/for) acid solution.
Kalimat kompleks
Kalimat kompleks dapat terbentuk dari gabungan dua
atau lebih kalimat sederhana. Dalam kalimat
kompleks hanya ada satu buah ide utama dan satu
atau lebih ide tambahan/keterangan. Kalimat yang
mengandung ide utama dapat dipisahkan dari kalimat
kompleks dan dapat berdiri sendiri dengan makna
yang utuh.

A white precipitation was formed as soon as H2SO4 was added to


the solution
A white precipitation was formed when H2SO4 was added to the
solution
A white precipitation was formed after H2SO4 was added to the
solution
Dalam kalimat-kalimat di atas, as soon as, when
dan after disebut dengan kata sambung. Kata
sambung lain yang sering digunakan dalam
pembentukan kalimat kompleks adalah since, that,
if, so that, whether.

Dalam kalimat-kalimat di atas, A white


precipitation was formed adalah anak kalimat
utama dan dapat berdiri sendiri, sedangkan yang
lainnya hanya memberikan ide tambahan pada
anak kalimat utama.
5a. Pernyataan Alasan dalam
Kalimat Kompleks
Dalam suatu kalimat kompleks, sering dijumpai adanya
anak kalimat yang berisi suatu alasan. Anak kalimat ini
merupakan anak kalimat yang menjawab pertanyaan Why ?
Anak kalimat ini diawali atau bergabung dengan induk
kalimatnya dengan memakai kata sambung because, as,
since.

Because neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward


chemical reaction.
Amonia (NH3) is an amphoteric substance because it can
donate proton in the presence of strong bases and accept
proton in the presence of strong acids
Kata because pada kalimat di atas dapat diganti
dengan kata as atau since

As neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward


chemical reaction.
Since neon is a noble gas, it is relatively inert toward
chemical reaction.
Amonia (NH3) is an amphoteric substance as it can donate
proton in the presence of strong bases and accept proton in
the presence of strong acids
Amonia (NH3) is an amphoteric substance since it can
donate proton in the presence of strong bases and accept
proton in the presence of strong acids
5b. Pernyataan kontradiksi dalam
Kalimat Kompleks
Adanya kontradiksi dalam kalimat kompleks dapat
ditandai dengan adanya kata sambung seperti
although, considering (that), though, even though, even
if, much as, while and whereas.

Though I have had more than 100 experimental data, I


am still confuse to draw any conclusion.
I am going to buy a computer even though I have not
got much money.
I intend to do experiment till night to day even if I have
mathematics examination tomorrow.
Latihan
Gabungkan kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan
menggunakan kata gabung yang tersedia di dalam
kurung.

1. I would like to help you. I am afraid I will not be able to.


(much as)
2. Your design is excellent. It is not suitable for our purposes.
(while)
3. I try hard to play the piano. I do not seem to improve.
(although)
4. Chemistry is so difficult. It is surprising how many students
learn it. (considering that)
5. The play was wonderful. The film was a commercial failure.
(whereas)
5c. Pernyataan tujuan dalam
Kalimat Kompleks
Dalam kalimat kompleks adanya pernyataan tujuan
ditandai dengan adanya kata sambung so that, in
case, in order that dan in order to

I add chloroform to the solution of organometallic


complex of zinc so that the complex is extracted to the
organic phase.
I am going to mix the two reactants immediately in case
you agree with my opinion.
I keep the flask hot enough in order that the reaction
proceeds faster.
We stood up in order to get a better view of what was
happening.
5d. Pernyataan hasil dalam
Kalimat Kompleks
Pernyataan hasil dapat terungkap dari kata sambung
so + kata sifat (that) atau such + kata benda (that)

The acid base reaction is so fast that it is difficult to


determine the reaction rate.
The reaction between sodium metal and water is so
energetic that an expossion is often observed.
The production of lactic acid from monosaccharide is so
impractical that there is no real factory for it.
There were such a delay that I missed my English lesson.
It is rarely found such a metal that in the room temperature
it is present in the liquid form.
5e. Pernyataan perbandingan
dalam Kalimat
Adanya perbandinganKompleks
dalam kalimat kompleks
ditandai oleh adanya kata sambung as . as, not so
. as, not . as much as, kata perbandingan + than

1. The course of Basic Chemistry 1 is not as difficult as


the course Basic Chemistry 2.
2. As a reductor, SnCl2 is not so strong as NaBH4.
3. This computer do not hold information as much as
that one.
4. Light travels faster than sound.
5. Valence bond theory is relatively easier understood
than orbital molecule theory.
5f. Susunan Present Participle
dalam Kalimat
Present participle Kompleks
adalah kata kerja bentuk -ing, seperti
finding, recording, dan trying
Present participle dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan kata
sambung so, and dan lainnya dalam menggabungkan dua
kalimat sederhana.

I found my beaker glass was broken. I looked for new beaker


glass

dapat digabung menjadi:

I found my beaker glass was broken and looked for the new one,
atau finding my beaker glass was broken, I looked for the new
one.
Contoh lain:

Not knowing the chemical formula, I was not able to


account its molecular weight (not knowing = I did not
know)
Being lack of phenolphthalein, I used litmus paper
(being = I was)
Present participle sering pula digunakan setelah kata
sambung, seperti:

Since I learnt Advanced Calculus, I have made significant


progress on mastering ChemicalThermodynamics

dapat dinyatakan sebagai:

Since learning Advanced Calculus, I have made significant


progress on mastering Chemical Thermodynamics
Present participle sebagai pengganti kata ganti
orang
atau barang

Student who is reading at the class room corner is very


clever.
Bottle which is lying on that table contains concentrated
hydrochloric acid

masing-masing dapat dinyatakan sebagai:

Student reading at the class room corner is very clever


Bottle lying on that table contains concentrated
hydrochloric acid
5g. Susunan past Participle
dalam Kalimat Kompleks
Past participle adalah kata kerja bentuk III, seperti built,
played, reacted dan sebagainya.
Past participle dapat digunakan sebagai ganti bentuk
pasif.

If stirred continuously, it will mix faster (If it is stirred )


Although reacted hours ago, the product was not formed (It
was reacted )

Past participle dapat menggantikan kata ganti who dan


which
The system used here is very successful (which is used )
elarasan Subyek dan Predikat
Antara subyek dan kata kerja dalam kalimat
berbahasa Inggris harus ada keselarasan, baik
keselarasan dalam hal jumlah maupun dalam hal
tense.

eselarasan dalam Makna Jumlah


Bentuk kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris berubah
mengikuti makna jumlah yang terkandung dalam
subyek. Subyek (orang atau benda) tunggal
memerlukan kata kerja tunggal dan sebaliknya
subyek jamak (orang atau benda lebih dari satu)
menghendaki kata kerja jamak.
Scientists these days need to be more literate in the use of
computer
Methane and hydrogen sulphide feed bacteria that support the
tube worms and mussels
Oil company has a tremendous economic interest in discovering
seeps.
Ecologists wonder how far this food web extends
Alpha particles are positively charged particles of helium nuclei
Latihan:
Benarkan Kalimat-kalimat di bawah agar menjadi kalimat-
kalimat dengan predikat yang mempunyai keselarasan dalam
makna jumlah dengan subyeknya.

1. The experiment were carried out in a batch-type reactor


2. As magma rise from Earths mantle, the floor of the Red Sea
widen and its shores grows farther apart.
3. The computer center in our institute work also
toward the production of a CD-ROM for tourism
4. Gibraltar is a haven for botanists since some 530 species of
flowering plants is native to its rock, including four found
nowhere else.
5. Humic substances are important natural organic compounds
that is commonly found in soil
Kesalahan yang banyak terjadi sehingga tidak
terjadi keselarasan antara subyek dan kata kerja
sering diakibatkan oleh beberapa kondisi sebagai
berikut:
Adanya kata-kata yang terletak di antara subyek
dan kata kerja
Apabila kata kerja terletak sebelum subyek
Subyek yang tersusun atas gabungan kata-kata
benda
Adanya kata ganti yang tidak tertentu
Kata-kata yang terletak di antara subyek
dan kata kerja
Kata-kata yang terletak di antara subyek dan kata
kerja tidak mengubah keselarasan yang ada antara
subyek dan kata kerja.

Volcanic activity in Indonesian islands is one of the most severe


natural disasters in the world

Subyek kalimat yaitu Volcano activity adalah


subyek yang bermakna tunggal sehingga subyek ini
memerlukan kata kerja tunggal juga, yaitu is. Kata-
kata in Indonesian islands yang ada di antara
subyek dan kata kerja meskipun bermakna jamak
tidak mempengaruhi keselarasan subyek dan kata
kerja.
Kata Kerja Terletak Sebelum Subyek
Suatu kata kerja harus tetap selaras dengan
subyek meskipun letaknya ada sebelum
subyek

There are many spreadsheet applications in Chemistry


using Excel

Kalimat di atas mempunyai subyek, yaitu


spreadsheet applications yang bermakna
jamak. Oleh karena itu kata kerja yang
mendahuluinya juga harus bermakna
jamak, yaitu are.
Subyek yang Berupa Gabungan Kata
Benda
Industry and transportation are the main anthropogenic
sources of pollutants in our atmosphere

Subyek yang berupa gabungan kata benda dan


dalam gabungan tersebut digunakan kata
sambung and, maka subyek tersebut biasanya
mempunyai makna jamak. Pada kalimat di atas,
subyeknya adalah Industry and transportation
yang mermakna jamak dan tentu saja
menghendaki kata kerja yang bermakna jamak
pula, yaitu are.
Adanya Kata Ganti Tidak Tertentu

Kata ganti dalam tabel berikut selalu memerlukan


kata kerja tunggal.
Someone in our class steals a book of mathematics
Every Erlenmeyer contains hydrochloric solution
Nobody knows when the life on our Earth will finish
Neither of the buildings provides facilities for handicapped.
Something about Mayas story sounds suspicious.
Keselarasan dalam Tense
Jika awalnya digunakan kata kerja dalam bentuk
present tense, jangan mengubah tense kata kerja
berikutnya alam bentuk past tense misalnya.

The frequency of pesticides detected in urban streams is high and


concentrations often exceeded those set for the protection of
aquatic biota.

Didapatkan adanya dua kata kerja, yaitu is dan


exceeded yang ada dalam bentuk tense yang
berbeda. Kata kerja pada kalimat di atas harus
dalam tense yang sama, yaitu present tense atau
past tense.
Kata kerja dalam bentuk present tense:

The frequency of pesticides detected in urban streams is high and


concentrations often exceed those set for the protection of aquatic
biota.

Kata kerja dalam bentuk past tense:

The frequency of pesticides detected in urban streams was high


and concentrations often exceeded those set for the protection of
aquatic biota.
Latihan:
Pilihlah kata kerja yang ada dalam kurung yang
mempunyai keselarasan tense yang benar.
1. A radioactive element (is/was) an element with an unstable
nucleus that spontaneously decayed.
2. Petroleum generated soot through its combustion in vehicles,
while wood (gives/gave) its portion through forest fires and
burning in residential wood stoves.
3. Trees (remove/removed) air pollutions, reduce air
temperature, and enhance the oxygen content.
4. By 2003, developed countries (have/had) reduced
consumprion of chlorofluorocarbon compounds by more than
99%.
5. As opposed to nitrogen fixation, denitrification returns the
inorganic nitrogen to the air and it (is/was) a special nitrate
reduction reaction producing a nitrogen-containig gas.
PART
GRAMMATICAL REVIEW

1. Kata benda
Akhiran pembentuk kata benda
Kata benda sering terbuat dari kata jenis lain dengan
menambahkan akhiran dan kadang-kadang
penambahan itu menyebabkan terjadinya sedikit
perubahan. Sebagai contoh penambahan akhiran er
pada kata kerja play player tidak menyebabkan
terjadinya perubahan, sedangkan penambahan akhiran
ity pada kata sifat active activity menyebabkan
teradinya sedikit perubahan yaitu hilangnya huruf e
pada kata active setelah adanya penambahan akhiran
ity.
Akhiran yang sering dijumpai dalam pembentukan kata
benda dari kata jenis lain

a. Dari kata kerja: acceptance, agreement, arrival,


behaviour,
discovery, knowledge, possession
b. Dari kata sifat: absence, activity, anxiety, constancy,
happiness
c. Dari kata jenis lain: boyhood, kingdom, mouthful,
sexism
In the surface water, the behaviour of arsenic species is
associated by the biological activity.
In the absence of oxygen, iron exists in its lowest oxidation
state.
The progress of the particle physics is catalyzed by the
discovery of elementary particle such as halon, muon, pion, etc.
The constancy of the pH of this solution is caused by the
presence of phosphate buffer.
Knowledge of atomic theory is important in mastering chemical
bonding.
Beberapa kata benda mempunyai bentuk sama
dengan kata kerjanya, seperti: attempt, blame,
book, call, catalyse dan copy

a. Nickel metal can act as catalyse in the hydrogenation of


unsaturated fatty acid
b. Nickel and platinum metals catalyse the hydrogenation
of unsaturated fatty acid
c. Attempt to reveal the existence of hydronium ion never
gives a satisfactory result
d. In addition to theoretical aspect, the practical aspect of
the mechanical quantum is attempted to be covered in
this special lecture
e. Copy of your manuscript is needed for the publication
f. Press this button to copy your document
Latihan 1
Isilah titik-titik pada kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan kata benda
yang terbentuk dari kata-kata jenis lain yang tercetak tebal pada kalimat
yang sama.
1. I decide this experiment. This experiment was done because of my
decision
2. Please don't be so anxious in this test. Control your in
taking this test
3. We all agree to take mathematics examination. We are all in
in taking mathematics examination
4. Who discovered proton ? Who made the of proton ?
5. Hydrogen is absent in this system. Can you explain the of
hydrogen in this system ?
6. In doing experiment, one must be curious. Your . is needed in
doing experiment.
7. By increasing temperature, a chemical reaction proceeds more efficient. By
increasing temperature, the .. of a chemical reaction improves
considerably
Latihan 2
Isilah titik-titik pada kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini dengan kata benda
yang dibentuk dari kata sebelumnya yang ada di dalam kurung.

A clever computer built at Imperial College London, often suffers from


(bore) boredom. The computer was built to find out about human
(communicate) . The computer acquired a simple
vocabulary in the same way as babies do: through (babble) . It
is common (know) that when babies babble, it is (prepare)
for speech. When babies make sounds like real words, they
are encouraged to remember them. With (encourage) .. from
their parents, babies quickly build up their vocabulary. In the same way, the
clever computer learnt to use real words. For example, it learnt to identify a
black cat. It was then shown a white cat to test how good it was at
(recognize) . It refused to co-operate because the (solve)
. to the problem was too easy. At first, this (refuse)
puzzled scientist, but then they decided the computer was
having a tantrum. It just sits there and goes on strike, a (science)
.. said. These clever computers must also be taught good
(behave) ... .
1b. kata benda dapat dihitung
dan
Apabila tidak
suatu katadapat dihitung
benda merupakan kata benda yang
dapat dihitung, maka:
dapat didahului oleh a atau an
mempunyai bentuk jamak dan pada kalimat tanya dapat
didahului oleh kata tanya how many
dapat didahului oleh bilangan one, two dan seterusnya
I make an acid solution
If an acid solution mixes with a basic solution, a salt will be
formed
Fulvic acid is soluble in both hydrochloric acid and sodium
hydroxide solutions
How many solutions did you make?
Hydrochloric acid solution 0.1N and sodium hydroxide solution
0.1N are two solutions that give different colour on litmus paper
Apabila suatu kata benda merupakan kata benda
yang tidak dapat dihitung, maka:

secara umum tidak dapat didahului oleh a atau


an
tidak mempunyai bentuk jamak dan pada
kalimat tanya dapat didahului oleh kata tanya
how much
seringnya tidak dapat didahului oleh bilangan
Iron and manganese in natural water show significantly different
behaviour

Kalimat di atas tidak dapat diubah menjadi:

Iron and manganese in natural water show significantly


different behaviours

Tidak lazim dinyatakan sebagai:

Iron and manganese in natural water show significantly two


differents behaviour
1c. Kata Benda yang Dapat
Bertindak sebagai Kata Benda
yang Dapat Dihitung dan Tidak
Beberapa kata benda adalah dapat dihitung jika mereka
DapatkeDihitung
menunjuk item tunggal, tetapi tidak dapat dihitung jika
menunjuk suatu senyawa/materi

Nu Dapat dihitung Tidak dapat dihitung


(menunjuk item tunggal) (menunjuk suatu materi)
1 I ate a whole chicken Would like some chicken ?
2 A green light will be produced if Light travels faster than sound
blue and yellow lights are mixed
each other
3 I had a boiled egg for breakfast There is egg on your tie
Beberapa kata benda adalah tidak dapat dihitung
jika mereka menunjuk materi, tetapi dapat dihitung
jika menunjuk suatu obyek yang terbuat dari suatu
materi

Nu Dapat dihitung (menunjuk suatu Tidak dapat dihitung


obyek yang terbuat dari suatu (menunjuk suatu materi)
materi)
1 I broke a glass in the laboratory Glass is made from sand and lime
2 I pick up a stone We used stone to build our walls

Pembentukan kata benda jamak dari kata benda tunggal (Hal. 14)!
Latihan
Isilah titik-titik dalam kalimat di bawah ini dengan kata benda yang tepat
yang dibentuk dari kata yang ada di dalam kurung yang mendahuluinya

If you are dieting, there are certain (food) foods you really have to avoid:
(cake) .. and (biscuit) . are out for a start, but you can not live
for ever on (tomato) . and (orange) .. . There are (man)
. and (woman) who spend their entire (life)
.. counting the calories they take in each day. Some national
(cuisine) . make you fat. The (Japanese) .. have a high
protein diet, while the (Swiss) .. eat a lot of milk (product)
. Personally, I am lucky not to have to diet, but my friend,
Tomblok, can not eat anything without looking it up in her Calories Chart.
This is carefully organised so that (strawberry) . and (peach)
. Are under 'Fruit'; (potato) . and (spaghetti)
.. come under 'Starchy Foods', and so on. I entertain Tomblok to a
nice low calorie meal yesterday and at the end I offered her some jelly. 'What
does "jelly" come under?' she asked looking at her chart. 'Half a litter of
double cream, ' I said, pouring the stuff over may plate!
1d. Kata Benda Bentuk Jamak Dilengkapi
Kata Kerja Tunggal atau Jamak
Kata benda berakhiran ics seperti athletics, gymnastics, linguistic,
mathematics (maths) dan physics memerlukan kata kerja tunggal

Mathematics is the most popular school subject


Physics is considerably more difficult than chemistry

Kata benda berakhiran ics lainnya seperti acoustics, economics dan


statistics memerlukan kata kerja tunggal hanya apabila kata-kata
itu menunjuk suatu subyek akademik. Sebaliknya kata-kata
tersebut memerlukan kata kerja jamak apabila maknanya jelas-
jelas merujuk ke permasalahan yang spesifik

Statistics is a branch of maths (bukan Statistics are a branch of maths)


Your statistics are unreliable
Latihan
Pilihlah is, are, has atau have untuk mengisi titik-titik dalam kalimat di bawah

1. The acoustics in this room are very good.


2. This crossroads . dangerous.
3. There four crossroads in our village.
4. Acoustics .. a subject I know little about.
5. Our company headquarters in London.
6. There many series of books on birds.
7. . There any kennels in this area?
8. The statistics in this report in accurate.
9. there any statistics for road accidents?
10. Many species of moth .. disappeared.
11. This species . green and white spots.
12. Our works a good canteen.
13. My maths got worse and worse.
14. There crossroads every mile.
15. Economics .. the most popular topic
1e. Bentuk
genitif
Bentuk genitif dari suatu kata benda digunakan untuk
menunjukkan kepemilikan. Untuk itu biasanya digunakan 's
dan s' untuk orang dan makhluk hidup lainnya. Aturan
sederhana untuk mengingatnya adalah:
Tambahkan 's pada kata benda tunggal dan nama-nama
yang tidak berakhir dengan huruf s, misal Tom's book
Tambahkan 's pada kata benda tunggal yang berakhir
dengan huruf s, seperti actress's career, a waitress's job
Tambahkan 's pada kata benda tidak beraturan, seperti
children's games, the men's club, sheep's wool
Tambahkan suatu apostrop (') sesudah huruf s dari kata
benda bentuk jamak, misalnya the girls' uniforms
Tambahkan 's pada nama yang berakhir dengan huruf s,
seperti Charles's address, Doris's party
1f. Kata Benda Gabungan untuk
Menunjukkan Kepemilikan
Untuk menunjukkan kepemilikan yang berkaitan dengan benda,
dapat digunakan kata sambung of seperti the leg of the table.
Akan tetapi, selain penggunaan kata sambung of sering juga
dipakai suatu kata benda gabungan misalnya the table-leg.
Apabila pembentukan kata benda gabungan tidak
memungkinkan, maka kata sambung of harus digunakan. Kita
hanya dapat memahami hal ini hanya berdasar pada pengalaman.
Apabila kita ragu, maka lebih aman menggunakan kata sambung
of daripada berusaha membentuk kata benda gabungan atau
dengan menggunakan apostrop s.

The book of the film (bukan the film's book)


The top of the box (bukan the box's top)
Latihan

Jika memang memungkinkan gunakan apostrop untuk


menunjukkan kepemilikan pada kalimat-kalimat di bawah
ini

1. That's the voice of a man. That's a man's voice


2. I can't see the bottom of the box. .
3. That's the decision of the committee. ..
4. Where the key of the car? ..
5. It's the fault of no one. .
2. artikel
2a. Artikel Tidak Tertentu
a/an
Artikel a dan an mempunyai makna yang sama. Artikel a
digunakan di depan konsonan (a man, a basic solution),
sedangkan artikel an digunakan di depan vokal (an acid
solution, an eye, an hour)

2b. Bentuk jamak Artikel


a/an jamak dari artikel a/an untuk merujuk sesuatu yang
Bentuk
umum adalah nihil ()

A salt solution is an electric conductor () Salt solutions


are () electric conductors
A cat is a domestic animal () Cats are () domestic
animals
Latihan
Isilah titik-titik dalam kalimat di bawah dengan a, some, any atau
tidak perlu diisi sama sekali

Robots are common in industry and perhaps they will soon be


common in the home. robot working in the home must be able
to behave like human. You could ask it to make breakfast for
you. I would like .. pot of coffee, please and .. boiled
eggs. 'How many, sir?' 'Two please.' You would not have to worry
about bringing friends home to dinner. I have brought
friends for dinner, you would say, ' please prepare .. meal for
six.' Your robot would be . cook, servant and .
cleaner, and perhaps it could even do the shopping. 'We have not got
.. tomatoes,' you would say. 'Be good robot and get
some from the supermarket. . Robots would never need to
sleep, and would never complain. But I would not want them
wandering round the house at night!
2c. Penggunaan Artikel a/an untuk
Sesuatu yang Disebutkan Pertama Kali
Artikel a/an digunakan untuk mengetengahkan orang
atau sesuatu yang disebutkan untuk pertama kalinya

I injected an acid solution into a reaction flask containing


a zinc metal. In the reaction flask, the acid solution reacted
with the zinc metal and a gas was evolved. The gas was
colourless.
2d. Artikel yang Menunjuk ke
Sesuatu Hal yang sudah Tertentu:
The
Artikel the tidak pernah berubah bentuknya baik dimuka kata
benda tunggal, jamak, di depan nama orang maupun nama barang.

That is the solution I made yesterday


They are the man we met last night

Artikel the digunakan untuk merujuk ke sesuatu yang telah


diketahui atau jelas.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the world

Artikel the dapat digabungkan dengan kata benda dapat dihitung


tunggal (the book), jamak (the books) dan kata benda tak dapat
dihitung (the furniture).
2e. Artikel the untuk
Spesifikasi
Artikel the digunakan di depan nama tempat seperti cinema,
theatre, supermarket, bank, seaside, meskipun kita tidak tahu
dimana letak tempat-tempat itu.

Artikel the digunakan di depan suatu obyek yang jenisnya


memang hanya satu seperti the earth, the sea, the sky, the
sun, the moon, the solar system, the planets, the galaxy dan
the universe
Latihan 1
Isilah titik-titik dalam kalimat di bawah dengan
a/an, the atau tidak perlu diisi sama sekali

1. We have seen what earth looks like from


moon.
2. Could you pass me .. salt, please ?
3. Look at this wonderful small computer .. top lifts up
to form . screen; front lifts off to form .
keyboard and . whole thing only weights 5 kilos.
Latihan 2

Isilah titik-titik dalam uraian di bawah dengan a/an, the atau


tidak perlu diisi sama sekali

SUNRAYCER
I read recently in the Times that the big American company,
General Motors, has developed . vehicle that uses ..
power of . Sun instead of petrol. vehicle is called
Sunraycer. Sunraycer has just taken part in race against 25
solar-powered vehicles. route of . race was from Darwin
to Adelaide, . immense distance. Sunraycer covered .
distance in 45 hours at average speed of 41 miles . hour
in temperature 48 oC. It beat all other cars by two and half
days! Sunraycer ("ray of the sun" + "racer") is certainly car
of . future!
2f. Tanpa/Nihil
Artikel
Di depan kata()
benda berikut tidak diperlukan artikel apabila
merujuk pada sesuatu yang bersifat umum

Kata benda dapat dihitung jamak


Orang : Women need better pay
Binatang : Cats do not like cold weather
Makanan : Beans are good for you bandingkan
dengan
The beans I like best are kidney beans
Tempat : Museums are closed on Mondays
Tanaman : Trees do not grow in the Antarctic
Hasil karya : Watches are not expensive
Kata benda tidak dapat dihitung

Senyawa : Nitrogen is the most abundance


gas in the atmosphere
Warna : Green is may favourite colour
Makanan : I hate butter bandingkan dengan
I used all the butter that was in the
butter dish
Konsep abstract : Life if amazing
Aktivitas : Bicycling is good for you
Bahasa : Indonesian is relatively simple
language
Di depan kata benda seperti nama negara (Japan), negara
bagian (Ohio), kota (Yogyakarta), jalan (Mangkubumi Street),
taman (Tirtonadi Park), alamat (24 North Street), bangunan
(Borobudur), area geografi (Asia), hal yang merujuk pada
sejarah (Ancient Rome), pegunungan (Everest), kepulauan
(Malta) tidak diperlukan artikel.

Contoh:

Asia is the bigest continent in the world.


Kubilai Khan is the most famous emperor in ancient China.
Countries like Japan, USA, France, Australia, and
Canada is categorised as industrial country.
Borobudur, the biggest temple in the world, is located in
Central Java.
The busiest street in Yogyakarta is Malioboro Street.
Preposisi dan partikel
Ada banyak kata-kata kecil dalam bahasa Inggris
seperti in, on, up, down dan lain-lainnya yang
dalam penggunaannya ada yang memerlukan
obyek dan ada yang tidak. Apabila dalam
penggunaannya memerlukan obyek (kata benda
atau kata ganti benda), maka kata-kata kecil
tersebut dinamakan dengan preposisi. Sebaliknya,
apabila tidak memerlukan obyek, jadi
penggunaannya terkait dengan kata kerja, maka
kata-kata kecil tersebut dinamakan dengan
partikel.
Contoh penggunaan preposisi
The adsorption of metal ions onto humic acid generally follows the
Langmuir Isotherm.
Among acid species I know, perchloric acid is the strongest.
Complex organic compounds of arsenic are resistant toward the reducing
agent of sodium tetrahydroborate.

Contoh penggunaan partikel


Seawater samples are collected from the surface downward to the
bottom.
Do not go near the fire. Stay away!
The air sampler is installed on top of the chimney.

Kata-kata onto, among dan toward pada ketiga contoh pertama


merupakan preposisi karena ketiganya disertai dengan obyek humic acid,
acid species dan the reducing agent of sodium tetrahydroborate.
Sebailknya kata-kata downward, away dan on top pada ketiga contoh
berikutnya merupakan partikel karena ketiganya tidak memerlukan
obyek.
Ada beberapa preposisi yang dapat juga berfungsi sebagai partikel.
Kata-kata itu misalnya after, as, before, since dan until.
Let us have our meeting after lunch. (after sebagai preposisi)
Let us have our meeting after we have had lunch. (after sebagai
partikel)

Latihan:
Lingkarilah kata-kata yang berfungsi sebagai preposisi, dan garis-
bawahilah kata-kata yang berfungsi sebagai partikel dalam uraian
di bawah ini.
Oxygen is an element on top of VIA group. Because this element is
readily available in an aqueous environment, in the atmosphere, and
as the donor atom in many organic molecules, it is not surprising
that oxygen-containing ligands play a major role in the chemistry of
the metallic elements. This major role is particularly for the hard,
high oxidation state metals on the left of the d block.
Pasangan preposisi atau partikel penting yang
maknanya mirip

1. about dan on
Kata about dan on keduanya bermakna tentang atau
berkaitan dengan. Namun demikian, kata on lebih
digunakan dalam kalimat-kalimat formal, sedangkan
about lebih tidak formal.

A textbook on physics.
A book about animals.
2. after dan afterwards
Kata after biasanya digunakan setelah kata benda
atau kata ganti, dan kata ini bermakna setelah.
Sebailknya kata aftewards merupakan kata yang
biasa digunakan di awal kalimat atau di awal anak
kalimat, dan sering diterjemahkan dengan setelah
itu.
The solution is cooled after the addition of reducing
agent
The solution is cooled for awhile. Afterwards it is
heated.
3. because dan because of
Kata because dan because of digunakan untuk
mengawali suatu alasan. Akan tetapi kata because
digunakan untuk mengawali suatu alasan yang
berupa kalimat sempurna, sedangkan because of
digunakan untuk mengawali suatu alasan yang
berupa kata benda atau kata ganti

The mixture needs to be heated, because the


reaction goes faster on the higher temperature.
Ester is unstable in water because of hydrolysis.
4. before dan in front of
Kata before merujuk pada sesuatu yang berkaitan dengan
waktu, sedangkan kata in front of merujuk pada sesuatu yang
berkaitan dengan posisi.

The mixed solution is stirred before flowed into microwave


oven.
The acid solution is delivered in the cross in front of the
cross for introducing reducing agent.

5. beside dan besides


Kata beside + kata benda/kata ganti berarti di samping,
seangkan besides dengan atau tanpa obyek berarti di samping
itu atau sebagai tambahan.

It is better if we lie the reactor beside this electric power.


We need additional reagent besides this old one.
6. between dan among
Between dan among keduanya berarti di antara.
Between bermakna di antara dua hal atau benda,
sedangkan among bermakna di antara lebih dari dua
hal atau benda.

The strength of the acidity of hydrochloric acid exit


between that of hydrofluoric and hydrobromic acids.
Among the others, fluor is the most electronegative
element.
7. due to dan owing to
Due to dan owing to keduanya bermakna karena atau sebab.
Due to digunakan setelah kata benda dan to be, sedangkan
owing to digunakan setelah kata kerja
The removal of nutrients from the water column is due to the
activity of aquatic microorganism.
Nutrients are removed from the water column owing to the
activity of aquatic microorganism.
Kata due to sering dapat diganti dengan caused by, sedangkan
owing to dengan because of.
The removal of nutrients from the water column is caused by
the activity of aquatic microorganism.
Nutrients are removed from the water column because of the
activity of aquatic microorganism.
8. like dan as
Kata like bermakna seperti yang dapat berarti mirip atau
sebagai contoh. Dalam kalimat, kata ini diikuti oleh kata
benda atau kata ganti. Kata as dapat berarti dalam kapasitas
sebagai kalau diikuti dengan obyek, tetapi dapat juga berarti
suatu alasan.
Nitric acid, like sulfuric acid, belongs to strong acid.
As a strong acid, nitric acid is ionized completely in water.
(as bermakna dalam kapasitas)
As bromide ion is to strong to reduce Se(VI) to Se(IV), it is
better to use chloride ion. (anak kalimat yang didahului oleh
kata as berisi suatu alasan)
. Kuantitas
Tabel Kuantitas untuk menunjukkan jumlah kata
benda
Kuantitas yang Menunjukkan Sesuatu yang Bersifat Umum

Kata of selalu dipakai di antara kuantitas dan kata benda atau


kata ganti dan gabungan kata-kata ini merujuk sesuatu yang
bersifat umum. Gabungan kata-kata itu misalnya a bit of, a
couple of, a lot of, the majority of, a number of, plenty of

A lot of scientists do not claim themselves as scientists.

Kuantitas seperti some, any, much dan many digunakan untuk


menunjukkan sesuatu yang bersifat umum apabila tidak
disertai of

Some people do not eat meat.


Kuantitas yang Menunjukkan Sesuatu yang Bersifat Khusus

Apabila ditambahkan kata-kata seperti the atau my setelah of pada


gabungan kata-kata a bit of, a couple of, a lot of, the majority of, a
number of, plenty of, maka gabungan kata-kata tersebut menjadi
merujuk ke sesuatu yang bersifat khusus.

A lot of the scientists I know do not claim themselves as scientists.

Apabila ditambahkan kata-kata of + the, my setelah some, any,


much dan many, maka gabungan kata-kata itu menjadi merujuk
ke sesuatu yang bersifat khusus.

Some of the people I know do not eat meat


Many of the Biologists I have ever met are interested in
studying chemistry in more detail
Penggunaan Both dan All

Both dan both the keduanya mempunyai makna yang sama dan
digunakan untuk merujuk dua orang atau dua hal.

Both adsorbents are made from bentonite


Both the adsorbents are activated in high temperature
The addition of acid is to reduce both reactivity and pH
The addition of acid is to reduce both the reactivity and pH
The presence of both algae and diatom cause uptake of iron from
the aquatic environment
The presence of both the algae and diatom cause uptake of iron
from the aquatic environment
All yang mendahului suatu kata benda baik yang
dapat dihitung maupun yang tidak dapat dihitung
akan memberikan makna pada sesuatu yang bersifat
umum

All acid solutions have pH lower than 7


All advice is useless
All children like to play
Litmus paper turns its colour to blue in all alkaline
solution
We prepare all glassware
All akan merujuk pada sesuatu yang bersifat khusus
apabila disertai dengan kata the

All the acid solutions in these bottles have pH lower


than 2
All the advice you gave me was useless
All the children in this classroom like to play
Litmus paper turns its colour to blue in the all alkaline
solution prepared
We prepare all the glassware used in this experiment
Penggunaan None of dan Neither of
None of dan neither of dapat dikatakan sebagai bentuk
negatif dari all dan both

Contoh:

Bentuk negatif dari All the advice you gave me was useless
adalah None of the advice you gave me was useless
Bentuk negatif dari Both the adsorbents are activated in
high temperature adalah Neither of the adsorbent is
activated in high temperature
Bentuk negatif dari All children like to play adalah None of
children like to play
Penggunaan Each dan Every
Each sering digunakan seperti both, yaitu untuk
merujuk pada dua orang atau dua hal

Mars and Venus each are smaller than the Earth.


Each dan every dapat digunakan untuk merujuk orang
atau sesuatu lebih dari dua
Each/Every planet possesses its own way in orbiting
the sun. (each dan every keduanya dapat digunakan)
Every child in the world loves the film of teletubbis.
(each kurang dapat diterima)
Setelah kata nearly dan not harus digunakan every
bukan each

Nearly every student hates thermodynamics


Not every chemical harmful for living thing

Each tetapi bukan every dapat diikuti kata of

Each of the reagents has its highest purity

Each tetapi bukan every dapat ditempatkan di akhir


kalimat

They received a present each


Penggunaan Either dan Neither

Either dan neither merujuk pada dua hal atau dua orang. Either
berarti salah satu, sedangkan neither berarti bukan salah satu.
Either selalu berpasangan dengan kata or, sedangkan neither
berpasangan dengan kata nor.

I use either chloroform or methyl isobutyl ketone in extracting


the product form aqueous phase
I use neither chloroform nor methyl isobutyl ketoen in extracting
the product from the aqueous phase
Which Erlenmeyer will you use? Either (salah satu, tidak peduli
yang mana)
Which Erlenmeyer will you use? Neither (tidak salah satupun)
Either hydrochloric acid or nitric acid can be used to
decompose this substance
Neither hydrochloric acid nor nitric acid can be used to
decompose this substance
Latihan:

Isilah titik-titik dalam kalimat di bawah ini dengan either atau


neither

1. Could you please help me to dilute .. methanol or


ammonia in the box shelf
2. ..n-hexane nor benzene mix well with water.
3. You can not use those screwdrivers of them is
suitable for the job.
4. Say what you like about those two applicants. I did not like
of them.
5..potassium hydroxide nor sodium hydroxide as an
example of weak base.
6..active carbon or bentonite can be used as useful
adsorbent.
7. I know you sent us two letters, but we have received
of them.
a Sifat dari Kata Kerja atau Benda
Banyak kata sifat yang terbentuk dari kata kerja atau benda
dengan menambahkan akhiran seperti:
-able : manageable -ible : permissible
-ful : colorful -(i) an : Victorian
-ic : energetic -ish : reddish
-ive : attractive -ly : correctly
-ous : humorous

Contoh:

1. The production of alcohol from fusel oil is economically


manageable.
2. Sun ray can be diffracted into colourful continuous spectrum.
3. Collision between two or more molecules results energetic
molecules that can lead to the formation of new species.
4. The most attractive discovery in Science was revealed by
Albert Einstein more than 50 years ago.
5. To be a Scientist must be humorous in addition to serious
6. Reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to form water is
energetically permissible.
7. During the Victorian era, England reached its biggest area.
8. The color of litmus paper changes from blue to reddish in
weak acid solution.
9. In doing Chemistry experiment, the identity of the product
must be identified correctly.
Banyak kata sifat yang terbentuk dari kata jenis lain
dengan menambahkan awalan seperti:

un-: unimaginable im- : impractical


un- : unable dis- : disagreeable
il- : illegal ir- : irreversible

Contoh:

1. The effect of television to society is


unimaginable.
2. Temperature applied in your experiment was not high
enough, so that it is unable to convert the reactant to
product.
3. The impractical aspect in reacting oxygen and hydrogen
is the extremely high activation energy needed.
4. To keep gun with you is illegal in most countries in the
world.
5. Your reason is in disagreeable with the theory.
6. Corrosion is an irreversible oxidative reaction between
iron and oxygen.
Latihan

Isilah titik dalam kalimat berikut dengan kata sifat


yang mempunyai arti berlawanan dengan kata sifat
yang dicetak tebal

1. This arrangement is not strictly legal. Some people


would regard it as .
2. Sometimes she does not behave in a responsible
manner. She is quite .
3. Such a situation is barely imaginable. It is quite
..
4. Bob is not very capable. He is ..
5. This fish has not been cooked enough. It is quite
.
Kata Keterangan
Kata keterangan menambah arti pada kata kerja. Kata ini
biasanya dibentuk dengan jalan menambahkan akhiran -ly pada
kata sifat

slow - slowly
bad - badly
carreful carefully

Apabila kata kerja yang bersangkutan mempunyai huruf y,


maka huruf y ini harus diubah menjadi i baru ditambahkan
akhiran -ly.

heavy - heavily
easy - easily
Kata fast, better, best, early, hard, high, last, late, montly,
near, wide, worse dapat bertindak baik sebagai kata
keterangan maupun kata sifat tanpa harus ditambah dengan
akhiran -ly atau -ily.

It was a fast reaction. The reaction proceeded fast


It was a hard work. The work was hard
It was a late rainy season. The rainy season was late

Ada beberapa kata keterangan mempunyai dua bentuk yang


artinya berbeda

Hard/hardly
Last/lastly
Late/lately
Contoh:

He works hard. He hardly works at all.


I have mentioned in my last letter. Lastly, I mentioned
in my last letter.
I came late to school. I often come late to school lately.
Kata keterangan frekuensi seperti generally, usually,
always, almost always, normally, frequently, often,
sometimes, seldom, never, merupakan kata
keterangan yang dapat dipakai untuk menjawab
pertanyaan seberapa sering

Contoh:

1. The air temperature generally decreases with


increasing altitude.
2. Chemical reaction usually proceeds faster with
increasing temperature.
3 . Gravity always decreases with increasing altitude.
4. The air temperature is not always decrease with increasing
altitude.
5. Lower pressure of air is almost always observed when the air
temperature is raised.
6. All organisms normally need sun ray to maintain their life.
7. All organisms normally do not use CO2 for their life.
8. Acid rain more frequently occurs in urban than in remote
areas.
9. Rainbow is often formed in the sky after rain.
10. Sometimes, certain animal changes their skin color to hide
from it enemy.
11. The chemical reaction seldom proceeds faster with
decreasing temperature.
12. Water never flows from lower to higher location.
Modal Kata Kerja
Kata-kata seperti can dan may sering dinamakan
sebagai modal kata kerja atau modal. Kata-kata itu
digunakan dengan kata kerja yang lain, misalnya dalam
meminta persetujuan:
May I borrow your book?
Can I use your phone, please?

Modal jenis ini ada sebanyak 10 buah, yaitu: can,


could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must,
ought to.
Makna dasar dari modal kata kerja tersebut adalah:

can/could = kemampuan
may/might = persetujuan
will/would (shall setelah I dan we) = perkiraan
should/ought to = tugas
must = keharusan
Modal dapat pula dipakai untuk menunjukkan makna
ketidakpastian/ ketidaktentuan, seperti berikut:

He might be right. He might know the answer. (sangat tidak pasti)


He could be right. He would know the answer. (agak tidak pasti)
He must be right. He must know the answer.(hampir pasti)
He cannot be right. He cannot know the answer. (hampir pasti)

Untuk makna yang pasti digunakan kata kerja biasa tanpa


melibatkan modal.

He is right. He knows the answer (pasti)


Modal hanya mempunyai dua bentuk, yaitu:
Bentuk present: He must be right. He must know the answer.
(now)
Bentuk perfect atau past: He must have been right. He must
have known the answer. (then)

Modal sering pula digunakan untuk menunjukkan makna


kemampuan dimasa lalu atau sekarang.

I can (am able to) run 1500 meters in 5 minutes. (natural


ability)
I can not (am not able to/am unable to) drive. (learned
ability)
I could (was able to) run very fast when I was a boy
(general ability in the past)
Untuk menunjukkan penyelesaian pekerjaan tertentu
dengan sukses, digunakan was/were able to bukan could.
Akan tetapi baik could not dan was/were not able to dapat
digunakan untuk menguraikan kejadian/pekerjaan yang
tidak terselesaikan dengan sukses.

We were able to (managed to) get tickets for the match


yesterday. (sukses)
We could not get tickets for the match yesterday
(tidak sukses)
atau
We were not able to/did not manage to get tickets for the
match yesterday.
8. Kalimat Pasif
Bentuk Dasar
Kalimat pasif mempunyai bentuk dasar to be + kata kerja bentuk
III. Kata kerja yang memerlukan objek (kata kerja transitif) saja
yang dapat dibentuk menjadi bentuk pasif.

The Egyptians built pyramids. Pyramids was built by the


Egyptians

Bentuk tense dasar dalam pembentukan kalimat pasif disarikan


di bawah ini:
Present: he writes it is written
Past: he wrote it was written
Present/past pefect: hehas/had written it has/had been written
Bentuk progressive dalam pembantukan kalimat
pasif. Hanya bentuk present dan past progressive
yang umum dalam kalimat pasif.

Present progressive: They are interviewing her now


She is being interviewed now

Past progressive: They were interviewing her here


She was being interviewed here
Bentuk modal dasar dalam pembentukan kalimat pasif
adalah:

will: he will write it will be written


may: he may write it may be written
may have: he may have written it may have been written
dan lain sebagainya.

Bentuk infinitive: to be/to have been + kata kerja bentuk


III
He is/was to write it is to be written/it was to have been
written
Penggunaan

Kalimat pasif terutama digunakan dalam dua hal


berikut:

Apabila pelaku tidak ingin menanggung atas sesuatu


yang terjadi
The problem will be solved with soon. (kita tidak tahu
atau tidak mementingkan siapa yang
bertanggungjawab).
Apabila ingin menitikberatkan atas sesuatu yang
terjadi
Our roof was damage in last night's storm. (kita
sangat memperhatikan keadaan atap rumah kita).
Kata by sering pula digunakan apabila pelaku atau
sesuatu yang menyebabkan hal itu terjadi ingin
diketengahkan

American continent was discovered by Christopher


Columbus.
It is designed by Paijo
The medicine is being formulated by dr. Bagong.