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How to write Chapter 2

Related Literature and


Studies
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
1. The materials must be as
recent as possible

This is important because of the rapid


social, political, scientific, and
technological changes
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
2. Materials must be as objective
and unbiased as possible.

Some materials are extremely one-


sided, either politically or religiously
biased. These should be avoided.
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
3. Materials must be relevant to
the study.

Only materials that have some similarity


to or bearing on the problem
researched on, should be cited.
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
4. Materials must not be too few
but not too many.

They must be sufficient enough to give


the researcher insight into his problem
or to indicate the nature of the present
investigation
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
4. Materials must not be too few
but not too many.

The number may also depend upon the


availability of related materials. This is
especially a problem with pioneering
studies. Naturally, there are few related
materials or even none at all
Characteristics of the
Materials Cited
4. Materials must not be too few but
not too many.

For an undergraduate thesis, about ten may


do.

**The numbers, however, are only suggestive but not


imperative.
Ways of Citing RLS

1. By author or writer

In this method the ideas, facts or


principles, although they have the same
meaning, are explained or discussed
separately and cited in the footnote with
their respective authors or writers
Ways of Citing RLS

2. By topic

In this case, if different authors or


writers have the same opinion about the
same topic, the topic is discussed and
cited under the names of the authors or
writers. This is a summary of their
opinions. This is to avoid separate and
long discussions of the same topic.
Ways of Citing RLS

3. Chronological

Related materials may also be cited


chronologically, that is, according to the
year they were written. Materials
which were written earlier should be
cited first before those written later.
What to cite

emphasized only the major findings,


ideas, generalizations, principles or
conclusions in related materials relevant
to the problem under investigation

should be summarized, paraphrased or


synthesized
Quoting a Material

A material may be quoted if the idea


conveyed is so perfectly stated or it is
controversial and it is not too long.

Written single-spaced with wider margins


at the left and right sides of the paper
but without any quotation marks
Justification of the Study
Should be made clear that there is no
duplication of other studies

The present inquiry may only be a


REPLICATION of another study
Methodology
Locale of the present study
Sample organism
Justification of the Study
may also be a need to continue with the
present investigation to AFFIRM OR
NEGATE the findings of other inquiries
about the same research problem or
topic so that generalizations or
principles may be formulated

MAIN PURPOSE: THE


CONTRIBUTION TO THE FUND OF
KNOWLEDGE
Citation of RLS

1. Author, Year citation

Example #1. (one reference with many authors)


Scabies or better known as galis-aso is
caused by Sarcoptes scabiei. It is a contagious
type of ectoparasitic skin diseases that caused
intense itchiness or pruritus (Belizario et al.,
2004)
Citation of RLS

1. Author, Year citation

Example #2. (one reference with 2 authors)


It is also defined as the direct influence from
a chemical released by one plant on the
development and growth of another plant (Kim
and Shin, 1998)
Citation of RLS

1. Author, Year citation

Example #3. (two references)


Although derived from plants, allelochemicals
may be more biodegradable than traditional
herbicides (Kruse and Strandberg, 2000;
Quisumbing, 1978)
Citation of RLS
2. Number citation

Example:
The Philippine hybrid (Mentha cordifolia opiz) is usually
not flowering and has various medicinal values compared
to the flowering hybrid [35]. It yield a volatile oil
containing piperitone oxide as the principal constituent
together with other 3-oxygenated monoterpenes [36].
Tablets from the unextracted and unpurified leaves of
this mentha are available in market, which have proven to
contain analgesic properties [37] and were found to be
antigenotoxic [38].
Citation of RLS
Citation of journal article

Name(s) of Author(s). (Year). Title of article.


Abbreviated name of the journal Volume
(Number), inclusive pages

Example:
Velazquez, GT, Trono Jr., GC and Doty, MS.
(2002). Algal species reported from the
Philippines. Phil. J. Sci. 101(34), 115-169.
Citation of RLS
Citation of book

Name(s) of Author(s). (Year). Full title of book,


Number of edition, Name and place of publisher,
Volume number, complete pages.

Example:
Holt, DC. (2008). Scabies: Molecular
Perspective and Therapeutic Implications,
3rd Edition, Avery Penguin Group, New York,
Vol. 4, pp. 184-199.
Citation of RLS
Citation of thesis/dissertation

Name(s) of Author(s). (Year). Title of


thesis/dissertation. Program of study, Place where
thesis/dissertation was done, Address.

Example:
Cox, LM. (2002). Transpiration Process as a
Function of Environmental Parameters. Ph.D.
Environmental Science, Oregon State
University , Corvallis.
Citation of RLS
Citation of materials posted on Web page

Example#1: Journal Article


Jacobson, JW and Schwartz, AA. (2005). A
history of a facilitated communication.
American Psychologist, 50. 750-765.
Retrieved January 25, 2006 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/
journals/jacobson.html
Citation of RLS
Citation of materials posted on Web page

Example#2: Newspaper Article


Sleek, S. (2005, March). Psychologists build a
culture of peace. APA Monitor, pp. 1-33
[Newspaper, selected stories on line].
Retrieved January 25, 2006 from the
World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/
monitor/peacea.html
DEADLINES !
July 13 Submission of Chapter 1
July 27 Chapter 2
August 10 Chapter 3
September 17 Chapter 4 and 5
September 28 Oral Presentation
October 7 Final Paper