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CABLES, BUNDLES ,LOOMS

& CIRCUIT PROTECTION


EQUIPMENT
Requirements
Good conductivity
Minimum weight without sacrificing
conductivity
Fire resistance
Flexible over ambient temperature range (-
40 to +90 deg c)
Contamination resistant
Good electrical strength
Good mechanical strength
Corrosion resistant
WIRES & CABLES

Wires and cables - framework of aircraft


power distribution
Equipment wires and cables - consumer
equipment
Airframe wires and cables - generating
source to consumer.
Wires & cables

Wire is a single solid rod or filament of drawn


metal enclosed in a suitable insulating material
and outer protective covering.
Cable is made up of a conductor composed of a
group of single solid wires stranded together to
provide greater flexibility, and enclosed by
insulating material and outer protective covering.
Single core type with cores stranded together as
a single conductor.
Multicore type having number of single core
cables in a common outer protective covering.
COMMONLY USED WIRES AND
CABLES
TYPES OF WIRES AND
CABLES
TYPES OF WIRES AND
CABLES

NYVIN - NYLON & POLY VINYL CHLORIDE


(PVC).
TERSIL - POLYESTER AND SILICON.
TRINYVIN - THREE SINGLE NYVIN CABLES.
METSHEATH - CABLE ENCLOSED IN A
METAL BRAIDED SHEATH.
TYPES OF WIRES AND
CABLES

Aluminum conductor having same


resistance as copper conductor has only two-
thirds weight but twice the cross-sectional area
of the copper conductor.

Low-resistance, short-term circuits.

Example - power supply circuits of engine


starter motors systems.
INSULATION MATERIAL
CHARACTERISTICS

Toughness and flexibility over wide


temperature range.
Resistance to fuels, lubricants and
hydraulic fluids.
Ease of stripping for terminating.
Non-flammability.
Minimum weight.
CABLE MARKING & CODING
Cable marking
Type of cable
Country of origin (g for uk).
Year of manufacture by a letter
Wire gauge factor code letter
Wire gauge size
Ex: NYVIN G-AN 22.

Colour coding
Red-(phase A)
yellow-(phase B)
blue-(phase C).
ROUTING OF WIRES AND CABLES

Safe routing.

Avoid interference with reception


and transmission of signals by radio
and compass systems.

Permits systematic approach to


identification, installation and
removal and circuit testing.
ROUTING OF WIRES AND CABLES

open loom.

ducted loom.

conduit
OPEN LOOM
OPEN LOOM
Wires/cables grouped parallel to each
other in a bundle.
Bound together with waxed cording or
PVC strapping.
Loom supported at intervals using
clips secured at relevant parts of aircraft
structure.
FACTORS AFFECTING
COMPOSITION OF LOOM

Over all diameter.


Temperature conditions.
Type of current, i.e., Whether
alternating, direct, heavy-duty or light-duty.
Interference resulting from inductive or
magnetic effects.
Type of circuit with which cables are
associated.
MAGNETIC FIELD CANCELLATION

Magnetic fields around cables carrying DC to


be cancelled out near compass magnetic
detector element.

Achieved by routing positive and earth-return


cable at an earthing point located at a specific
safe distance from the magnetic detector
element of a compass system.
DUCTED LOOM
DUCTED LOOM
The bundles supported in ducts routed
through the aircraft and secured to the
aircraft structure.
Ducts made of:-
Aluminum alloy
Resin-impregnated asbestos
Moulded fiber-glass-reinforced plastic.
DUCTED LOOM
Main duct contains several channels.

Each channel having cable looms


corresponding to specific consumer
systems.

For identification purposes, each loom is


bound with appropriately colored waxed
cording.
CONDUITS

Conduits used for conveying cables in areas


where, exposure to oil, hydraulic or other fluids exist.

Conduits made of either plastic, flexible metal or


rigid metal sheaths.

Where shielding against signal interference is


necessary, the cables are conveyed by metal conduits
in contact with metal structural members to ensure
good bonding.
CABLE SEALS

Pressurized cabins cable seals-


avoids leakage of cabin air.

Sealing the apertures with pressure


bungs or pressure-proof plugs and
sockets.
PRESSURE BUNG ASSEMBLY
SPECIAL PURPOSE CABLES
Ignition cables.
Ht voltages.
Single-core stranded type.
Insulated & screened.
Metal braided sheathing.
Prevents interference.
Metal conduit.
Open routing
SPECIAL PURPOSE CABLES
Thermocouple cables.
Cylinder head temperature / exhaust gas
temperature indicators to thermocouple sensing
elements.

Iron and constantan or copper


Chromel (an alloy of chromium and nickel) and
alumel (and alloy of aluminum and nickel) for
exhaust gas thermocouples.
THERMOCOUPLE CABLES.

Insulating material - silicone rubber or


PTFE impregnated fiberglass.

The cables terminate at engine or


firewall junction box from where cables
extend to the indicator.

The insulating material of extension


cables- polyvinyl type - subject to lower
ambient temperatures than engine harness.
SPECIAL PURPOSE CABLES
Co-axial-cables.
Two or more separate conductors.
Inner most conductor solid or stranded copper
wire type.
Plain, tinned, silver-plated or gold-plated
depending on degree of conductivity reqd.
Remaining conductors made of fine wire braid
tubes.
Polyethylene or teflon insulation.
Outer covering protects from fluids, mechanical
and electrical damage.
CO-AXIAL-CABLE
ADVANTAGES

Shielded against electrostatic and magnetic fields.


Fields due to current flow in inner and outer
conductors cancel each other.
Co-axial cables do not radiate.
Will not pick up any energy or be influenced by
other strong fields.
Employed in radio, for the connection of antennae.
Capacitance type fuel quantity indicating systems
for interconnection of tank units and amplifiers.
EARTHING OR GROUNDING

Earthing or grounding refers to return of


current to the conducting mass of the earth or
ground.

Aircraft structure is of metal of sufficient


mass to remain electrically neutral & function
as an earth or negative bus bar to provide
return path for current.

Couple all negative connections to the


structure at various earth stations.
EARTHING OR GROUNDING

Earth-return cables connected to earthing bolts


using crimped ring type connectors.

Each bolt accommodating cables from several


circuits.

Non-metallic construction ac - bonding system


provided.

Four or more soft copper strip-type conductors


extending whole length of fuselage.
CONNECTIONS

Cable connections at junction


boxes, terminal blocks, earth
stations of permanent nature.

But cable terminations such that


cables can be readily disconnected
when occasion demands.
CABLE TERMINATIONS

Solder less or crimped termination.


Soldered connections.
Internal circuit connections of consumer
equipment
Single-core cables to plug and socket
contacts.
CRIMPED TERMINALS
Crimped terminal secured to its
conductor so that the metals of both
terminal and conductor merge
together to form a homogeneous
mass.
ADVANTAGES OF CRIMPING
Fabrication is faster, easier and uniform
operation is assured.
Good electrical conductivity and lower
voltage drop.
Connections stronger - approaching that
obtained with cold welding.
Shorting due to solder slop and messy flux
problems eliminated.
Wicking of solder on conductor wires and
dry joints eliminated.
When properly formed a seal against the
ingress of air is provided and a corrosion-proof
joint obtained.
CRIMPED TERMINALS

Crimping barrel and tongue.


Pressure applied by means of hand /
hydraulically operated tool.
Tongues - ring type and fork type.
From EFGLAS cable to NYVIN cable - in-
line connector
ALUMINUM CABLE
CONNECTIONS
Special zinc granular compound applied to
exposed ends of cable.

Crimped type - barrel filled with


compound.

During crimping compound is forced


between the wire strands of the cable and
penetrates the oxide film to assist in
breaking it down.
PLUGS AND SOCKETS

Connecting devices - male and female contact


assemblies.

The bodies mostly of light alloy or stainless steel


finished with cadmium plating.

Prevent relative movement between their


contacts.
PLUG AND SOCKET
CONSTRUCTION

Plug Socket

Rear Socket
Front Socket Insulator
Socket
Insulator
Contacts

Barrel End bell


Retaining Solid
Front pin Pin Rear pin Ring
Insulator Contacts Insulator Coupling
Nut
PLUG AND SOCKET TYPES

Fixed equipment and panel types

Fixed through type (bulkhead)

Fixed type with cable clamp Fixed type angle fitting

Fixed type rack equipment


PIN SOCKET SEQUENCING
POTTING

Plugs and sockets where possibility of


water or other liquids passing through
cable entry exist.

Fills cavity with special compound - semi-


fluid initially - hardens into rubbery state -
forms a seal.

Provides reinforcement for cable


connections.
ELECTRICAL BONDING

Static charges

Build-up of electrical energy in aircraft


structure.

Precipitation of static charges on aircraft


outer surfaces due to frictional contact with rain
particles, snow and ice crystals, dust, smoke etc.

Charges of electrostatic type induced into an


aircraft when flying into electric field created by
certain types of clouds.
ELECTRICAL BONDING

PD between ac and atmosphere


produces discharges which adjusts
potential of the aircraft to that of
atmosphere.
Possibility of discharges within the ac
due to PD between separate parts.
A system which forms a continuous
low-resistance link between all parts of ac.
BONDING SYSTEM
REQUIREMENTS
Limit the PD between all parts.

Eliminate spark discharges and fire risks.

Carry high voltages and currents so that they


discharge to atmosphere at the extremities of
the ac.

Reduced interference with radio and


navigational aid signals.

Prevent possibility of electrical shock hazards


to persons contacting equipment and parts of
ac.
ELECTRICAL BONDING

Jumpers - links formed between metal parts


of ac by short length flexible braid conductors.

Primary bonding conductors between major


components - engines and external surfaces.

Flight control surface and the main ac


structure.

Secondary bonding between components and


ac e.g., Pipelines carrying flammable fluids,
metal conduits, junction boxes etc.
ELECTRICAL BONDING
Provides leakage path via short flexible steel wires
secured to the nose wheel or main wheel axle members
and makes physical contact with the ground during
landing.
Stringent precautions are necessary during refueling of
aircraft to minimize the risk of fire or explosion due to the
presence of static charges.
Aircraft itself may be charged, fuel tanker may be
charged and the fuel flowing through the hose generates
electrical potentials.
PD must be prevented from occurring which could result
in generation of sparks and ignition of flammable vapors.
Equalizing of potentials achieved by providing a bonding
connection between the aircraft and tanker which
themselves are bonded to the ground.
Bonding the hose nozzle to a point specially provided on
the aircraft.
ELECTRICAL BONDING
Static discharge wicks.

Corona discharge causes serious interference with radio


frequency signals.
Accomplished by devices called static discharge wicks.
Provide easy exit for the charge so that the corona breaks out at
pre-determined points rather than haphazardly.
Static discharge wicks are fitted to the trailing edges of ailerons,
elevators and rudder of an aircraft.
Typical static discharger consists of nichrome wires formed in
the manner of a brush or wick providing a number of
discharge points.
Static dischargers may also take form of small metal rods for
trailing edge fitting and short flat metal blades for fitting at the
tips of wings, horizontal and vertical stabilizers.
Sharp tungsten needles extend at right angles to the discharger
tips to keep corona voltage low and to ensure that discharge will
occur only at these points.
ELECTRICAL BONDING
Screening.

Provides low resistance path for voltages producing unwanted radio


frequency interference.
Voltages conducted by a screening system are stray ones due to the
coupling of external field originating from certain items of electrical
equipment, and circuits when in operation.
Typical examples are: dc generators, engine ignition systems, dc
motors, time switches etc designed for making and breaking circuits at
a controlled rate.
In equipment such as generators, motors and time switches several
capacitors, which provide low resistance path are interconnected
across the interference source, i.e., Brushes, commutators and
contacts, to form a self-contained unit known as a suppressors.
Enclosing of equipment and circuits in metal cases and the
enclosure of cables in a metal braided sheath - used for screening the
cables of ignition systems.
The suppressors and metal screens are connected to the main earth
or ground system of an aircraft.