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Production of X Rays

Rakesh C A
PRODUCTION OF X-RAYS

X-rays are produced by energy


conversion when fast moving
stream of electrons is suddenly
decelerated in the target anode of
an x-ray tube.
X-ray tube is made
of Pyrex glass that
encloses a vacuum
containing two
electrodes - anode
and cathode.
X-ray tubes are 2 types
1.Stationary anode x-ray tube
2. Rotatory anode x-ray tube
X-RAY TUBE STRUCTURE

Cathode

Anode

Filters

Tube housing
Forms of tube used by Roentgen
in 18951896 for the production
of X rays.
Tube envelope
CATHODE

Negative terminal of the x-ray tube.

Contains 3 elements.
1. Filament: source of electrons for the x-ray tube.
2. Connecting wires: supply voltage (10V) and
amperage (3-5 A) that heat the filament.
3. Metallic focusing cup: Made up of nickel and it
surrounds the filament.
FILAMENT

Made of Tungsten wire.


Diameter is about 0.2 mm
Coiled to form vertical spiral of 0.2 cm
in diameter and 1 cm or less in length.
Filament is source of electrons.
ADVANTAGES OF TUNGSTEN AS CATHODE

High melting point (3370o C).


Little tendency to vaporize.
Ductility & Stability
Malleability and strength
Long life expectancy.

Disadvantages:-
Not an efficient electron emitting material.
TUBE CURRENT

Is the number of electrons flowing from cathode


to anode per second.
Measured in milli amperes(mA)
The tube current is unidirectional - from cathode
to anode.
THERMIONIC EMISSION
When current flows though
filament, it becomes heated up,
thermal energy is taken up by
electrons and they move a small
distance from the surface.
Emission of electrons resulting
from absorption of thermal
energy is k/a thermionic
emission.

EDISON EFFECT
The electron cloud surrounding
the filament, which is produced
by thermionic emission.
SPACE CHARGE
Electrons emitted from
the tungsten filament
form a small cloud in
front of the filament.
This collection of
negatively charged
electrons forms space
charge.

SPACE CHARGE
EFFECT
Tendency of space
charge to limit emission
of other electrons from
filament.
EQUILIBRIUM STATE
As the electrons leave the
filament, it acquires a positive
charge attracting some electrons
back to itself.
Number of electrons returning to
filament is equal to number of
electrons being emitted.

As a result, space charge


remains constant with actual
number depending on filament
temperature.
METALLIC FOCUSSING CUP

Made of nickel.
Prevents bombardment of unacceptably large
target area
The specially designed cup cause the electron
stream to converge to the target area on the anode
It is maintained at same negative terminal as that
of filament.
In grid controlled tubes the cup (-1.5 kV) acts as a
switch
MODERN DAY X-RAY TUBES

Contain single filament/ double filaments/


sometimes 3 filaments

DOUBLE FILAMENT ARRANGEMENT:-


They are placed side by side or one above the
other.
One filament is large, other one is small.
Only one filament is used for any fixed x ray
exposure. Larger filament is used for longer
exposure.
DOUBLE FILAMENTS IN
FOCUSING CUP
Filament for
small focal spot Filament for large
focal spot
HIGHLY SPECIALISED X-RAY TUBES

Tube with 3 filaments

Stereoscopic angiographic tube


In this tube, 2 focal spots are widely separated producing
stereoscopic film pair when 2 films are exposed.
Used in angiography.
AUTOMATIC FILAMENT BOOSTING
CURCUIT

When x-ray is turned on and no exposure is


made, (as in fluoroscopy) stand by current
heats the filament at low current (5mA).
When exposures are needed, automatic circuit
will raise filament current to required value
and lower it to stand by after exposure.
ANODE

The positive terminal of tube

STATIONARY ANODE ROTATING ANODE


STATIONARY ANODE

Made of tungsten
2-3 mm thick.
Embedded in large mass of copper
Triangular/ rectangular shape
Anode angle = 15-200

Adv of using tungsten:-


1. High melting point
2. High atomic number
3. Good absorption & dissipation of heat

Tungsten should be bonded with copper of anode to


further facilitate heat dissipation
STATIONARY ANODE
ROTATING ANODE X-RAY TUBE

Consists of
1. Rotating anode
2. Anode stem
3. Stator of induction coil
4. Rotor of induction coil
5. Ball bearings
6. Safety circuit
ROTATING ANODE

Made of tungsten or alloy of tungsten with


Rhenium.
Has beveled edge
Angle of bevel is 6 to 20 degrees
Speed of rotation is 3000rpm practically

The purpose of rotating anode is to spread the


heat produced during an exposure over a large
area of the anode.
ANODE STEM
Made up of molybdenum
It has high melting point
but poor conductor of heat
- It protects ball bearings
from un-desirable heat

The length of the


molybdenum should be as
short as possible
(length inertia load
on the bearings)
STATOR OF INDUCTION COIL

Provides magnetic field necessary for induction of


current.

ROTOR OF INDUCTION COIL


The magnetic field provided by stator induces
current in copper rotor
This current provides power for rotation of anode
assembly
BEARINGS

Increases life of the tube.


Lubricant used is silver.
Silver is suitable in vacuum

Ball bearings
SAFETY CIRCUIT

There is short delay (0.5 1 sec) between


application of force and full rotation of anode
due to inertia.
Safety circuit prevents un-necessary exposure
during this delay.
HALF LIFE OF ROTATING X-RAY TUBE

Depends on roughing
and pitting of surface of
anode exposed to
electron beam.
Prevented by using
alloy of 90% tungsten
and 10% rhenium
Why increased speed of
rotation?
speed of rotation ability of anode to withstand heat

MODIFICATIONS TO INCREASE SPEED OF ANODE


1.Decrease anode-stem length ( inertia)

2.Use of two sets of ball bearings.

3.Decrease weight of anode ( inertia)


- compound anode disc
- molybdenum or graphite
Compound Anode

Compound anodes contain combination of rhenium, molybdenum, and graphite being application
based
GRID CONTROL X-RAY TUBE

It contains its own switch, which allows it to be turned


on and off rapidly (as in cineflurography)
Third electrode - focusing cup is used to control the
flow of electrons from filament to target.

Focusing cup is negative to filament. (in conventional,


it is connected to the filament)

Voltage(-1.5 kV) applied between focusing cup and


filament acts as switch
Emission limited
Or
Temperature limited

Using resistors
FOCAL SPOT
Area of tungsten target i.e. bombarded by electrons
from the cathode.

Large focal spot greater heat loading


v/s
Small focal spot better resolution
Ans: LINE FOCUS PRINCIPLE
(+) (-)

200 Electrons Cathode


Anode

Apparent Focal
spot size

Anode is inclined so it forms an angle with the plane perpendicular to


electron beam. The angle is anode angle.
Effective or apparent focal spot is smaller than actual focal spot d/t
anode angle.
(+) (-)

200 Electrons Cathode


Anode

Apparent Focal
spot size

Normal anode angle is 60 200


Apparent focal spot sine (anode angle)
For FFD 40 inch, anode angle is usually no smaller
than 150 (heel effect)
HEEL EFFECT
Intensity of x-rays depends on the angle at which
the x-rays are emitted from the focal spot.

The intensity of beam towards anode side is less


than that towards cathode side.

Intensity of the beam towards the anode side of


the tube is less because of absorption of some of
the x-ray photons by the target itself.
CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

1. Used for obtaining balanced densities in


radiographs of body parts of different
thickness, i.e. thicker parts towards cathode
2. When FFD is increased, heel effect is
reduced.
3. For smaller films, less heel effect.
USEFUL RADIATION
PROJECTED TOWARD THE PATIENT
LEAKAGE RADIATION
HOUSING
TUBE HOUSING

Consists of metal case made up of Aluminum alloy


lined on the inside by a layer of lead which protects
and supports the glass x-ray tube insert.

Tube housing provides an efficient radiation barrier where


in the x-rays produced in the x-ray tube are attenuated in
all the directions except at the tube port.
Provides shielding for the high voltages required to
produce x rays

The tube housing is packed with industrial grade oil


to provide electrical and thermal insulation.
GLASS ENCLOSURE
Is a sealed evacuated tube made up of borosilicate into
which are mounted the anode and cathode.
Accelerated electrons collide with gas molecules
secondary electrons (less speed) wide variation in
tube current and energy of x ray produced.
The purpose of the vacuum in the modern x-ray tube
is to allow the number and speed of accelerated
electrons to be controlled independently.

The shape and size of these x-ray tubes are specially


designed to prevent electric discharge between
electrodes.
Disadvantages of glass enclosure:

On long term use, tungsten vaporizes and


form thin coat on inner surface of glass
wall of x-ray tube.
It gives bronze colored sunburn to x-ray
tube.
Results of sun burning of x-ray tube

1. It filters x-ray beam and gradually changes its


quality.
2. It increases probability of arcing between glass
and electrodes at higher kVp which may
puncture the tube.

SOLUTION Metallic Enclosures


CERAMIC/ METALLIC X-RAY TUBES

Has metal encasing and 3


ceramic insulators high
voltage cables and anode
stem

Anodes up to 2000 g can


be supported
(conventional tubes
700g)
CERAMIC INSULATORS

Made of aluminum oxide. They


insulate high voltage parts of x-ray
tube from metal envelope.
The use of insulators allows a more
compact tube design.
ADVANTAGES OF METALLIC ENCLOSERS

Less off focus radiation.

Longer tube life with high tube currents.

Higher tube loading.

Adequate electrical safety

Compact size
OFF FOCUS RADIATION
It is due to electron
back scatter from
anode interacting
with metal other than
the focal track and
striking anode a
second time to
produce X-rays.

Decreased by
1.Placing collimator
2.Lead diaphragm as
USEFUL close to X-ray tube as
OFF-FOCUS possible.
3.Using a metal
enclosure attracts off
focus radiation to the
grounded metal tube.
COOLING MECHANISM OF X-RAY TUBE

Almost all energy put into x-ray tube is converted


into heat and <1% is converted into x-rays.

The process of heat


dissipation:
Conduction: Through solid
parts of anode.
Convection: Through oil
surrounding the tube.
Radiation : Occurring
through the vacuum of the tube
which passes off the heat to glass
envelope or from metallic
housing through air into the
atmospheric air.
PROCESS OF X-RAY
GENERATION
There are three basic requirements for X-
Ray production in an X-Ray tube:

1. A source of electrons (cathode)

2. A target to stop the electrons (anode)

3. A method of accelerating the electrons


from the source to the target (PD
maintained across the tube)
1% of the incident energy is converted to X-Rays
the remainder is converted into heat
Produced by 2 different processes

GENERAL RADIATION CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION


Reaction of electron with Collision between high speed
nucleus of tungsten atoms, electrons and electrons in the
producing x-rays. shells of target tungsten atoms.
GENERAL RADIATION

When electron passes near the nucleus of tungsten atom, the +ve charge of the nucleus acts on the ve
charge of the electron.The electron is attracted towards the nucleus and deflected from its original
direction.The electron will lose some energy and slows down when its direction changes.The kinetic energy
lost by the electron directly in the form of a photon of radiation called general radiation /
bremsstrahlung.
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

Results when electrons bombarding the target eject electrons from the inner orbits of the target atoms.
Removal of an electron from a tungsten atom causes the atom to have an excess positive charge, and the
atom thus becomes a positive ion
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

In the process of returning to its normal state the ionized atom of tungsten may
get rid of excess energy in two ways.
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

An additional electron (auger electron) expelled by the atom and carry off the
excess energy - does not produce x-rays.
CHARACTERISTIC RADIATION

An alternative way to get rid of excess energy is for the atom to emit
radiation that has wave lengths with in the x-ray range.
CHARACTERISTIC
BRAKE RADIATION RADIATION

Only about 5 % of No characteristic


electrons participate radiation below 70
These 5% produce kV
most of the X-Rays In the 70 to 150 kv
There is no range contribution is
ionization 10-28 %
Ionization of target
atom
Intensity of X ray beams

Intensity of an x ray beam


=
Number of photons x Energy of each photon

Varies with:
Kilovoltage (proportional to kVp2)
X ray tube current
Target material
Atomic number quantity(number) of bremsstrahlung
quality(energy) of characteristic radiation
Filtration
FILTRATION

The spectrum of x-ray beam includes a wide range of


energies low to high.

For diagnostic purposes very low intensity x-rays are


not useful & increase the patient dose and decrease
the quality of the image.

Hence the x-ray beam reaching the patient is filtered


so as to make it most useful for image formation
without increase in patient dose.
Filtration of x-ray beam 2 types

Inherent Filtration: Added Filtration:


Provided by the tube Provided by the use of
envelope, tube housing and Aluminum and
the tube port. Copper across the
beam path.
First X ray made in public.
Hand of the famed
anatomist, Albert von
Klliker, made during
Roentgen's initial
lecture before the
Wrzburg Physical
Medical Society on
January 23, 1896.
GENERATORS
Generator

Ordinary Generator
Mechanical energy Electrical energy
X-ray generator
device that supplies electric power to the X-ray tube

Electric supply Generator X-ray tube

Electric supply : 220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power


Why does x ray tube require electrical energy ?

To boil of electrons from cathode - filament circuit(10V)


To accelerate from cathode to anode - high voltage circuit(40-150kVp)
To regulate the length of exposure - timer circuit

anode
cathode (+)
(-)
Generator

Control panel Transformer assembly


- kVp -Grounded metal box
-mA -Low voltage filament
-Exposure time transformer
-High voltage transformer
-Group of rectifiers
-Oil (Insulator)
Electric supply : 220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power

Filament circuit - 10 V

High voltage circuit - 40-150 kVp


Transformer
A transformer is a device that either increases or decreases the
voltage in a circuit
When current flows in primary coil it creates a magnetic field in the
core, and this induces current in the secondary coil
Current only flows in the secondary circuit when the magnetic field is
increasing or decreasing,(i.e. when there is some potential difference
between the two ends of primary coil), hence requirement for AC
current Switch

Primary coil

Secondary coil

v
Laws of transformer

1. The voltage in the two circuits is proportional to the


number turns in the two coils
NP = VP
NS VS
More turns in the secondary coil - step up transformer
Fewer turns in the secondary coil - step down transformer

2. A transformer cannot create energy. An increase in voltage


must be accompanied by a corresponding decrease in
current
Vp Ip = Vs Is

The output of Transformers is an alternating current(AC)


Electric supply : 220 V, 50Hz, 3 phase, AC power

Filament circuit - 10V


Step down transformer

High voltage circuit - 40-150kVp


Step up transformer
Autotransformer
Electric supply Autotransformer Generator X-ray
tube
Principle of self induction
110v/55

230v/115
320v/160

Turns of windings

230v/115

Incoming power voltage

Autotransformer

Step down transformer(filament) Step up transformer (cathode to anode)


- 10 V - 40-150 kV
-Turns in secondary coil less - Turns in secondary coil > 600
PROBLEM- Output of Transformers is alternating current(AC)

Alternating current

(+)
(-)
X-ray tube
PROBLEM- Output of Transformers is alternating current(AC)

Alternating current

(+) (-)

X-ray tube
SOLUTION: RECTIFY!!!
Rectification

Electric supply
Autotransformer
Generator
AC
Rectifier
DC

X-ray tube

Rectification is the process of changing the alternating


current into direct current
A rectifier is the device that allows electrical current in
one direction but does not allow current to flow in the other
direction
High voltage rectifiers
Two types
vacuum tube type (thermionic diode tubes)
solid state rectifier
Modern x-ray tubes use solid state rectifier
which are more reliable and have a longer
life.
Selenium was the first material and silicon
is most widely used in modern days.
The heart of a solid state rectifier is a semi
conductor.
Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier

Conduction band
Forbidden gap
Valency band
Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier

Conduction band
Forbidden gap Conductor
Valency band
Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier

Conduction band
Forbidden gap Insulator (10 eV)
Valency band
Solid state semiconductor - Rectifier

Conduction band
Forbidden gap Semi-conductor (1 eV)
Valency band

Semiconductor acts like an insulator at low temperature


and acts like a conductor at room temperature
N-type semiconductors

The material with five


valence electrons is
added as a impurity to
silicon lattice creating a
extra electron.
Impurity- arsenic or
antimony.
(N Negative)
These are called
donors.
P-type semiconductors

In this an impurity with


only three valance
electrons is added to
silicon crystal.
This leaves behind a
Hole (P Positive)
Impurity- indium,
gallium and aluminum.
These are called
acceptors.
P-N junction

It is formed when N-type


and P-type crystals are
joined.
This will create a
depletion layer which is
opposite in polarity to the
adjacent material.
If voltage is applied across
current will flow or not flow
depending upon the polarity.
Forward bias
When the negative pole of a
battery is connected to the N-
type and positive pole to the P-
type.
Electrons will start flowing
from negative to positive
direction.
Reverse bias
When negative pole is
connected to P-type and
positive to N-type.
Electrons will stop flowing.

P-N diode conducts current in a forward direction only,


hence it meets the definition of a rectifier.
Half wave rectification
1/60 sec

Two rectifiers
connected in series
with X-ray tube

1 cycle 1 PULSE

Advantage:
Prevents damage to the tube in inverse cycle.

Disadvantage:
Half of the power will be wasted.
Full wave rectification
1/60 sec

Diode bridge

1 cycle 2 PULSE

Seen in Modern X ray tubes.


This is brought about by using 4rectifiers connected in
opposite circuits.
Advantage:
Utilizes full electrical potential
Prevents tube damage.
PULSED POTENTIAL

Fluctuating voltage from 0 to its Max.

Disadvantage: 1/60 sec

- Loss of exposure time


- Low energy X-rays
-Increased patient dose
- Tube life 1 cycle 2 PULSE
Three phase generators

Three phase generator consists of three single phase currents


out of step with each other by 1200

00

1200 2400

Supply power at near constant potential


2000 mA, 150 KV, 1 msec
Three phase transformers
Consists of three sets of primary and
secondary windings.
Two types of configurations:
Delta
Wye (star)
Generally
Primary delta
Secondary wye / delta
Six pulse six rectifier
Six solid state
rectifiers are used.

Six max. positive


voltages per cycle
Six pulse twelve rectifier.
Employs 12 rectifiers

Advantage:
allows a 150 kV
generator to allow a
wide range of voltage
(-75 to +75 kV)
Twelve pulse
Secondary winding
will have both delta
and wye connection
Advantage:
Delta will lag
the wye by
30degrees which
fills the ripple
Ripple factor

The ripple factor is the variation in the voltage across the


x-ray tube expressed as the percentage of maximum value
Single phase 100%
Triple phase
Six pulse six rectifier 13.5%
Six pulse twelve rectifier 13.5%
Twelve pulse 3.5%
Advantages
Produces X rays efficiently throughout the
exposure.

No time is spent in bombarding the X ray tube with


low energy electrons.

High tube ratings for extremely short exposure


times.

Produces radiographs with short exposure times


and high repetition rates.
+75kVp
AUTOTRANSFORMER

. .
+11OV
.
. mA 150 kVp to rect.

. kVp

.
-11OV -75kVp

STEP UP

.
TO X-RAY TUBE FILAMENT

STEP DOWN
Transformer rating

The rating of a transformer states the maximum safe output of its


secondary winding , expressed in kilowatts

kW = kV x mA
1000
Transformer rating is determined when the generator is under
load ( 100 kVp)
Power storage generator

Provides means of supplying power


for the tube independent of an
external power supply ( mobile
radiographic equipment)
Storage generators

Capacitor discharge generator Battery powered generator


Electric supply Electric supply
Step up transformer Nickel-cadmium battery

Large capacitor DC chopper

X-ray tube Transformer


Rectifier
KV falls during exposure at
the rate of 1KV for each mA X-ray tube
Supplies constant kVp and mA
Advantage: Limitation:
Small and easy to move. Heavy and requires regular
Limitations: battery maintenance.
Must be charged prior to use. Advantages:
Cannot be used for thicker Stores considerable energy
body parts abdomen Independent of power supply
Medium frequency generator
V= fnA

Electric supply (50 Hz)


Invertor (DC chopper)
Power (6500 Hz)
Transformer
13000 Hz constant potential

Transformer is made more compact and small

Constant nearly ripple free voltage to the X-ray tube


Falling load generators

Produce X ray exposure in shortest possible time by


operating X ray tube at its maximum Kilowatt rating.

Disadvantages:
Causes Focal spot blooming
Reduces Tube life
Expensive
Exposure switching

A switch is a device that turns the high voltage to


the X-ray on and off
Primary switching Secondary switching
- Takes place in the primary coil - Secondary circuit of high voltage
- All general purpose generator - Special purpose generator like in
angiography , cinefluoro
- Easier and cheaper
- Costly
- 1-2 millisecond
- 0.5 ms (shorter exposures)
-Cannot produce repeated
exposure - Repeated exposure
Silicon controlled rectifiers Triode vacuum tube
(thyrister)
Grid controlled X-ray tubes
SOLID STATE RECTIFIERS
Exposure timers
To control the length of an X-ray exposure

Exposure timer

Electromechanical Automatic exposure control Pulse counting timer

Photomultiplier

Ionisation chamber

Solid state
VALVE RECTIFERS

STEP DOWN
TRANSFORMER

STEP UP TRANSFORMER

X-RAY GENERATOR-THEN
DUAL TUBE 800 mA HIGH FREQUENCY GENERATOR & CONTROL ASSEMBLY IN SINGLE CABINET

CAPACITORS

MICROPROCESSORS

HT

TIMER & ANODE CONTROL

X-RAY GENERATOR- NOW !


The first medical X ray taken
Drs. Edwin and Gilman Frost perform the first American The first American medical X-ray : 14-
medical X-ray in Reed Hall, Dartmouth College on year-old Eddie Murphys fractured
February 3, 1896
ulna.