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CHAPTER 6

GLACIERS,DESERT AND WIND


GLACIER
TYPES OF GLACIER
ALPINE GLACIER
TYPES OF GLACIER
ICE SHEET/CONTINENTAL GLACIER
TYPES OF GLACIER
ICE SHELVES GLACIER
TYPES OF GLACIER
ICE CAPS GLACIER
TYPES OF GLACIER
PIEDMONT GLAICER
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
PLASTIC FLOW
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
BASAL SLIDING
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
CREVASSE
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
GLACIAL BUDGET
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
CALVING
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
ICEBERG
MOVEMENT OF GLACIAL ICE
ADVANCING AND RETREATING
GLACIAL EROSION
PLUCKING AND ABRASION
GLACIAL EROSION
ROCK FLOUR
GLACIAL EROSION
GLACIAL STRIATIONS
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL EROSION
GLACIATED VALLEYS
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL
EROSION
HANGING VALLEYS
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL
EROSION
CIRQUES
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL
EROSION
ARETES
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL
EROSION
HORNS
LANDFORMS CREATED BY GLACIAL
EROSION
FIORDS
LANDFORMS MADE OF TILL
MORAINES
LANDFORMS MADE OF TILL

DRUMLINS
LANDFORMS MADE OF STRATIFIED
DRIFT
OUTWASH PLAINS
LANDFORMS MADE OF STRATIFIED
DRIFT
KETTLES
D
IN
W
ND
A
RT
S E
DE
DESSERT
TYPES OF DESERT
TRADEWIND DESERT
TYPES OF DESERT
MIDLATITUDE DESERT
TYPES OF DESERT
RAINSHADOW DESERT
TYPES OF DESERT
COASTAL DESERT
TYPES OF DESERT
MONSOON DESERTS
TYPES OF DESERT
POLAR DESERT
TYPES OF DESERT
Extraterrestrial deserts
TYPES OF DESERT
COLD DESERT
EPHEMERAL STREAM
ALLUVIAL FAN
PLAYA & PLAYA LAKE
TYPES OF WIND DEPOSIT

LOESS
TYPES OF WIND DEPOSIT
DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES

BARCHAN DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES

TRANSVERSE DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES
LONGTITUDINAL DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES
BARCHANOID DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES

PARABOLIC DUNES
TYPES OF SAND DUNES

STAR DUNES
E S
G I
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R M
T E
Ablation - A term for the loss of a glacier; if
this value exceeds accumulation, the glacial
front will recede.
Abrasion- The cutting action of the plucked
load of a glacier on the bedrock beneath
Alluvial fan- Fan of sediment produced by
occasional flooding as floodwater bearing
sediment exits desert mountains and drops
all its sediments.
Artes- The sinuous, sharp-edged ridges
formed between two alpine glaciers' troughs
Bajada- A result of multiple alluvial fans
coalescing over time to form a curtain along
one side of a desert mountain front.
Barchan dunes- Solitary, crescent-
shaped dunes with their tips pointing
downwind.
Barchanoid dunes- Dunes intermediate
between transverse and barchan.
Blowouts- Shallow depressions
resulting from deflation.
Budget- The balance or lack of balance
of a glacier's accumulation and
wastage.
Calving- The breaking off of icebergs
from an ice sheet's ice shelves.
Cirques-the bowl-shaped formations at
the heads of alpine glaciers
Competence-the ability of winds to carry
large particles; the size of particles that
can be carried
Crevasses-cracks in the ice formed
when the zone of fracture is subjected
to tension by underlying irregular terrain
Cross neds-layers of compacted dune
sediment indicating the direction the
wind was blowing
Deflation-the process by which lifts and
removes loose material
desert pavement-the layer of coarse pebbles
and cobbles that are too large to be moved
by the wind
Drumlins-streamlined, asymmetrical hills from
15 to 60 meters tall, formed when glaciers
advance over previously deposited drift and
reshape it
Dunes-mounds and ridges formed by the
deposition of the wind's bed load.
Eccentricity-the ovalness of the earth's path
about the sun.
End moraine-the ridge of till formed at the
terminus of a glacier.
Eskers-ridges composed of sand and gravel
made by streams flowing in tunnels
beneath the ice.
Fjord-deep, U-shaped glacially-derived
inlets to the sea, submerged after the sea
level rose after the last ice age
Flow-a broad term for movement of glacial
ice
glacial drift-a term for sediment moved by
glaciers.
glacial erratic-boulders and stuff that are
different from the bedrock below are
considered to be these; hint: they were
moved there by glaciers
glacial striations-the long cuts,
scratches, grooves, in bedrock formed
by glacial abrasion (bedrock can also
become very polished)
glacial trough-the U-shaped valley
formed by a glacier as it widens,
deepens, and straightens the V-shaped
valley it barrels down
Glacier-a thick ice mass that forms over
hundreds of years
ground moraine-the gently rolling layer
of till deposited as the ice front recedes
hanging valleys-valleys formed by
secondary glaciers joining the main glacier,
hanging valleys have waterfalls down into
the former glacial trough (trunk)
Horns-peaks formed in the middle of cirques
where artes meet to form a pyramid-like
point
ice caps-small-scale ice shelves, ice sheets
vast glaciers, sometimes called
"continental", flowing out from one or more
centers in all directions, millions of square
kilometers across
ice shelves-the sheer cliffs of ice found
when glaciers or ice sheets meet the open
ocean
interior drainage-the drainage pattern
wherein there are only intermittent streams
and nothing flows out to the ocean
Kames-steep-sided hills composed of sand
and gravel formed when meltwater washes
sediment into openings of the wasting
terminus of the glacier
Kettles-basins or depressions pockmarking
end moraines
lateral moraines-depositions of debris left
by the glacier as ridges along the sides of
the valley
Loess-deposit of windblown silt from
thousands of years of dust storms
longitudinal dunes-long ridges of sand that
form basically parallel to the prevailing wind
medial moraines- formed when lateral
moraines of two glaciers are combines and a
single moraine forms down the middle of the
joined glacier
Obliquity-the angle at which earth is tilted
outwash plain-the stratified drift deposition
left when glacial meltwater streams drop all
the drift when they lose velocity out of the
glacier.
parabolic dunes-dunes formed where
vegetation partially covers the sand; their
tips point upwind
pluvial lakes-lakes formed by rainfall in
arid and semiarid regions when
evaporation was lower and precipitation
higher
Precession-the wobbling of earth's axis
recessional end moraines-the end
moraines formed behind the terminal one
as the glacier recedes
rock flour-a term for the pulverized rock
produced by glacial abrasion.
Saltation-a term for bed load which also
applies to particles carried in a skipping
or jumping fashion by winds
slip face-the face of dune that is 34
degrees and falls, leeward
Snowline-the line dividing the zone of
accumulation from the zones below it.
star dunes-isolated hills of sand with
complex shaped formed by winds from
variable directions.
stratified drift-sediment moved by the
glacier by later sorted by glacial
meltwater
Tarn-a lake formed by plucking in a
cirque
piedmont glaciers-glaciers formed in broad
lowlands formed by glaciers emerging from
higher valleys.
plastic flow-a type of flow; movement within
the ice; happens when weight is sufficient to
stop ice from being brittle, Playa-the dry, flat
lake bed left when a playa lake evaporates
playa lake-the lakes in desert valleys which
ephemeral streams flow into, lasting only a
few days or weeks before evaporating or
infiltrating.
Plucking-the loosening and incorporation of
underlying rocks and boulders into the ice
sheet
terminal end moraine-the very last end
moraines
Till-the unsorted sediment
abandoned/left by a glacier as it
melted
transverse dunes-dunes formed of long
ridges normal to the prevailing winds
valley glaciers (alpine glaciers)-glaciers
formed at high altitude
valley train-the stratified till left when
outwash plain conditions occur in a
narrow, mountain valley
wind abrasion-a type of abrasive erosion
caused by wind dragging particles along
surfaces
zone of accumulation-the area where the
glacier is formed and more snow falls
than melts each summer; stops at the
snowline
zone of fracture-the area above 50 m,
not moving by plastic flow, piggybacking
on the flow beneath; often forms cracks
zone of wastage-the area below which
there is a net loss of glacial mass