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Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

NDT is the term used to designate those testing methods that


allow material to be examined without impairing material
usefulness and serviceability.
Other NDT Terms
NDE Nondestructive Examination
NDI Nondestructive Inspection
NDT Methods
RT Radiographic Testing NRT Neutron Radiographic Testing
UT Ultrasonic Testing AE Acoustic Emission Testing
MT Magnetic Particle Testing LT Leak Testing
PT Liquid Penetrant Testing IR Thermal/Infrared Testing
ET Electromagnetic Testing VT Visual Testing
(Eddy Current Testing)

Fundamental Reasons for Using NDT


Prevent accident and protect human life
Ensure product reliability

NDT must Include


A certified inspector/ operator A system for reporting the test
results
A procedure for conducting test
A standard to interpret the test
results
Discontinuity - a lack of continuity or cohesion; an
intentional or unintentional interruption in the
physical structure or configuration of a
material.

No discontinuity

With discontinuity (Keyway)

With discontinuity (Crack)

With discontinuity (Inclusion)

With discontinuity (Porosity)

With discontinuity (Lack of Fusion)


Types of Discontinuities
Inherent Discontinuities
Processing Discontinuities
Service Discontinuities

Inherent Discontinuities - they can be formed during the solidification of ingots or


during the casting.

Processing - Are related to or occur during the various manufacturing


Discontinuities processes

Service Discontinuities - Are related to the various service conditions to


which the material is subjected

Inherent Processing Service


Discontinuities Discontinuities Discontinuities
Inclusions Casting Discontinuities Fatigue Cracks
Blowholes Welding Discontinuities Corrosion
Porosity Rolling Discontinuities Pittings
Shrinkage Forging Discontinuities Stress-corrosion
Grinding Discontinuities cracks
Machining Discontinuities
Heat Treatment Discontinuities
Plating Discontinuities
Metal Processing
ORES
Metals Process Flow

REDUCTION

PIGS

INGOTS

CAST

MILL

PRESS

FORGE
MACHINE

WELD

HEAT
TREAT

PRODUCT
Metals Processes Flow Chart

PRIMARY

Rolled into Blooms


Ingot
Casting

Billets

SECONDARY

Slab
CASTING PROCESS

Click to view movie


Mold Assembly for Sand Casting

Pouring Basin
Joint (for parting)
Sprue
Cope

Lug

Flask

Pin

Drag

Core

Bottom Board
Pattern Gate
Sand Casting

Mold Cavity with Gating System


Pattern

Complete Casting with Attached Gating


Pattern in Sand Mold System
Sand Casting

Liquid metal supply to compensate for liquid


and solidification shrinkage

Riser
Riser

First Solidification
External Chill Internal Chill
Risers for Shrinkage Control Chills as an Aid to Directional Solidification
Casting Discontinuities
Gas Cold Shut
Porosity
Gas Cavities
Inclusion
Crack
Shrinkage
Hot Tear
Gas Porosity - round or elongated small cavities caused by trapped gases.
Inclusion - is the general term applied to sand, slags, oxides, etc. trapped in
casting.
Shrinkage - is the reduction in volume due to thermal contraction when
molten material solidifies.
Hot Tear - is the rupture of casting due to overstressing of metal during
cooling and contraction. Usually occur between light and
heavy sections of casting.
Cold shut - occurs when two flow of molten metal meet and do not fuse or
flow into each other but instead solidify along the fold line.

Gas Cavities - either round or elongated cavities caused by trapped air or


mold gases.

Crack - caused by an accidental static overload of stresses that


exceed the ultimate strength of the cast material and cause it
to separate.
Casting Discontinuities

Cold Shut Open to the surface


(smooth, curved appearance)

Light (small) sections solidify


and shrink faster than the
Mold
heavy section

Splashed Metal

Hot Tears
Comparison of Fusion Weld with Casting

Melted and Resolidified Fused and Resolidified Filler and


Metal (Casting) Base Metal (Welding)

HEAT
HEAT

Unfused Base Material


Fusion Limit
conducts Heat from Weld
Mold Material Conducts Heat
from Casting
Grain Structure in a Fusion Weld

Liquid Weld
Metal

Limit of Visible
Heat Affect Zone

C
0 F

0 760
C
22 00

C
F

28 0F
F

0
F

C
00
0

00
00

C
17

83
40
40

14

12
15

20
Base Metal Hot Rolled AISI 1020

AISI - The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an


association of North American steel producers.

Carbon steels and low alloy steels are designated by a four digit
number, where the first two digits indicate the alloying elements and the
last two digits indicate the amount of carbon, in hundreths of a percent
by weight. For example, a 1020 steel is a plain carbon steel containing
0.20 wt% C.
Welding Processes
Welding Processes ASME IX AWS D1.1
Oxyfuel Gas Welding (OFW) ---
Shielded Metal-Arc Welding (SMAW)
Submerged-Arc Welding (SAW)
Gas Metal-Arc Welding (GMAW)
Flux Cored-Arc Welding (FCAW)
Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding (GTAW)
Plasma-Arc Welding (PAW) ---
Electroslag Welding (ESW)
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) ---
Stud Welding ---
Inertia & Continuous Drive Friction Welding ---
Resistance Welding ---
Laser Beam Welding ---
Flash Welding ---
Electro Gas Welding (EGW) ---
Welding Discontinuities

1
- The edges of the pieces have not been
welded together, usually at the bottom
of single V-groove welds.
Lack of Penetration

2
- Extra metal at the bottom (root)
of the weld

Excessive Penetration

3
- A depression in the top of the weld,
or cover pass, indicating a thinner
than normal section thickness
Insufficient Fill

4
- A depression in the center of the
surface of the root pass.

Suck Back
Welding Discontinuities

5
- A severe depression or a crater type
hole at the bottom of the weld but
usually not elongated.
Burn Through

6
- Rounded voids random in size
and location.

Scattered Porosity

7
- Rounded and elongated voids group
together.
Clustered Porosity

8
- Rounded and elongated voids in the
bottom of the weld aligned along the
weld centerline.
Root Pass Aligned Porosity
Welding Discontinuities

9
- Usually non-metallic impurities that
solidified on the weld surface and
were not removed between weld
Interpass Slag Inclusion passes.

10 - Impurities that solidified on the


surface after welding and were
not removed between passes.
Elongated Slag Lines

11
- Random bits of tungsten fused into
but not melted into the weld metal.

Tungsten Inclusion

12 - A gouging out of the piece to be


welded, along side the edge of the
top or external surface of the weld.
External Undercut
Welding Discontinuities

13
- A gouging out of the parent metal,
along side the edge of the bottom or
internal surface of the weld.
Internal (Root) Undercut

14
- A misalignment of the pieces to
be welded.

Offset or Mismatch

15 - A misalignment of the pieces to be


welded and insufficient filling of the
bottom of the weld or root area.
Offset or Mismatch with Lack of
Penetration

16
- Elongated voids between the weld
beads and the joint surfaces.

Lack of Side Wall Fusion


Welding Discontinuities

17
- Lack of Fusion areas along the top
surface and wedge of lower passes.

Interpass Cold Lap

18
- A fracture in the weld metal
running lengthwise in the welding
direction.
Longitudinal Crack

19
- A fracture in the weld metal running
across the weld.

Transverse Crack

20
- A fracture in the weld metal at the
edge of the root pass.

Longitudinal Root Crack


Joint Types

BUTT JOINT

CORNER JOINT

T JOINT
Joint Types

LAP JOINT

EDGE JOINT
Single-Groove Weld Joints

Single-Square-Groove Weld Single-Bevel-Groove Weld Single-V-Groove Weld

Single-J-Groove Weld Single-V-Groove Weld with Single-U-Groove Weld


Backing

Single-Flare-V Groove Weld Single-Flare-Bevel Groove Weld


Double-Groove Weld Joints

Double-Square-Groove Weld Double-Bevel-Groove Weld Double-V-Groove Weld

Double-J-Groove Weld Double-U-Groove Weld

Double-Flare-Bevel Groove
Weld Double-Flare-V-Groove Weld
Rolling Mill
Rolling Discontinuities
Lamination
Stringer
Seam

Lamination - Large porosity, pipe and metallic inclusion in slab


or billet that are flattened and spread out during
rolling.

Stringer - Nonmetallic inclusion in slab and billet that are


thinned and lengthened in the direction of rolling.

Seam - Surface irregularities such as crack on the slab or


billet that are stretch out and lengthened during
rolling.
- May also be caused by folding of the metal due to
improper rolling.
- May appear as continuous or broken lines on
finished bars.
Rolling Discontinuities
Gas Cavity
Lamination

Slab

Laminations

Crack Seam

Stringers

Inclusion
Bloom
Rolling Discontinuities

Gas Cavity
Lamination

Slab
Rolling Discontinuity

Laminations
Rolling Discontinuities

Stringers

Inclusion

Bloom
Forging

View movie..
Forging Discontinuities
Forging Lap
Forging Burst

Forging Lap - Is caused by folding of metal on the surface of the forging


usually when some of the forging metal is squeezed out.

Forging Burst or Crack - Is rapture caused by forging at a low temperature.


Forging Discontinuities

Forging
Lap

FORGING LAP

External Burst or Crack


Internal Burst
(Open to the surface)
(Subsurface)

FORGING BURST
Grinding Cracks are a processing-type discontinuity caused by stresses which are
built up from excess heat created between grinding wheel and
metal.

Grinding Cracks will usually occur at right angles to the rotation of the
grinding wheel.

Grinding Cracks
Heat Treat Cracks are often caused by the stresses built up during heating and cooling.
Unequal cooling between light and heavy sections may caused heat
treat cracks.
Heat Treat Cracks have no specific direction and usually start at
sharp corners which act as a stress concentration points.

Fatigue Cracks Fatigue Cracks are service-type discontinuities that are usually open
to the surface where they start from concentration points.
Fatigue Cracks are possible only after the part is placed into service,
but may be the result of porosity, inclusions or other discontinuities in
a highly stressed metal part.

Fatigue Cracks
Fusion-Weld Types & Symbols

FILLET SQUARE GROOVE

SQUARE GROOVE U-GROOVE VEE GROOVE

BEVEL GROOVE J-GROOVE


Number of Examination Length of section
to be examined
Reference Line Examine in
(N) field

BOTH SIDES
ARROW OTHER
SIDE
Tail Examine all-
L around symbol
T
Specification or

SIDE
other reference

Arrow
BASIC EXAMINATION SYMBOL

Standard Location of NDE Symbol Elements

MT
(B) Examine Other Side

(A) Examine Arrow Side 30


PT RT

MT
RT
RT
(C) Examine Both Side (D) No Side Significance

Significance of Symbol Placement Specifying the Direction of Radiographic


Examination
Combined Nondestructive Examination Symbol

UT
PT
354
MT
A 12
RT

(a)Combined
CombinedSymbols
SymbolsforforNDT
NDTand
andWelding
Welding NDT Symbol with Reference

MT
RT

RT
PT + UT PT
MT UT

PT
PT + RT PT
RT
PT
Combined Symbols for Multiple NDT Combined Symbols with Side and No-Side
Significance
Standard Terminology for NDT

Nondestructive Testing

Indication

Interpretation

Nonrelevant Relevant False

Evaluation

Reject Accept
Terminologies
Indication - evidence of discontinuity that requires interpretation to
determine its significance.

Interpretation - The determination whether indications are relevant,


nonrelevant or false indication.
Relevant Indication - An NDT indication that is caused by a condition or type
of discontinuity that requires evaluation.
Nonrelevant Indication - An NDT indication that is caused by a condition or type
of discontinuity that is not rejectable.

False Indication - An NDT indication that is interpreted to be caused by a


discontinuity at a location where no discontinuity exist.
Evaluation - A review of following interpretation of the indication
noted to determine whether they meet the specified
acceptance criteria.
Flaw - An imperfection or discontinuity that may be detectable
by nondestructive testing and is not necessarily
rejectable.
Defect - One or more flaws whose aggregate size, shape
orientation, or location do not meet the specified
acceptance criteria and are rejectable.
Qualification and Certification Standards/Documents

Document Description Type Country


Designation
SNT-TC-1A Personnel Qualification and Certification in Company USA
Nondestructive Testing
ANSI/ASNT ASNT Standard for Qualification and Company & USA
CP-189 Certification of Nondestructive Testing Central
Personnel
ACCP ASNT Central Certification Program Central USA
ISO 9712 Nondestructive Testing Qualification and Central Internationa
Certification of NDT Personnel l
EN 473 General Principles for Qualification and Central Europe
Certification of NDT Personnel
CAN/CGSB Qualification and Certification of Central Canada
48.9712 Nondestructive Testing Personnel
PNS/ISO 9712 Qualification and Certification of Central Philippines
Nondestructive Testing Personnel
ASNT Certification Schemes

Type Central Company


Document ASNT Qualification and Company Qualification and
Certification Procedure Certification Procedure
Based on ASNT Certification Based on SNT-TC-IA
Scheme
Testing Center Singapore, Japan, Korea Company Site
in Asia
Examiner ASNT Examiner Company Authorized Examiner
ASNT Level III or ACCP Level III ASNT Level III or ACCP Level III
Certification ACCP Level II, ACCP Level III, NDT Level I, NDT Level II,
Levels ASNT Level III NDT Level III
Certificate Chairman, ASNT Certification ACCP Level III or ASNT Level III
Signatories Committee and Company President or GM
Qualification and Certification of NDT
Personnel
Qualification knowledge, skill, training, and experience

Certification written and practical examination

Certificate written testimony of Qualification


Level of Competence

NDT Level I - Performs test according to written instructions.


NDT Level II or Level III supervision is needed
NDT Level II - Performs test in accordance with established and
recognized techniques.
NDT Level III - prepares test procedures and instructions.
- establishes testing techniques
- interprets codes, standard and specification
- trains, qualifies and certifies NDT Level I and Level
II
Welds & Welded Structures

WELDS Welded Structures

Test Coupons ASME IX Structural Steels AWS D1.1

Pressure Vessels ASME VIII

Power Boilers ASME I

Heating Boilers ASME IV

Power Piping ASME B31.1

Process Piping ASME B31.3

Oil Storage Tanks API 650

Pipelines API 1104


Codes & Standards
NDT Procedures

ASTM Volume 03.03 American Society for Testing and Materials


Nondestructive Testing

ASME Section V American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Nondestructive Examination
Codes & Standards
NDT Procedures + Acceptance Criteria

AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code - Steel

ASME I Rules for Construction of Power Boilers

ASME IV Rules for Construction of Heating Boilers

ASME VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

ASME IX Welding and Brazing Qualification

ASME B31.1 Power Piping

ASME B31.3 Process Piping

API 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage

API 1104 Welding of Pipe Lines and Related Facilities


Standards & NDT Methods Cross Reference

RT UT MT PT RT UT MT PT
ASTM Vol E 164
E 94 E 709 E 165 ASME I Article 2 Article 4 Article 7 Article 6
03.03 E 587

Article 4
ASME V Article 2 Article 7 Article 6 ASME VIII Article 2 Article 4 Article 7 Article 6
Article 5

Section Section 6
AWS D1.1 E 709 E 165 ASME IX Article 2 Article 4 ---- Article 6
6 Part E Part F

Section Appendix ASME


API 650 Article 7 Article 6 Article 2 Article 4 Article 7 Article 6
6.1 U B31.1

Section Section ASME


API 1104 E 709 E 165 Article 2 Article 4 Article 7 Article 6
11.4.1 11.4.2 B31.3
Test Methods and Procedures Related to Casting and Welding
ASME Section V Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

Method Sub-Section Description


RT Article 2 Radiographic Examination
UT Article 4 Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Welds
UT Article 5 Ultrasonic Examination Methods for Materials

PT Article 6 Liquid Penetrant Examination


MT Article 7 Magnetic Particle Examination
Acceptance Criteria Related to Casting and Welding
ASME VIII Division 1 Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels

Method Sub-Section Description


RT Part UW 51 Requirement for Pressure Vessel Fabricated by Welding
(Radiographic and Radioscopic Examination of Welded Joints)
RT Appendix 4 Rounded Indication Chart
Acceptance Standard for Radiographically Determined
Rounded Indication for Weld
MT Appendix 6 Methods for Magnetic Particle Examination

PT, MT, RT, UT Appendix 7 Examination for Steel Casting


PT Appendix 8 Methods for Liquid Penetrant Examination
UT Appendix 12 Ultrasonic Examination of Welds
Test Methods and Procedures Related to Casting and Welding
ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel
Method Sub-Section Description
MT Section 6.14.5 Magnetic Particle Testing (ASTM E 709)
PT Section 6.14.6 Dye Penetrant Testing (ASTM E 165)
RT Section 6.16 Radiographic Testing of Groove Weld in Butt Joints

UT Section 6.20 Ultrasonic Testing of Groove Welds

Acceptance Criteria Related to Welding


ANSI/AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel
Method Sub-Section Description
MT, PT Section 6.10 Liquid Penetrant and Magnetic Particle Testing
RT Section 6.12 Radiographic Inspection
UT Section 6.13 Ultrasonic Inspection
Test Methods and Procedures Related to Casting and Welding
ASTM Volume 03.03 Nondestructive Testing

Method Sub-Section Description


Standard Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the
PT ASTM E1208
Lipophilic Post-Emulsification Process
Standard Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Water-
PT ASTM E1209
Washable Process
Standard Practice Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Hydrophilic
PT ASTM E1210
Post-Emulsification Process
Standard Practice for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the
PT ASTM E1219
Solvent-Removable Process
Standard Practice for Visible Liquid Penetrant Testing Using the Solvent-
PT ASTM E1220
Removable Process

PT ASTM E165 Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination for General Industry

Standard Practice for Visible Penetrant Testing Using the Water-Washable


PT ASTM E1418
Process.

Method Sub-Section Description


MT ASTM E1444 Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Testing
MT ASTM E709 Stancard Guide for Magnetic Particle Testing
Test Methods and Procedures Related to Casting and Welding
ASTM Volume 03.03 Nondestructive Testing
Method Sub-Section Description
RT ASTM E94 Standard Guide for Radiographic Examination
RT ASTM E1030 Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Metallic Casting
RT ASTM E1032 Standard Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments
RT ASTM E1742 Standard Practice for Radiographic Examination

Method Sub-Section Description


ASTM A609/ Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing Casting, Carbon, Low-Alloy, and
UT
A609M Martensitic Stainless Steel
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Straight-Beam Contact
UT ASTM E114
Testing
Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Testing of Weld Zone of Welded Pipe and
UT ASTM E273
Tubing
UT ASTM E587 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Contact Testing
UT ASTM E164 Standard Practice for Ultrasonic Contact Testing for Weldments
Reference Radiographs & Photographs Related to Casting and Welding
ASTM Volume 03.03 Nondestructive Testing

METHOD SUB-SECTION DESCRIPTION


RT ASTM E186 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (2 t0 4 in. (51 to 144 mm))
Steel Casting
RT ASTM E280 Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (4 to 12 in. (144 to 305
mm) Steel Casting
RT ASTM E446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Casting Up to 2 in. (51mm) in
Thickness
RT ASTM E155 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium
Castings
RT ASTM E505 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium
Die Casting
RT ASTM E802 Reference Radiographs for Gray Cast Iron Up to 4 in. (114 mm) in
Thickness
RT ASTM E272 Reference Radiographs for High-Strength Copper-Base & Nickel-
Copper Alloy Castings
Capabilities and Limitations NDT Method

Surface Near-Surface Subsurface


Method Classification

RT X Internal
UT X Internal
MT X X Surface

PT X X Surface

Note:
- Capable
X - Capable but not reliable
X - Not Capable
RT Preferred for volumetric discontinuities
UT Preferred for planar discontinuities