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CRUDE OIL

WHAT IS CRUDE OIL?

Complex mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons found in


the earth.
Formed from the breakdown of tiny dead organisms millions of
years ago.
Consists of a variety of alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic
hydrocarbons and small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur
compounds.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL

To make crude oil useful, batches or fractions, of similar


hydrocarbons with similar properties need to be sorted by a
process called fractional distillation.
The theory behind this technique is that some of the compounds
in crude oil are easily vaporized due to the arrangement of
carbon & hydrogen atoms.
Factional distillation uses the difference in boiling point to
separate these hydrocarbon compounds.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL

As the hydrocarbon molecule

chain increases its boiling point

increases, it becomes more

viscous, becomes more difficult to

light, the flame becomes sootier

and it develops a stronger smell.


MAJOR FRACTIONS OF CRUDE OIL

Refinery gas- Makes up about 1-2% of crude oil. It is mainly a


mixture of alkanes containing up to 4 carbon atoms and is
usually a gas at room temperature. It can be used as a gaseous
fuel or can be liquefied under pressure producing Liquefied
Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Gasoline and naphtha- Makes up about 15-30% of crude oil.
Gasoline is used as motor fuel and Naphtha as a chemical
feedstock for conversion to other compounds
Kerosene- Makes up about 10-15% of crude oil. It can also be
broken down to produce gasoline
MAJOR FRACTIONS OF CRUDE OIL

Diesel oil- Makes up 15-20% of crude oil. It is used as a fuel in


diesel engines ad industrial furnaces
Residue- Make up about 40-50% of crude oil. It can be further
distilled to give; Fuel oil, Lubricating oil and waxes.
-> Fuel oil- Used as fuels for ships and power stations
-> Lubricating oil & waxes- Used for motor oil, grease and other
lubricants
-> Bitumen- Used for road surfacing and roofing material
MAJOR FRACTIONS OF CRUDE OIL
CRACKING AND REFORMING OF CRUDE OIL

Lighter fractions of crude oil (e.g. Gasoline) are of higher demand


than that supplied by the distillation of crude oil. Hence oil
refineries convert less used fractions to more valuable ones. The
two important processes to accomplish this are:
1)Cracking
2)Reforming
CRACKING OF CRUDE OIL

Cracking is a process in which large hydrocarbon molecules are


broken down into smaller molecules. The products formed may
be smaller alkanes, alkenes and hydrogen molecules.
Example:
C14H30 C10H22 + C4H8
OR
C14H30 C12H26 + C2H4
Cracking can be done either by heating (Thermal cracking) or by
a catalyst (Catalytic cracking)
THERMAL CRACKING OF CRUDE OIL

Involves rapidly heating the hydrocarbon to temperatures of


800C and then cooling it.
Process occurs within seconds.
High temperature causes C-C to undergo homolytic fission hence
forming free radicals.
CATALYTIC CRACKING OF CRUDE OIL

Involves the use of a catalyst at lower temperatures to break the


bonds of hydrocarbon molecules.
Powdered alumina and silica (Al2O3/ SiO2) at 500C is normally
used as the catalyst.
C-C bonds undergo heterolytic fission that produces large
amounts of branches chain alkanes. ( gives gasoline higher
octane #)
OCTANE NUMBER OF GASOLINE

When gasoline- air mixture is compressed in the internal engine, some


hydrocarbons ignite without sparks and explode prematurely to cause a knocking
sound which can damage the engine and reduce efficiency of the gasoline.

Tetraethyl lead can be used as an anti-knock agent but lead gas produced can
cause lead pollution.
OCTANE NUMBER OF GASOLINE

Lead fuel can be replaced by unleaded fuel which contains more


branched chain alkanes
Branches chain alkanes are more resistant to knocking as they
ignite less spontaneously than straight chain isomers
OCTANE NUMBER OF GASOLINE

Anti knocking properties are measured on the octane scale using:


2,2,4- trimethylpentane && heptane

- low tendency to ignite spontaneously -knocks readily with compression


- octane number of 100 -octane number of 0

A blend of gasoline is assigned to an octane number by comparing it with different


mixtures of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and heptane
REFORMING OF CRUDE OIL
(result of isomerization, alkylation & catalytic reforming)

Process by which straight chain hydrocarbons are converted to aromatic and more
highly branched hydrocarbons.
Converts low naphtha fractions to high grade gasoline components which contains
a high proportion of branched chain alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Example:
-> CATAYLST
USED: platinum or rhenium
at 700 k at
30 atm
ISOMERIZATION

Involves the breaking up of straight chain isomers and


reassembling them as branched chain isomers.
CATALYST USED: aluminum at 500C

EXAMPLE :
ALKYLATION

Tertiary alkanes combine with alkenes to make longer branched chain alkanes.
OR
The transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another
CATALYST USED: conc. H2SO4 at room temperature or HF at 300 K
EXAMPLE:

2-methylpropene + 2-methylpropane 2,2,4-trimethylpentane


CATALYTIC REFORMING OF CRUDE OIL

Converts straight chain alkane molecules of the naphtha fraction into


cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons.
Naphtha vapour is heated to 500C at 20 atm. then passed over a an
aluminium oxide and platinum catalyst
EXAMPLE :
C6H14 + H2 or C6H14 +H2
hexane Cyclohexene hexane benzene
IMPACT OF THE OIL INDUSTRY ON HE
ENVIROMENT