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Lecture - Design of Columns

CEN 347
Introduction
Types of Column
Types of Column
Types of Column
Strength of short or Slender Columns
Strength of short or Slender Columns
Strength of short or Slender Columns
0.70

0.65
Analysis and Design of Short Columns

General Information

Column: Vertical Structural members


Transmits axial compressive loads with
or without moment
transmit loads from the floor & roof to
the foundation
Analysis and Design of Short Columns

General Information

Column:
Analysis and Design of Short Columns

Tie Columns - 95% of all columns in buildings are tied

Tie spacing h (except for seismic)


tie support long bars (reduce buckling)
ties provide negligible restraint to
lateral expose of core
Analysis and Design of Short Columns

Spiral Columns

Pitch = 1.375 in. to 3.375 in.


spiral restrains lateral (Poissons effect)
axial load delays failure (ductile)
Analysis and Design of Short Columns

Elastic Behavior

Concrete creeps and shrinks, therefore we can not


calculate the stresses in the steel and concrete due to
acting loads using an elastic analysis.
Analysis and Design of Short Columns
Elastic Behavior
An elastic analysis using the transformed section
method would be:
For concentrated load, P
P
fc uniform stress over
Ac nAst section

n Es / Ec
f s nf c
Ac concrete area
As steel area
Analysis and Design of Short Columns
Elastic Behavior
An elastic analysis does not work because creep and
shrinkage affect the acting concrete compression strain
as follows:
Analysis and Design of Short Columns
Elastic Behavior
The change in concrete strain with respect to time will
effect the concrete and steel stresses as follows:

Concrete stress

Steel stress
Analysis and Design of Short Columns
Elastic Behavior
Therefore, we are not able to calculate the real stresses
in the reinforced concrete column under acting loads
over time. As a result, an allowable stress design
procedure using an elastic analysis was found to be
unacceptable. Reinforced concrete columns have been
designed by a strength method since the 1940s.

Note: Creep and shrinkage do not affect the strength


of the member.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

1. Initial Behavior up to Nominal Load - Tied and


spiral columns.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
Let
Ag = Gross Area = b*h Ast
= area of long steel fc
=concrete compressive strength fy =
steel yield strength

P0 0.85 f c * Ag Ast f y Ast


Factor due to less than ideal consolidation and
curing conditions for column as compared to a
cylinder. It is not related to Whitneys stress
block.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

2. Maximum Nominal Capacity for Design Pn (max)

Pn max rP0

r = Reduction factor to account for accidents/bending


r = 0.80 ( tied )
r = 0.85 ( spiral )
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

3. Reinforcement Requirements (Longitudinal Steel Ast)


Ast
Let g
Ag
- ACI Code 10.9.1 requires 0.01 g 0.08
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

3. Reinforcement Requirements (Longitudinal Steel Ast)


- Minimum # of Bars ACI Code 10.9.2
min. of 6 bars in circular arrangement
w/min. spiral reinforcement.
min. of 4 bars in rectangular
arrangement
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

3. Reinforcement Requirements (Lateral Ties)


ACI Code 7.10.5

size # 3 bar if longitudinal bar # 10 bar


# 4 bar if longitudinal bar # 11 bar
# 4 bar if longitudinal bars are bundled
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

3. Reinforcement Requirements (Lateral Ties)


Vertical spacing:
s 16 db ( db for longitudinal bars )
s 48 db ( db for tie bar )
s least lateral dimension
of column
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

3. Reinforcement Requirements (Lateral Ties)


Vertical spacing: Arrangement,

1.) At least every other longitudinal bar shall have


lateral support from the corner of a tie with an
included angle 135o.
2.) No longitudinal bar shall be more than 6 in. clear on
either side from support bar.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

Examples of
lateral ties.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

Reinforcement Requirements (Spirals )


ACI Code 7.10.4

- size 3/8 (3/8 smooth bar, #3 bar dll or


wll wire)
- clear spacing: 1 in.
3 in.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads

Reinforcement Requirements (Spiral)


Spiral Reinforcement Ratio, s

Volume of Spiral 4 Asp


s
Volume of Core Dc s

Asp Dc
from : s
1 4 Dc s
2
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
Reinforcement Requirements (Spiral)

Ag f c
s 1 * ACI Eqn. 10-6
A f
c y
where
Asp cross - sectional area of spiral reinforcement
Dc2
Ac core area
4
Dc core diameter : outside edge to outside edge of spiral
s spacing(pitch of spiral steel (center to center)
f y yield strength of spiral steel 60,000 psi
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
4. Design for Concentric Axial Loads
(a) Load Combination

Gravity: Pu 1.4 PDL 1.7 PLL


Gravity + Wind: Pu 0.75 * 1.4 PDL 1.7 PLL 1.7 Pw
and Pu 0.9 PDL 1.3Pw
Etc.
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
4. Design for Concentric Axial Loads
(b) General Strength Requirement

Pn Pu
where, = 0.7 for tied columns
= 0.75 for spiral columns
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
4. Design for Concentric Axial Loads
(c) Expression for Design
defined:
ACI Code 0.01 g 0.08
Ast
g
Ag
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads


Pn r Ag 0.85 f c Ast f y 0.85 f c Pu

concrete steel
or

Pn r Ag 0.85 f c g f y 0.85 f c Pu
Behavior, Nominal Capacity and Design
under concentric Axial loads
* when g is known or assumed:
Pu
Ag
r 0.85 f c g f y 0.85 f c
* when Ag is known or assumed:

1 P
Ast u
Ag 0.85 f c
f y 0 .85 f
c
r

Example: Design tied Column for
concentric Axial Load
Design tied column for concentric axial load
Pdl = 150 k; Pll =300 k; Pw = 50 k
fc =4500 psi fy = 60 ksi
Design a square column aim for g =0.03. Select
longitudinal transverse reinforcement.
Behavior under Combined Bending and
Axial Loads
Usually moment is represented by axial load times
eccentricity, i.e.
Behavior under Combined Bending and
Axial Loads
Resultant Forces action at Centroid
( h/2 in this case )
Pn Cs1 Cc Ts2

compression
is positive

Moment about geometric center

h h a h
M n Cs1 * d1 Cc * Ts2 * d 2
2 2 2 2
Behavior under Combined Bending and
Axial Loads
Interaction Diagram Between Axial Load and Moment
( Failure Envelope )

Concrete crushes
before steel yields

Steel yields before


concrete crushes

Note: Any combination of P and M outside the envelope will cause failure.
Behavior under Combined Bending and
Axial Loads
Axial Load and Moment Interaction Diagram -General
Example: Axial Load vs. Moment
Interaction Diagram