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Intra vs Inter

The prefix intra- means within


The word intramural literally means
within walls, and refers to things that
occur within the walls of a school, or
things that are self-contained.
Intraparticle forces act within a
compound, such as covalent bonds.
Intra vs Inter

The prefix inter- means between or


among.
The internet, as I think were all aware,
covers the globe, and anyone with a
connection can access it from anywhere
in the world.
Interparticle forces act between
compounds, usually molecules. These
are new types of forces that we will
discuss today.
Interparticle Forces
Three types of force can operate
between covalent molecules:
1. Dispersion Forces also known as
London Forces or as
van der Waal's Forces.
2. Dipole-dipole
3. Hydrogen bonds (special type of
dipole-dipole)
Relative Strength of
Intermolecular Forces:
Intermolecular forces are much weaker than
intramolecular forces
dispersion forces are the weakest
intermolecular force (one hundredth-one
thousandth the strength of a covalent bond)
hydrogen bonds are the strongest
intermolecular force (about one-tenth the
strength of a covalent bond).
dispersion < dipole-dipole < hydrogen
bonds
Dispersion Forces
(London Forces, van der Waal's Forces)

Very weak forces of attraction between molecules


resulting from:
momentary dipoles occurring due to uneven
electron distributions in neighbouring molecules as
they approach one another.
the weak residual attraction of the nuclei in one
molecule for the electrons in a neighbouring
molecule.
The more electrons that are present in the molecule,
the stronger the dispersion forces will be.
Dispersion forces are the only type of intermolecular
force operating between non-polar molecules
Dipole-dipole
Interactions
Stronger intermolecular forces than Dispersion
forces
occur
between molecules that have
permanent net dipoles (polar
molecules).

The partial positive charge on one


molecule is electrostatically attracted
to the partial negative charge on a
neighbouring molecule.
Hydrogen Bonds
occur between polar molecules that have a
permanent net dipole resulting from hydrogen
being covalently bonded to either fluorine,
oxygen or nitrogen.
The dipole created between the hydrogen atom
and the fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen atom is
extremely polar.
This creates a highly localized positive charge on
the hydrogen atom and highly negative localized
charge on the fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen atom.
Responsible for high surface tension of water.
Effect of IntermolecularForces

Melting and Boiling Points

melting or boiling results from a


weakening of the attractive forces
between the molecules.
the stronger the intermolecular force
is, the more energy is required to
melt the solid or boil the liquid.
Effect of Intermolecular Forces
on Solubility

In general like dissolves like:


non-polar compounds dissolve in non-polar
solvents

polar compounds such as sugar (glucose C 6H12O6)


will dissolve in polar solvents such as water (H 2O)

ionic
solutes such as sodium chloride (NaCl) will
generally dissolve in polar solvents but not in
non-polar solvents
Intermolecular Forces
Worksheet
1) Identify the main intermolecular
force in the following compounds.
You must determine compound
polarity first.
a) PF3 _____________________________
b) H2CO ___________________________
c) HF ______________________________
Homework

Read section 3.4 in the textbook to


help support what we covered in
class today.
Summary on page 114
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