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Abrasive Jet Machining

Dr. P. Kuppan
Introduction
In abrasive jet machining (AJM) a focused
stream of abrasive grains of Al2O3 or SiC
carried by high-pressure gas or air at a high
velocity is made to impinge on the work
surface.
AJM has smaller diameter abrasives and a
more finely controlled delivery system.
Abrasive particles of around 50 m grit size
would impinge on the work material at velocity
of 200 m/s from a nozzle of I.D. of 0.5 mm with
a stand off distance of around 2 mm.
The workpiece material is removed by the
mechanical abrasion (MA) action of the high-
velocity abrasive particles. 2
AJM terminology.

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Abrasive-Jet (b)
Machining

(a)

Figure (a) Schematic illustration of the abrasive-jet machining process. (b)


Examples of parts produced through abrasive-jet machining, produced in 50-
mm (2-in.) thick 304 stainless steel. Source: Courtesy of OMAX Corporation. 4
Equipment

In AJM, air is compressed in an air compressor and


compressed air at a pressure of around 5 bar is used
as the carrier gas.
Gases like CO2, N2 can also be used as carrier gas
which may directly be issued from a gas cylinder.
Generally oxygen is not used as a carrier gas.
The gas is then passed through an air dryer to
remove any residual water vapour.
To remove any oil vapour or particulate contaminant
the same is passed through a series of filters.
The abrasive particles enter the chamber from a
hopper through a metallic sieve. The sieve is
constantly vibrated (50-60 Hz) by an electromagnetic
shaker.
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Equipment

The mass flow rate of abrasive (15 gm/min)


entering the chamber depends on the amplitude
of vibration of the sieve and its frequency.
The abrasive particles are then carried by the
carrier gas to the machining chamber via an
electro-magnetic on-off valve.
The machining enclosure is essential to contain
the abrasive and machined particles in a safe
and eco-friendly manner.
The machining is carried out as high velocity
(200 m/s) abrasive particles are issued from the
nozzle onto a work piece traversing under the
jet.

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Process Parameters and Machining Characteristics

The process parameters are listed below:


Abrasive

Material Al2O3 / SiC / glass beads


Shape irregular / spherical
Size 10 ~ 50 m
Mass flow rate 2 ~ 20 gm/min
Carrier gas
Composition Air, CO2, N2
Density Air ~ 1.3 kg/m3
Velocity 500 ~ 700 m/s
Pressure 2 ~ 10 bar
Flow rate 5 ~ 30 lpm
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Process Parameters and Machining Characteristics

Abrasive Jet
Velocity 100 ~ 300 m/s
Mixing ratio mass flow ratio of abrasive to
gas
Stand-off distance 0.5 ~ 5 mm
Impingement Angle 600 ~ 900
Nozzle
Material WC / sapphire
Diameter (Internal) 0.2 ~ 0.8 mm
Life 10 ~ 300 hours

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Effect of process parameters MRR

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Applications

Drilling holes, cutting slots, cleaning hard


surfaces, deburring, polishing, and radiusing.
Deburring of cross holes, slots, and threads in
small precision parts that require a burr-free
finish, such as hydraulic valves, aircraft fuel
systems, and medical appliances.
Machining intricate shapes or holes in
sensitive, brittle, thin, or difficult-to-machine
materials.
Insulation stripping and wire cleaning without
affecting the conductor.
Removal of films and delicate cleaning of
irregular surfaces because the abrasive
stream is able to follow contours.
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Limitations

MRR is rather low (around ~ 15


mm3/min for machining glass)
Abrasive particles tend to get
embedded particularly if the work
material is ductile
Tapering occurs due to flaring of
the jet
Environmental load is rather
high.
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Modelling of material removal

Assumptions:
Abrasives are spherical in shape and rigid. The
particles are characterized by the mean grit
diameter
The kinetic energy of the abrasives are fully
utilized in removing material
Brittle materials are considered to fail due to
brittle fracture and the fracture volume is
considered to be hemispherical with diameter
equal to chordal length of the indentation
For ductile material, removal volume is
assumed to be equal to the indentation
volume due to particulate impact.
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Interaction of abrasive particles with workpiece

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From the geometry of the indentation

Volume of material removal in brittle material


is the volume of the hemispherical impact crater
and is given by:

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For ductile material, volume of material removal
in single impact is equal to the volume of the
indentation and is expressed as:

Kinetic energy of a single abrasive particle is


given by

where, v = velocity of the abrasive particle


mg= mass of a single abrasive grit
dg = diameter of the grit
g = density of the grit

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On impact, the work material would be
subjected to a maximum force F which would
lead to an indentation of . Thus the work done
during such indentation is given by

Now considering H as the hardness or the flow


strength of the work material, the impact force
(F) can be expressed as:

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Now, as it is assumed that the K.E. of the
abrasive is fully used for material removal, then
the work done is equated to the energy

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Problem
1. Estimate the material removal rate in AJM
of a brittle material with flow strength of
4 GPa. The abrasive flow rate is 2 gm/min,
velocity is 200 m/s and density of the
abrasive is 3 gm/cc.

2. Material removal rate in AJM is 0.5 mm 3/s.


Calculate material removal per impact if
mass flow rate of abrasive is 3 gm/min,
density is 3 gm/cc and grit size is 60 m as
well as indentation radius.

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