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MANAJEMEN PROYEK

KONSTRUKSI 2011

CAHYONO BINTANG NURCAHYO, ST, MT


Referensi Utama

PMBOK Guide 4th Edition : Project


Management Institute, 2008
Manajemen Proyek - Dari Konseptual sampai
Operasional : Iman Soeharto,1999
Project Management - The Managerial Process
4e : Clifford F. Gray & Erik W. Larson
dsb
STRUKTUR ORGANISASI
Project Project Manager

Project Method & Tool


Management
Organisasi Proyek

Organisasi Proyek merupakan sekelompok


orang dengan berbagai latar belakang ilmu,
yang terorganisir dan terkoordinir dalam
wadah tertentu,
yang melaksanakan tugas (mengelola proyek)
dengan cara tertentu,
untuk mencapai tujuan bersama
yaitu mencapai keuntungan bagi perusahaan
dan kepuasan pelanggan sebagai pengguna
jasa.
Organizational Structure

Functional Organization
Matrix Organization
Weak Matrix
Balanced Matrix
Strong Matrix

Projectized
1. Functional Organization
1. Functional Organization
Direktur

Dept. A Dept. B Dept. C Dept. D


Admin. O&M Logistik Market

Maintenace Engineering

Design / Eng. Inspection Develop.

Proyek dititipkan pada salah satu Departemen fungsional


1. Functional Organization

Is a hierarcy where each employee has


one clear superior.
Staff members are grouped by
speciality (such as production,
marketing, engineering, and
accounting) at the top level.
PMBOK 4th edition
1. Functional Organization

Disebut organisasi fungsional karena organisasi


ini dipecah atau dikelompokkan menjadi unit-
unit berdasarkan fungsinya.
Ciri Utamanya:
Sistem komando tunggal, memiliki satu atasan
Personil memiliki tugas dan tanggung jawab yang
jelas (professional)
Arus Informasi dan pelaporan bersifat Vertikal.
Hubungan horisontal diatur dengan prosedur kerja &
kebijakan.
Iman Soeharto
1. Functional Organization

Kesulitan yang dihadapi:


Cenderung berorientasi pada outcome masing-
masing bidang, tidak melihat tujuan organisaisi
secara keseluruhan.
Makin besar organisasi makin panjang prosedur
pengambilan keputusannya.
Sulit mengkoordinasi dan mengintegrasikan
pekerjaan yang multi-disiplin dan melibatkan
pihak luar organisasi.
Kurangnya jalur komunikasi horisontal.

Iman Soeharto
2. Weak Matrix Organization
2. Weak Matrix Organization

Weak matrices maintain many


characteristics of a functional
organization
The project manager role is more of
coordinator or expediter than that of a
true project manager.
2. Balanced Matrix
Organization
2. Strong Matrix Organization
2. Composite Organization
3. Projectized Organization
3. Projectized Organization
Director

Project A Project B Project C

Dept. A Dept. B Dept. C


Admin. Finance Logistic

Sub.B1 Sub.B2

Sub.B1.1 Sub.B1.2 Sub.B2.1 Sub.B2.2


3. Projectized Organization

Team members are often co-located


Most of the organizations resources are
involved in project work
Project Managers have a great deal of
independence and authority
PMBOK 4th edition
Advantages Disadvantages
Efficient project organization Less efficient use of resources
Loyalty to project Lack professionalism in
Proj More effective communications disciplines
ecti than functional Duplication of facilities & job
zed functions
No Home when project is
completed
Highly visible project objectives Extra administration is required
Improve PM control over More than one boss for project
resources teams
More support from functional More complex to monitor &
Mat areas control
rix Maximum utilization of scarce Tougher problem with resource
resources allocation
Better coordination Need extensive policies and
Team member maintain a procedures
home
Easier management of People place more emphasis on
specialists their functional specialty to the
Team member report to only detriment of the project
Fun one supervisor No career path in project
Key Factors of Organizational
Structure
Range of Organizational Choice
Organizational Influences on
Projects
Organization Weak Medium Strong Fully
Type Functional Projectized/
MATRIX Task Force
100% 0%
Strong
Weak Matrix
Matrix
Percentage
Personnel
50% on the 50%
Percentage Project
Personal
Remaining
in
Department
100%
0%
No real Project Part time PM Part time PM PM for > half Full time PM Full time PM
Organizational Manager Part time PE Part time PC time Project Office. Project Office
Highlight Part time PE PE Support one PC reports to Some project Separate
(from functional or more PM or higher mgt. administration Project Teams
dep.) FM assistance
No Project Off.

Level of None Low Low to Medium Medium high High


Authority medium to high

FM = Functional Manager PC = Project Coordinator PE = Project Expeditor PM = Project Manager


Source: Vijay K. Verma, P.Eng., MBA, Organizing Projects for Succes, PMI. 1995
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