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Hidrologi

Pengertian Hidrologi
Suatu cabang ilmu tentang
terjadi nya dan gerakan air di
alam kita.

MENURUT SNI No. 1724-1989-F :


Ilmu yang mempelajari sistem
kejadian air di atas , pada
permukaan, dan di dalam tanah.
HIDROLOGI adalah
E.M. WILSON
( ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY )
The science of hydrology deals with the
occurrence and movement of water on
and over the surface of the earth.

MARTIN WANIELISTA et. al


( HYDROLOGY : water quantity and quality control )
The study and practice of hydrology aids
in explaining and quantifying the
occurrence of water on, under and over
the earths surface. Hidrology is both a
scientific and engineering field of study.
Hydrology
An Earth Science. It
Encompasses the Occurrence,
Distribution, Movement, and
Properties of the Waters of the
Earth and Their Environmental
Relationships." (Viessman,
Knapp, Lewis, & Harbaugh,
1977 - Introduction to
Hydrology, Harper & Row
JUMLAH AIR
VOLUME PERSENTASE
LOKASI
(103 km3 ) (%)
DANAU AIR TAWAR 125
SUNGAI 1,25
0,64
LENGAS TANAH 65
AIR TANAH 8.250
DANAU AIR ASIN &
LAUT MATI 105 0,008
ATMOSFIR 13 0,002
KUTUB ES, SUNGAI ES,
SALJU 29.200 2,1
LAUT & LAUTAN 1.320.000 97,25
1.360.000 100
TOTAL ATAU 1,36 x 1018
m3
AIR DI BUMI KITA
Sungai & Danau 0.001%

Hanya 2.5% yang Air di udara 0.001%


berupa air tawar.
Cuma < 1% yg dapat
dimanfaatkan dg biaya Air Tanah 0.72%
rendah, yaitu: air di Es & salju 1.75%
danau, sungai, waduk
dan sumber air tanah
dangkal.
Diperlukan upaya Vol. total
bersama untuk
mempertahankan sekitar 1.4 milyar km3
keberadaannya untuk
kelangsungan
kehidupan dan Air laut 97.5%
peradaban sekarang
dan yg akan datang.

Sumber: Comprehensive Assessment of the Freshwater Resources of the World: WMO


Global Water
Resources

Only this portion is


renewable
Perkiraan Keseimbangan
Air
Perkiraan Keseimbangan
Air
Daur Hidrologi (Hydrologic
Cycle)
Jangka Panjang
(Iklim dan Daur Hidrologi)
Jangka Pendek
(Cuaca & kondisi hidrologis
saat ini)
Global Water Cycle
Residence time:
Average travel
time for water
through a
subsystem of the
hydrologic cycle

Tr = S/Q
Storage/flowrate
Principal sources
of fresh water for
human activities
(44,800 km3/yr)
Komponen Daur Hidrologi

Precipitation
Evaporation
Evaporation
Evapo-transpiration

Ocean
Infiltration
Recharge runoff

Precipitation
Aquifer Evaporation/
ET
Surface
Water
Groundwate
r
APA KOMPONEN LAIN
DALAM DAUR HIDROLOGI
(HYDROLOGIC CYCLE)
SAAT INI?
Komponen Daur Hidrologi

Precipitation
Evaporation
Evaporation
Evapo-transpiration

Discharge
treated water

Soil
moisture

Soil moisture Water


Supply Ocean
Infiltration
Recharge runoff

Extraction Precipitation
Aquifer Evaporation/
Soil Salt Water Intrusion
ET
moist Surface
ure Return flow Water
Infiltration Treated Aquifer
(Art) intrusio Groundwate
water n r
Extraction
Daur Hidrologi
Proses dalam daur hidrologi
PRESIPITASI
EVAPORASI
INFILTRASI
LIMPASAN PERMUKAAN (SURFACE
RUN OFF) dan LIMPASAN AIR
TANAH (SUBSURFACE RUN OFF)
Population and Water
Use
9000

8000 Withdrawal (km3/yr)

7000 Population (million)

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0
global freshwater use is ~4000 km3/year
1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
~10% of the renewable supply (44,800km3/year)
Global Water Withdrawal &
Consumption
Global Water Use
Typical Domestic Water
Use
100-600L/person/day (high-income)
50-100L/person/day (low-income)
10-40L/person/day (water scarce)

Differences in domestic
freshwater use:
Piped distribution or
carried Number/type of
appliances and sanitation
Water Stress Index
Based on human consumption and linked to
population growth
Domestic requirement:
100L/person/day = 40m3/person/year
600L/person/day = 240m3/person/year
Associated agricultural, industrial & energy
need:
20 x 40m3/person/year = 800 m3/person/year
Total need:
840 m3/person/year
1040 m3/person/year
Atmospheric Moisture

Snow Rain
Energy
Evaporation
Interception
Throughfall and
Stem Flow
Snowpack
Snowmelt
Watershed
Pervious Surface Impervious Boundary
Infiltration
Evapotranspiration
Soil Moisture
Percolation Overland
Groundwater Flow
Groundwater Flow
Evaporation
Streams and Lakes
Channel Flow
Runoff
APLIKASI HIDROLOGI
Peran hydrologist dalam penyediaan
air minum suatu kota :
MENCARI JAWABAN :
Berapa curah hujan di daerah cakupan
(Catchment Area)
Berapa lama musim kemarau dan berapa
besar waduk yang diperlukan untuk
meratakan fluktuasi aliran musim kemarau
dan musim hujan
Berapa kehilangan air akibat
evaporasi dan transpirasi
Apakah waduk lebih baik dari
penyedotan air tanah.
Manfaat hidrologi
Dasar rekayasa bangunan-bangunan air
Penentuan macam dan perluasan daerah
pertanian
Penentuan lokasi daerah industri
Pemenuhan kebutuhan air penduduk :air
minum,irigasi
Pengendalian banjir
Pengembangan pelayaran di pedalaman
Pengembangan pelabuhan
Pelestarian/konservasi lingkungan hidup,dsb
Aplikasi Hidrologi
Jika harus membangun
waduk/bendungan

PERTANYAAN BERIKUTNYA :

Berapa besar kapasitas bangunan


pelimpah ( spillway )
Berapa besar pipa penyalurnya
Apa perlu penghutanan kembali ?
Aplikasi Hidrologi

Figure 14.11
Watershed
Watershed: Daerah yang mengalirkan air
(draining) ke aliran sungai pada lokasi
tertentu
Watershed Divide: Garis yang membatasi
daerah/lahan yang mengalirkan ke aliran
sungai dan menjauhi aliran sungai.
Sinonim: Watershed, Catchment, Basin,
Drainage area, Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS),
Daerah Cakupan, Daerah Pengaliran.
Daerah Aliran Sungai
(DAS)
Questions...

--Ganges River Distributary, Bangladesh