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HSPA systems

Kari Aho
Senior Research Scientist
kari.aho@magister.fi
Disclaimer

Effort has been put to make these slides as correct as


possible, however it is still suggested that reader confirms
the latest information from official sources like 3GPP specs
(http://www.3gpp.org/Specification-Numbering)
Material represents the views and opinions of the author
and not necessarily the views of their employers
Use/reproduction of this material is forbidden without a
permission from the author

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Readings related to the subject

General readings
WCDMA for UMTS H. Holma, A. Toskala
HSDPA/HSUPA for UMTS H. Holma, A. Toskala
3G Evolution - HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband - E.
Dahlman, S. Parkvall, J. Skld and P. Beming,
Network planning oriented
Radio Network Planning and Optimisation for UMTS J. Laiho,
A. Wacker, T. Novosad
UMTS Radio Network Planning, Optimization and QoS
Management For Practical Engineering Tasks J. Lempiinen,
M. Manninen

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Contents

Introduction
HSDPA
HSUPA
Continuous Packet Connectivity
I-HSPA
Conclusions

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Introduction

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High Speed Packet Access (1/3)

There were number of pushing forces to improve the packet data


capabilities of WCDMA even further, e.g.
Growing interest towards rich calls, mobile-TV and music streaming in
the wireless domain
Competitive technologies such as WIMAX
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) evolution introduced first
downlink counterpart of the evolution called High Speed Downlink
Packet Access (HSDPA) in Release 5
Uplink evolution followed later in Release 6 by the name of High
Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA)
HSPA was originally designed for non-real time traffic with high
transmission rate requirements

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High Speed Packet Access (2/3)

HSPA features/properties include e.g.


Higher order modulation and coding
Higher throughput and peak data rates
In theory up to 5,8 Mbps in the uplink and 14 Mbps in the
downlink without Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs (MIMO)
Multiple Inputs and Multiple Outputs (MIMO)
Roughly speaking equals to additional transmitter and receiver
antennas
Fast scheduling in the Node B
Possibility to take advantage of channel conditions with lower latency

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High Speed Packet Access (3/3)

Link adaptation in downlink


Possibility to adjust the used modulation and coding scheme according
to be appropriate for current radio channel conditions
Improved retransmission capabilities
Newly introduced layer one retransmissions called as Hybrid Automatic
Repeat Request (HARQ) => reduced delay
Radio Link Control (RLC) level retransmissions still possible
Shorter frame sizes and thus Transmission Time Intervals (TTI)
With HSDPA 2ms and with HSUPA 10ms and 2ms

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WCDMA Background and Evolution
3GPP Rel 5 3GPP Rel 6 3GPP Rel 7
3GPP Rel -99 3GPP Rel 4 (HSDPA) (HSUPA) HSPA+ Further
12/99 03/01 03/02 2H/04 06/07
Releases, (LTE)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

Europe Europe HSDPA HSUPA


Japan
(pre-commercial) (commercial) (commercial) (commercial)

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Questions

Why were the packet data capabilities of WCDMA improved


even further?
For what kind of services was HSPA originally designed?

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With many users requiring much high data transfer speeds to compete
with fixed line broadband services and also to support services that
require higher data rates, the need for an increase in the speeds
obtainable became necessary. This resulted in the development of the
technologies for 3G HSPA
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile
protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed
Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the
performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using
the WCDMA protocols. A further improved 3GPP standard, Evolved High
Speed Packet Access (also known as HSPA+), was released late in 2008
with subsequent worldwide adoption beginning in 2010. The newer
standard allows bit-rates to reach as high as 337 Mbit/s in the downlink
and 34 Mbit/s in the uplink. However, these speeds are rarely achieved
in practice.
The first HSPA specifications supported increased peak data rates of up
to 14 Mbit/s in the downlink and 5.76 Mbit/s in the uplink. It also
reduced latency and provided up to five times more system capacity in
the downlink and up to twice as much system capacity in the uplink
compared with original WCDMA protocol

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Note on 3G UMTS / W-CDMA:
UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a 3G
cellular system that uses Wideband CDMA, WCDMA as the
format for the radio transmission. Its aim was to provide high
speed data at much higher speeds than was previously
possible. The basic system provided for speeds of 2 Mbps in
the downlink and 384 kbps in the uplink.

Beyond 3G HSPA
With the elements of 3G HSPA launched, further evolutions were
in the pipeline. The first of these was known as HSPA+ or
Evolved HSPA. The evolved HSPA or HSPA+ provides data rates
up to 42 Mbps in the downlink and 11 Mbps in the uplink (per
5MHz carrier) which it achieves by using high order modulation
and MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) technologies.

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3G HSPA Speed & Salient Features

3GPP Release Technology Downlink Speed (MBPS) Uplink Speed (MBPS)

Rel 5 HSDPA 14.4 0.384


Rel 6 HSUPA 14.4 5.7

2xdata capacity
Rel 7 28 11
2x voice capacity

Rel 8 Multi-carrier 42 11

Multicarrier, 10 MHz, 2x2


Rel 9 MIMO UL, 84 23
10 MHz & 16-QAM D/L

Rel 10 20 MHz 2x2 MIMO in UL, 10 168 23

40 MHz 2x2 / 4x4 MIMO UL,


Rel 11 336 - 672 70
10 MHz 64-QAM MIMO DL

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Benefits of HSPA
Use of higher order modulation: 16QAM is used in the downlink instead of QPSK to
enable data to be transmitted at a higher rate. This provides for maximum data rates of 14
Mbps in the downlink. QPSK is still used in the uplink where data rates of up to 5.8 Mbps are
achieved. The data rates quoted are for raw data rates and do not include reductions in
actual payload data resulting from the protocol overheads.
Shorter Transmission Time Interval (TTI): The use of a shorter TTI reduces the round
trip time and enables improvements in adapting to fast channel variations and provides for
reductions in latency.
Use of shared channel transmission: Sharing the resources enables greater levels of
efficiency to be achieved and integrates with IP and packet data concepts.
Use of link adaptation: By adapting the link it is possible to maximize the channel usage.
Fast Node B scheduling: The use of fast scheduling with adaptive coding and modulation
(only downlink) enables the system to respond to the varying radio channel and interference
conditions and to accommodate data traffic which tends to be "bursty" in nature.
Node B based Hybrid ARQ: This enables 3G HSPA to provide reduced retransmission
round trip times and it adds robustness to the system by allowing soft combining of
retransmissions.

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UMTS HSPA and 3GPP standards
Release 4: This release of the 3GPP standard provided for the efficient use of IP, a facility that was required
because the original Release 99 focused on circuit switched technology. Accordingly this was a key enabler for
3G HSDPA.
Release 5: This release included the core of HSDPA itself. It provided for downlink packet support, reduced
delays, a raw data rate (i.e. including payload, protocols, error correction, etc) of 14 Mbps and gave an overall
increase of around three over the 3GPP UMTS Release 99 standard.
Release 6: This included the core of HSUPA with an enhanced uplink with improved packet data support. This
provided reduced delays, an uplink raw data rate of 5.74 Mbps and it gave an increase capacity of around twice
that offered by the original Release 99 UMTS standard. Also included within this release was the MBMS,
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services providing improved broadcast services, i.e. Mobile TV.
Release 7: This release of the 3GPP standard included downlink MIMO operation as well as support for higher
order modulation up to 64-QAM in the uplink and 16-QAM in the downlink. However it only allows for either
MIMO or the higher order modulation. It also introduced protocol enhancements to allow the support for
Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC).
Release 8: This release of the standard occurred during the course of 2008 and it defines dual carrier
operation as well as allowing simultaneous operation of the high order modulation schemes and MIMO. Further
to this, latency is improved to keep it in line with the requirements for many new applications being used.
Release 9: 3GPP Release 9 occurred during 2009 and included facilities for HPSA including 2x2MIMO in the
uplink and a 10MHz bandwidth in the downlink. The uplink carriers may be from different bands.
Release 10: HSPA Release 10 utilises up to 4-carriers, i.e. 20 MHz bandwidth which may be from two
separate bands. In addition to this 2x2 MIMO in the downlink provides data rates up to 168 Mbps. This figure
equates to that obtained for LTE Release 8 when using comparable bandwidth and antennas configurations.
Release 11: Release 11 occurred during 2011 / 2012. It provided the facility for 40MHz bandwidth in the
uplink along with up to 4x4 MIMO. The downlink was upgraded to accommodate 64-QAM modulation and MIMO.
Release 12: This 3GPP release is occurring in 2013 / 2014.

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High Speed Downlink Packet Access
(HSDPA)

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Introduction to HSDPA (1/2)

In Release 99 there basically exists three different methods


for downlink packet data operation
DCH,
Forward Access Channel (FACH) and
Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH)
After the introduction of HSDPA in Release 5 some changes
to downlink packet data operations occurred
New High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH) channel was introduced
DSCH was removed due to lack of interest for implementing it
in practical networks

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Introduction to HSDPA (2/2)

HSDPA Improvements for packet data performance both in


terms of capacity and practical bit rates are based on
The use of link adaptation,
Higher order modulation,
Fast scheduling,
Shorter frame size (or transmission time interval), and
Physical layer retransmission
HSDPA does not support DCH features like fast power
control or soft handover

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HSDPA channels (1/2)

The Release 99 based DCH is the key part of the system


despite the introduction of HSDPA
Release 5 HSDPA is always operated with the DCH
DCH with HSDPA
If the service is only for packet data, then at least the
signaling radio bearer (SRB) is carried on the DCH
In case the service is circuit-switched then the service always
runs on the DCH
With Release 6, signaling can also be carried without the DCH
In Release 5, uplink user data always go on the DCH (when
HSDPA is active)

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HSDPA channels (2/2)

in Release 6 an alternative is provided by the Enhanced DCH


(E-DCH) with the introduction of high-speed uplink packet
access (HSUPA)
User data is sent on High Speed Downlink Shared Channel
(HS-DSCH)
Control information is sent on High Speed Common Control
Channel (HS-SCCH)
HS-SCCH is sent two slot before HS-DSCH to inform the
scheduled UE of the transport format of the incoming
transmission on HS-DSCH

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Questions

Mention at least purpose to which Rel99 DCH is used with


HSDPA
What kind of handovers are supported with HSDPA?

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Link Adaptation (1/3)

UE informs the Node B regularly of its channel quality by


CQI messages (Channel Quality Indicator)

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Link Adaptation (2/3)

Adaptive modulation and higher order modulation


(16/64QAM) with HSDPA
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 Link
-2
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160
adaptation
Tim e [n u m b e r o f TTIs] adjusts the
1 6 Q A M 3 /4
mode within
1 6 Q A M 2 /4 few ms based
Q P S K 3 /4 on CQI
Q P S K 2 /4
Q P S K 1 /4

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Link Adaptation (3/3)

More complex modulation schemes require more energy


per bit to be transmitted than simply going for transmission
with multiple parallel code channels, thus HSUPA benefits
more from using multiple codes as PC keeps the signal
levels quite good anyway

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Fast Retransmissions (1/3)
Rel 99 HSPA

RNC
Packet
Retransmisson
Packet

NodeB

RLC
ACK/NACK
Retransmisson
UE Layer 1
ACK/NACK

Radio Link Control (RLC) layer ACK/NACKs also possible with HSPA

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Fast Retransmissions (2/3)

UE NodeB RNC

User data

(Re)transmission
RLC
RLC (N)ACK

MAC-d

MAC-hs

(Re)transmission
Layer1
HARQ (N)ACK

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Fast Retransmissions (3/3)

Layer 1 signaling indicates the need of retransmission which leads to much


faster round trip time that with Rel 99
Retransmission procedure with layer 1 retransmissions (HARQ) is done so
that decoder does not get rid of the received symbols if the transmission
fails but combines them with new transmissions
Retransmissions can operate in two ways:
Identical retransmissions (soft/chase combining)
Non-identical retransmissions (incremental redundancy)

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Questions

What is CQI?
What does link adaptation do?
Which entity initiates RLC re-transmissions?
Which entity initiates HARQ re-transmissions?

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Downlink scheduling (1/5)

NodeB has certain amount of users connected to it and it


needs to schedule the different users for transmission in
different fractions of time (Transmission Time Intervals)
Certain fairness for scheduling time for each user should be
maintained
Resources should be utilized in optimal manor
There exists different ways that users can be scheduled in
downlink, e.g.
Round Robin
Proportional Fair

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Downlink scheduling (2/5)

Round Robin (RR)


Simplest scheduling algorithms
Assigns users in order i.e. handling all users without priority
Positive sides
Easy to implement
Each user gets served equally
Negative sides
No channel conditions are taken into account and thus resources
might be wasted

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Downlink scheduling (3/5)

Proportional Fair (PF)


Compromise-based scheduling algorithm
Based upon maintaining a balance between two competing
interests
Maximize network throughput i.e. users are served in good channel
conditions
Allowing all users at least a minimal level of service

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Downlink scheduling (4/5)

PF assigning each users a scheduling priority that is inversely


proportional to its anticipated resource consumption
High resource consumption => low priority

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Downlink scheduling (5/5)

In general priority metric for certain user can be defined as follows

d
priority ,
r
where instantaneous data rate, d, is obtained by consulting the
link adaptation algorithm and average throughput, r, of the user is
defined and/or updated as follows

(1 a ) * rold a * d , if user is served


r ,
(1 a ) * rold , otherwise
1
where a is so called forgetting factor. Hence, a equals the
equivalent averaging period in a number of TTIs for the
exponential smoothing filter

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Mobility with HSDPA (1/4)

Handovers are roughly tradeoff between two issues


When channel conditions are getting worse, handover to better
cell should be made so that packets wont get lost due to poor
channel conditions
However, each time when the handover is made, transmission
buffers in the Node B are flushed resulting to additional delays
from RLC level retransmission or disruption of service
When regarding HSDPA, the user can be connected only to
one serving HSDPA Node B at the time
Leading to hard handover when the handover between HSDPA
Node Bs is required in contrary to DCH soft handover

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Mobility with HSDPA (2/4)

Even though there is only one serving HS-DSCH cell, the


associated DCH itself can be in soft(er) handover and
maintain the active set as in Rel99

Node B,
Serving HSDPA
DCH

DCH Node B,
Part of DCH active set
HS-SCCH

UE
DCH/HSDPA
DCH

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Mobility with HSDPA (3/4)

HSDPA handover procedure includes following steps


Serving HS-DSCH cell change procedure is initiated when a
link in (DCH) active set becomes higher in strength and stays
stronger for certain period of time, referred as time-to-trigger
If the condition mentioned above is met then the
measurement report is sent from the UE to the Node B, which
forwards it to the RNC
If e.g. the admission control requirements are met the RNC
can then give the consent for the UE to make the handover by
sending so called Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB)
(re)configuration message

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Mobility with HSDPA (4/4)

In the case of intra Node B handover, the HARQ processes


(transmissions) and Node B buffers can be maintained and
thus there is only minimal interruption in data flow
However, with inter Node B handover i.e. between Node Bs,
the Node B packet buffers are flushed including all unfinished
HARQ processes which are belonging to the UE that is handed
off

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Questions

How does Round Robin allocate resources for the users?


How intra- and inter-Node B handovers differ from each
other?

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High Speed Uplink Packet Access
(HSUPA)

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Introduction to HSUPA (1/2)

Roughly three years later when HSDPA was introduced


uplink counterpart of the high speed packet access
evolution was introduced in Release 6
In 3GPP original name was not HSUPA but Enhanced Dedicated
Channel (E-DCH)
The obvious choices for uplink evolution was to investigate the
techniques used for HSDPA and, if possible, adopt them for the
uplink as well
Improvements in HSUPA when compared to Rel99
Layer 1 Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) i.e. fast retransmissions
Node B based scheduling

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Introduction to HSUPA (2/2)

Easier multicode transmissions


Shorter frame size, 10ms mandatory for all HSUPA capable
devices and 2 ms as optional feature
HSUPA is not a standalone feature, but requires many of
the basic features of the WCDMA Rel99
Cell selection and synchronization,
random access,
basic power control loop functions,
basic mobility procedures (soft handover), etc.

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HSUPA channels (1/4)

New uplink transport channel - Enhanced Dedicated


Channel (E-DCH)
Supports key HSUPA features such as HARQ, fast scheduling
etc.
Unlike HS-DSCH (HSDPA) E-DCH is not a shared channel, but
a dedicated channel (*)
Similarly to DCH, E-DCH is also mapped to physical control
and data channels
The user data is carried on the enhanced dedicated physical data
channel (E-DPDCH) while new control information is on the E-
DPCCH

(*)Dedicated channel means that each UE has its own data path to the Node B that is
continuous and independent from the DCHs and E-DCHs of other UEs

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HSUPA channels (2/4)

From the Release 99 DCH, the dedicated physical control


channel (DPCCH) is unchanged and the need for the
DPDCH depends on possible uplink services mapped to the
DCH
DPCCH is used e.g. for fast power control
New channels for scheduling control
E-DCH absolute grant channel (E-AGCH) - absolute scheduling
value
E-DCH relative grant channel (E-RGCH) - relative step
up/down scheduling commands

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HSUPA channels (3/4)

New channel for retransmission control, carries information


in the downlink direction on whether a particular base
station has received the uplink packet correctly or not
E-DCH HARQ indicator channel (E-HICH)

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HSUPA channels (4/4)

DPCCH
NodeB
E-DPCCH

E-DPDCH

E-RGGH
UE
E-AGCH

E-HICH

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Questions

What new features on top of multicodes and shorter frame


sizes do HSUPA offer?
Is DCH part of the HSUPA?

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Uplink scheduling (1/5)

With HSDPA all the cell power can be directed to a single


user for a short period of time
Very high peak data rates achievable for certain UE and all the
others can be left with a zero data rate
However, in the next time instant another UE can be served
and so on
With HSUPA HSDPA type of scheduling is not possible
HSUPA is a many-to-one scheduling
The uplink transmission power resources are divided to
separate devices (UEs) which can be used only for their
purposes and not shared as with HSDPA

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Uplink scheduling (2/5)

The shared resource of the uplink is the uplink noise rise(*), or


the total received power seen in the Node B receiver
Typically, one UE is unable to consume that resource alone
completely and it is very beneficial for the scheduler to know at
each time instant how much of that resource each UE will consume
and to try to maintain the interference level experienced close to
the maximum
Thus, HSUPA scheduling could be referred as very fast DCH
scheduling

(*)ratio between the total power received from all of the UEs at the base station and
the thermal noise

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Uplink scheduling (3/5)

Two different scheduling schemes are defined for HSUPA


traffic
Scheduled transmissions controlled by Node B which might not
guarantee high enough minimum bit rate. In addition each
request requires time consuming signaling
Non-scheduled transmissions (NST) controlled by radio
network controller (RNC) which defines a minimum data rate
at which the UE can transmit without any previous request.
This reduces signaling overhead and consequently processing
delays

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Uplink scheduling (4/5)

Scheduled transmissions
The scheduler measures the noise level and decides whether
Additional traffic can be allocated
Should some users have smaller data rates
The scheduler also monitors the uplink feedback
Transmitted on E-DPCCH in every TTI
Referred as happy bits
Tells which users could transmit at a higher data rate both from the
buffer status and the transmission power availability point of view

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Uplink scheduling (5/5)

Depending on possible user priorities given from the RNC, the


scheduler chooses a particular user or users for data rate
adjustment
The respective relative or absolute rate commands are then send
on the E-RGCH or E-AGCH
UE in soft handover receives only relative hold/down
commands from other than serving HSUPA Node B

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Questions

What is the shared resource in the uplink if power is in the


downlink?
What kind of scheduling possibilities HSUPA offer?

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Multicodes with HSUPA (1/2)

Even though Rel99 DCH supports in theory multicode


transmissions in practice only E-DCH can support multicode
transmissions and thus higher bitrates
In theory DCH can use 6xSF4 leading to 5.4 Mbps
E-DCH can in practice support 2xSF2 + 2xSF4 leading to 5.4
Mbps
The reason why DCH does not support multicodes is that
the DCH is controlled by RNC and thus DCH is rather slowly
controllable

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Multicodes with HSUPA (2/2)

If the UE could send with fully utilizing multicodes in some


time instant this might not be the case later and UE might end
up in power outage and thus wouldnt be able to use its
allocation
With RNC control reallocation of resources is slow => resources
wasted
Also, HSUPA with HARQ increases the possibility to operate
with higher BLER target which leads to lower power
requirement for corresponding data rate

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Mobility with HSUPA (1/2)

HSUPA supports the soft(er) handover procedure similar to


WCDMA Rel99
The HARQ operation in HSUPA soft handover situation is
done in following manor
If any Node B part of the active set sends an ACK, then the
information given to the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer is
that an ACK has been received and the MAC layer will consider
the transmission successful

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Mobility with HSUPA (2/2)
Packet
reordering RNC

Correctly
NodeB
received
Layer 1 packet
Data
ACK/NACK
NodeB

UE

Layer 1 ACK/NACK

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Questions

Why does not DCH support multicodes in practice?


If UE is in a two-way soft handover how does the HARQ
operate?

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Continuous Packet Connectivity
(CPC)

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Continuous Packet Connectivity (1/5)

Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) was released in


Release 7
Designed to improve the performance of delay critical small
bit rate services like VoIP
Eliminates the need for continuous transmission and
reception when data is not exchanged. Can be categorized
into three feature
UL discontinuous transmission
DL discontinuous transmission
HS-SCCH less for HSDPA VoIP

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Continuous Packet Connectivity (2/5)

Benefits
Connected inactive HSPA users need less resources and create
less interference => more users can be connected
UE power savings => increased talk time (VoIP)
UTRAN resources are saved

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Continuous Packet Connectivity (3/5)
R99 DCH with 20-ms TTI 12.2 kbps DCH
(Rel99, CS voice)

32 kbps E-DCH
E-DCH with 10-ms TTI
(Rel6, phase 1, VoIP)

160 kbps E-DCH

E-DCH with 2-ms TTI


Power offset
(Rel-6, phase 2, VoIP)

160 kbps E-DCH


E-DCH with 2 ms TTI PO
and UL DPCCH gating
(Rel-7, VoIP)

= DPDCH (DCH) / E-DPDCH (E-DCH)


= DPCCH

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Continuous Packet Connectivity (4/5)

DL discontinuous transmission or Discontinuous Reception


(DRx) cycles allow an idle UE to power off the radio
receiver for a predefined period
Period after the UE wakes up again is called as DRx cycle
When UE wakes up it listens predefined time for incoming
transmissions and if it successfully decodes a new transmission
during that time it starts timer for staying active certain period
of time
No
measurements
done or data
received

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Continuous Packet Connectivity (5/5)

HS-SCCH-less HSDPA operation in downlink


Initial transmission of small (VoIP) packets can be sent without
High Speed Secondary Control Channel (HS-SCCH)
Eliminates the control channel overhead from small packets
sent over HSDPA
Retransmissions are sent with HS-SCCH pointing to the initial
transmission

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VoIP performance with and without
CPC
In general major performance enhancements visible if circuit switched
voice over WCDMA and VoIP over HSPA Rel 7 is compared
With Rel 99 CS voice capacity 60-70 users/cell
With Rel 7 VoIP capacity goes beyond 120 users/cell

H. Holma, M. Kuusela, E. Malkamki, K. Ranta-aho, C. Tao:


VoIP over HSPA with 3GPP Release 7, PIMRC, 2006.

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Internet HSPA
(I-HSPA)

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I-HSPA (1/3)

Internet-HSPA (I-HSPA) aims to provide competitive mobile


internet access with much more simpler network
architecture than it is in normal WCDMA systems
Deployable with existing WCDMA base stations
Utilizes standard 3GPP terminals
Simplified architecture brings many benefits such as
Cost-efficient broadband wireless access
Improves the delay performance
Transmission savings
Enables flat rating for the end user
Works anywhere (compared to WLAN or WIMAX)

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I-HSPA (2/3)

NodeB /
E-NodeB SGSN

RNC GGSN
UE
Internet
Internet/ /
Intranet
Intranet

I-HSPA

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I-HSPA (3/3)
Release 99
~200 ms
Round trip time of 32-Byte packet
200
180 HSDPA
<100 ms
160 Internet
140 HSUPA Iu + core
~50 ms
120 RNC
Iub
100 I-HSPA Node B
80 ~25 ms
AI
60 UE
40
20
0
Today HSDPA HSDPA+HSUPA I-HSDPA+
I-HSUPA

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Conclusions

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Conclusions (1/2)

High Speed Packet Access evolution for WCDMA was


introduced in Release 5 and 6 for downlink and uplink,
respectively
HSPA offers much higher peak data rates, reaching in
theory up to 14 Mbps in the downlink and 5,4 Mbps in the
uplink, in addition to reduced delays
Key technologies with HSPA are
Fast Layer 1 retransmissions i.e. HARQ
Node B scheduling
Shorter frame size (2ms in DL and 2/10ms UL)
Higher order modulation and coding along with link adaptation
in downlink
Real support for multicodes in the uplink

70 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd


Conclusions (2/2)

HSPA improved also the performance of delay critical low bit


rate services like VoIP even though it was not originally
designed for it
Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) enhancements
introduced in Release 7 improved VoIP performance even
more
I-HSPA was introduced to provide competitive internet
access solution
High data rates with low delay
Reduced costs => flat rate could be possible
Femtocells were introduced to improve the mobile
convergence and performance in small offices or at home,
for instance

71 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd


HSPA vs DCH (basic WCDMA)
Feature DCH HSUPA HSDPA

Variable spreading factor Yes Yes No

Multicode transmission Yes Yes Yes


(No in practice)

Fast power control Yes Yes No

Soft handover Yes Yes No


(associated DCH only)

Adaptive modulation No No Yes

BTS based scheduling No Yes Yes

Fast L1 HARQ No Yes Yes

72 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd


HSPA Peak Data Rates
Downlink HSDPA Uplink HSUPA
Theoretical up to 14.4 Mbps Theoretical up to 5.76 Mbps
Initial capability 1.8 3.6 Mbps Initial capability 1.46 Mbps

Max Max
# of codes
Modulation # of codes TTI
data rate data rate
5 codes QPSK 1.8 Mbps 2 ms
2 x SF4 1.46 Mbps
10 ms
5 codes 16-QAM 3.6 Mbps 2 x SF2 10 ms 2.0 Mbps

10 codes 16-QAM 7.2 Mbps 2 x SF2 2 ms 2.9 Mbps

15 codes 16-QAM 10.1 Mbps 2 x SF2 +


2 ms 5.76 Mbps
2 x SF4
15 codes 16-QAM 14.4 Mbps

73 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd


Thank you!
kari.aho@magister.fi

74 2008 Magister Solutions Ltd