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BNJ 10203

Lecture #03
By: Pn. Dalila Binti Mohd Harun
Faculty of Engineering Technology, FTK
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)
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EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE IN 2-D
Todays Objectives:
Students will be able to :
a) Draw a free body diagram (FBD), and,
b) Apply equations of equilibrium to solve
a 2-D problem.
Learning Topics:
What, why and how of a
FBD
Equations of equilibrium
Analysis of spring and
pulleys

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1) When a particle is in equilibrium, the sum of forces acting
on it equals ___ . (Choose the most appropriate answer)
A) a constant B) a positive number C) zero
D) a negative number E) an integer.

2) For a frictionless pulley and cable, tensions in the cable

(T1 and T2) are related as _____ .
A) T1 > T2
B) T1 = T2
C) T1 < T2
D) T1 = T2 sin
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APPLICATIONS

For a spool of given

weight, what are the
forces in cables AB
and AC ?

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APPLICATIONS (continued)

For a given cable

strength, what is the
maximum weight
that can be lifted ?

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EQUILIBRIUM OF PARTICLE IN 2-D (Section 3.3)

This is an example of a 2-D or

coplanar force system. If the
whole assembly is in
equilibrium, then particle A is
also in equilibrium.
To determine the tensions in
the cables for a given weight
of the engine, we need to
learn how to draw a free body
diagram and apply equations
of equilibrium.

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THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A FREE BODY
DIAGRAM (FBD)

Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for
you to know how to draw and use.

What ? - It is a drawing that shows

all external forces acting on the
particle.

Why ? - It helps you write the

equations of equilibrium used to
solve for the unknowns (usually
forces or angles).
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How ?
1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its
surroundings.
2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.
Active forces: They want to move the particle.
Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.
3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes
and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and /
or directions as variables .

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Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg FBD at A
EQUATIONS OF 2-D EQUILIBRIUM

Since particle A is in equilibrium, the net

force at A is zero.
So FAB + FAD + FAC = 0
or F = 0

In general, for a particle in equilibrium, F = 0 or

Fx i + Fy j = 0 = 0 i + 0 j (A vector equation)
Or, written in a scalar form,
Fx = 0 and Fy = 0
These are two scalar equations of equilibrium (EofE). They
can be used to solve for up to two unknowns.
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EXAMPLE

Write the scalar EofE:

+ Fx = TB cos 30 TD = 0
+ Fy = TB sin 30 2.452 kN = 0
Solving the second equation gives: TB = 4.90 kN

11 From the first equation, we get: TD = 4.25 kN

SPRINGS, CABLES, AND PULLEYS

Spring Force = spring constant * With a

deformation, or frictionless
F=k* S pulley, T1 = T2.
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EXAMPLE

Given: Sack A weighs 20 N.

and geometry is as
shown.
Find: Forces in the cables and
weight of sack B.
Plan:

1. Draw a FBD for Point E.

2. Apply EofE at Point E to solve
for the unknowns (TEG & TEC).
3. Repeat this process at C.
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EXAMPLE (continued)

A FBD at E should look like the one

to the left. Note the assumed
directions for the two cable tensions.

The scalar EofE are:

+ Fx = TEG sin 30 TEC cos 45 = 0
+ Fy = TEG cos 30 TEC sin 45 20 N = 0
Solving these two simultaneous equations for the
two unknowns yields:
TEC = 38.6 N
TEG = 54.6 N
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EXAMPLE (continued)

Now move on to ring C.

A FBD for C should look
like the one to the left.

The scalar EofE are:

Fx = 38.64 cos 45 (4/5) TCD = 0
Fy = (3/5) TCD + 38.64 sin 45 WB = 0

Solving the first equation and then the second yields

TCD = 34.2 N and WB = 47.8 N .
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CONCEPT QUESTIONS

1000 N
1000 N 1000 N
( A) (B) (C)
1) Assuming you know the geometry of the ropes, you cannot
determine the forces in the cables in which system above?
2) Why?
A) The weight is too heavy.
B) The cables are too thin.
C) There are more unknowns than equations.
D) There are too few cables for a 1000 N
weight.
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IN CLASS TUTORIAL (GROUP PROBLEM
SOLVING)
Given: The car is towed at constant
speed by the 600 N force
and the angle is 25.
Find: The forces in the ropes AB
and AC.

Plan:

1. Draw a FBD for point A.

2. Apply the EofE to solve for the forces in ropes AB and AC.
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GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)
600 N

FBD at point A
A
25 30

FAB FAC

Applying the scalar EofE at A, we get;

+ Fx = FAC cos 30 FAB cos 25 = 0
+ Fy = -FAC sin 30 FAB sin 25 + 600 = 0
Solving the above equations, we get;
FAB = 634 N
18 FAC = 664 N
ATTENTION QUIZ

30 A 40

100 N

F1 F2
A
A) B)
30 40
100 N
A
F F1 F2
C) 30 D) 30 40
A
A
100 N 100 N
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ATTENTION QUIZ

2. Using this FBD of Point C, the sum of

forces in the x-direction ( FX) is ___ .
Use a sign convention of + . 20 N 50
A) F2 sin 50 20 = 0 C
F1
B) F2 cos 50 20 = 0
C) F2 sin 50 F1 = 0
D) F2 cos 50 + 20 = 0

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL

Q1 (2.44) :
Knowing that = 25, determine the tension
(a) in cable AC,
(b) in rope BC.

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q2 (2.46) :
Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown.
Knowing that = 30, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in
cable BC.

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q3 (2.51) :
Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.
Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and the P = 1.8kN and
Q = 2.3 kN, determine the magnitudes of the forces exerted on the
rods A and B.

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q4 (2.67) :
A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley
arrangements as shown. Determine for each arrangement the
tension in the rope.
(Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a simple
pulley.)

T T
T

T T

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q5 (3-13) :
Determine the stretch in each spring for equilibrium of the block of
mass M. The springs are shown in the equilibrium position.
Given:
M = 2kg
a = 3m
b = 3m
c = 4m
kAB=30Nm
kAC = 20Nm
g = 9.81ms

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HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q6 (3-17) :
Determine the force in each cable and the force F needed to hold
the lamp of mass M in the position shown.
Hint: First analyze the equilibrium at B; then, using the result for
the force in BC, analyze the equilibrium at C.
Given:
M := 4kg
1 := 30
2 := 60
3 := 30

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