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ELECTROMAGNETIC

INTERFERENCE (EMI)
Eric Mitchell
Phil Zanotti
Kasra Dabiran
Leon Voskov
Ross Schwarz
OVERVIEW
Introduction
Examples
Wireless Devices
Natural Interferences
Switching Circuits
Radio Frequency
Electromagnetic warfare

Prevention and Mitigations Techniques


Standards and Regulations
Summary
BACKGROUND
What is EMI?

Electromagnetic Interference is disturbance that


affects an electrical circuit
Caused by induction or outside radiation
Can temporary and permanently disrupt circuit
components
Big design issue for new products
HOW DOES EMI WORK?
Causes
Electric fields radiating from currents
Switching circuits, clocks, natural fields, ect.
Coupling of electric fields into circuits and components
Unintentional and intentional

Effects
Causes problems for electronics
Loss and disruption of data
Growing problem with more advanced devices
EXAMPLES OF EMI
SOLAR INTERFERENCE
2012 Solar Maximum
11 year solar cycles
Flight routes over north pole changed

Solar Storm of 1859


March 1989 Solar Storm
X-class solar flare
Power outage in Quebec
Communications with some satellites disrupted for
hours
Other potential issues
Spacecraft communication
Induced currents on underground piping
HF radio interference
INTERFERENCE AT 2.4 GHZ
Why use 2.4GHz? Devices and protocols
Part of the ISM Band that operate in this
No license needed to band
design devices in this Cordless telephones

range Baby monitors


FCC originally Bluetooth
designated 2.4-2.483 Wi-Fi 802.11b and
GHz band for microwave 802.11g wireless
ovens devices (most routers)
Wireless cameras and
controllers
CELLULAR DEVICE INTERFERENCE
Airplanes
No proven scientific basis for banning cell phone use on
airplanes
FAA, FCC, and aircraft OEMs are unwilling to spend money to
do testing
Ban on cell phone use errs on the side of caution

Medical Equipment
2007 Mayo Clinic study showed that phones have no negative
effect on medical equipment
FDA has developed standards for pacemaker OEMs to ensure
safety
POWER CONVERTERS
Capacitive, Inductive, and Resistive loads

Caused by sudden load changes

Found in many household items


Computers, phone chargers, TVs, etc.

Minimal or no EMI effect created


ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE
Intense surge of electromagnetic radiation
Created using high-energy explosion (i.e. nuclear)

Gamma rays trap high-energy electrons in


earths magnetic field
Destroys all power electronics connected to
affected power grid
RADIO FREQUENCY
INTERFERENCE
Two way transmitters,
radio stations, amateur
radio broadcast
Interrupted signal
before reaching
receiver
Results in signal
masking and distortion
PREVENTION AND MITIGATION
EMI FILTERS AND CHOKES
Coil of wire wound around magnetic core
Blocks high-frequency AC in a circuit
Passive inductor
Impedance is proportional to frequency
Simple and inexpensive
Energy
Reflected back up the cable
Absorbed resistively within ferrite core (heat)
Audio vs. Radio
ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING
Shields EXAMPLES
Enclosure formed by Cables
conducting material
MRI scan room
Isolates electrical devices and
blocks external electric fields Microwave oven
Often known as Faraday Cage Electronic devices
(invented in 1836)
Amount of reduction depends
Material and its thickness
Size of shielded volume
Frequency of fields
MITIGATION SOFTWARE AND
TECHNIQUES
EMI Analyst is a tool used for meeting EMI
requirements set by regulatory agencies
Combines all four areas of EMI analysis
Conducted Emissions
Radiated Emissions
Conducted Susceptibility
Radiated Susceptibility

Money Saving Tool


Reduction of circuit design area
FINAL EMISSIONS SCREENSHOT
STANDARDS AND
REGULATIONS
EMI TESTING PROCEDURE
REGULATION COMMITTEES
FCC CISPR
Federal Communications The International Special
Commission Committee on Radio
United States Frequency Interference
Modems, Printers, and International
other I/O devices House hold appliances,
Ignition systems,
fluorescent lamps
CLASSES OF REGULATIONS

Class A CLASS B
A computing device that is A computing device that is
marketed for use in a marketed for use in a
commercial, industrial, or residential environment
business environment; notwithstanding use in a
exclusive of a device which commercial, business, and
is marketed for use by the environmental
general public, or which is environments.
intended to be used in the
home.
FCC AND CISPR CLASS A
FCC AND CISPR CLASS B
OTHER TYPES OF STANDARDS
CE - CONFORMIT
MIL-STD-416D EUROPENNE
Department of Defense European Conformity
Even harder-to-meet Identifies that a product
standards than FCC and or machine is compliant
CISPR with all safety
Dependent on reliability requirements
of electronic and Requirement not a
communication voluntary process
equipment
CONCLUSION

Introduction and Background


Examples of Electromagnetic
Interference
Prevention and Mitigation Techniques
Laws and Regulations
Questions?