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PENILAIAN WALKABILITY UNTUK

WILAYAH PERKOTAAN DI INDONESIA

SENJAYA SETIANTO TRI BASUKI JOEWONO


Universitas Katolik Parahyangan Universitas Katolik Parahyangan
Jln. Ciumbuleuit 94, Bandung Jln. Ciumbuleuit 94, Bandung
Telp: (022) 2032655 Telp: (022) 2032655
senjayasetianto.93@gmail.com vftribas@unpar.ac.id

The 19th International Symposium


Indonesian Inter-University Transportation Studies Forum (FSTPT)
Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta
October 11-13, 2016
LATAR BELAKANG
- Rangkaian Permasalahan

Pembangunan
jalan yang masif
Peningkatan jumlah Kemacetan;
penduduk perkotaan; Rendahnya kegiatan
Peningkatan jumlah Kepemilikan berjalan kaki;
kendaraan pribadi. kendaraan pribadi Polusi.
terfasilitasi;
Tidak terfasilitasinya
pejalan kaki.
Dependensi
Urbanisasi
pada kendaraan
LATAR BELAKANG
- Siklus Permasalahan

dependensi
pada
kendaraan

minimnya
keterbatasan
fasilitas
Lahan
pejalan kaki
LATAR BELAKANG
- Kebutuhan Mendasar
Menurunkan
dependensi pada
kendaraan

Meningkatkan
kegiatan berjalan
kaki

Pembangunan kawasan
yang walkable
KONSEP WALKABILITY

Kemudahan

Kenyamanan Walkability Keselamatan

Aksesibilitas
MANFAAT WALKABILITY

Keselamatan Kesehatan

Keadilan
& Keberlanjutan
Kesejahteraan
LANDASAN METODE
PENILAIAN WALKABILITY
Ruang
Hampa
Tempat Pipa

Fasilitas Ruang Rute


Kesehat- Pejalan Akses
an Kaki

Wadah
Pendana- Jaringan
an Ruang
Komunal
PENDEKATAN DALAM METODE
PENILAIAN WALKABILITY

Kuantitatif

Objektif

Kualitatif (?)
Metode Penilaian
Walkability

Subjektif Kualitatif
METODE PENILAIAN
WALKABILITY DI INDONESIA

Minimnya pembahasan yang dilakukan tentang konsep dan metode


penilaian walkability di Indonesia. Salah satunya adalah studi yang
dilakukan oleh Wibowo et al. (2015) di empat kawasan berbeda di
Kota Bandung;

Pada umumnya diskusi tentang walkability dikembangkan untuk


kondisi di luar Indonesia, misalnya Krambeck (2006), Hall (2007),
atau Eidmann et al. (2011).
TUJUAN PENELITIAN

Membandingkan berbagai metode penilaian walkability dan


melakukan analisis untuk mendapatkan metode penilaian walkability
yang dapat diterapkan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia.
METODE PENELITIAN
METODE PENELITIAN
HASIL ANALISIS
- Klasifikasi Jenis Data

Jenis Data Yang Dinilai


No Metode Objektif Subjektif Kualitatif Kuantitatif
1 Walking Permeability Indices (Allan, 2011) X - - X
2 Grade-separated Pedestrian Systems (Bandara, 1994) X - - X
3 Walkability Index (Bradshaw, 1993) X X X X
4 Pedestrian Performance Measures (Dixon, 1996) X - X X
5 Walkability Checklist (DOT, 2003) - X X -
6 Florida Pedestrian Level of Service (FDOT, 2009) X - - X
7 Pedestrian Level of Service (Fort Collins, 1996) X X X X
8 Qualitative Level of Service (Khisty, 1944) - X X -
9 Pedestrian Infrastructure Prioritization Decision System (Moudon, 2001) X - - X
10 Pedestrian Location Identifier 1 (Moudon, 2001) X - - X
11 Pedestrian Location Identifier 2 (Moudon, 2001) X - - X
12 Pedestrian Deficiency Index (Portland, 1998) X - - X
13 Pedestrian Environmental Factors (Portland, 1993) X - X X
14 Pedestrian Potential Index (Portland, 1998) X - - X
15 Pedestrian Level of Service (Gallin WA-LOS, 2001) X X X X
HASIL ANALISIS
- Klasifikasi Jenis Data

Jenis Data Yang Dinilai


Kuantitati
No Metode Objektif Subjektif Kualitatif
f
16 Basic Walking Security Index (Wellar, 2003) X X X X
17 Walkability Audit Tool (Dannenberg et al., 2005) X X X X
18 Level of Service (Highway Manual, 1997) X - - X
19 Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (Saelens et al., 2003) X X X X
20 Walkability Index (Frank et al., 2005) X - - X
21 Built Environment Index for Walking (Rodriguez et al., 2005) X - - X
22 Walkability Index (McCormack et al., 2006) X - - X
23 Level of Service Indicator (Kim et al., 2006) - X X -
24 Active Neighborhood Checklist (Hoehner et al., 2006) X X X X
25 Global Walkability Index (Krambeck, 2006) X X X X
26 Pedestrian Infrastructure (Shah, 2008) X X X X
Systematic Pedestrian and Cycling Environmental Scan (Pikora et al.,
27 X - X X
2002)
28 WABSA Project Walking Suitability Assessment Form (Emery et al., 2003) X X X X
29 St. Louis University Analytic Audit Tool (Brownsonet al., 2004) X - X X
30 The Irvine-Minnesota Inventory (Boarnet et al., 2006) X - X X
HASIL ANALISIS
- Klasifikasi Jenis Data

Jenis Data Yang Dinilai


Kuantitati
No Metode Objektif Subjektif Kualitatif
f
31 Pedestrian Environmental Data Scan (Clifton et al., 2007) X - X X
32 Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities (Leather et al., 2011) X X X X
33 Walkability Assessment Tool (Philadelphia et al., 2010) - X X -
34 HPE's Walkability Index (Hall, 2010) X - X X
35 Pedestrian Environmental Quality Index (SFDPH, 2008) X X X X
36 Walkability Audit of North Adams, Massachusetts (Eidmann et al., 2011) X X X X
37 Walkability Measures for City Area in Indonesia (Wibowo et al., 2015) X - X X
38 Walkability and Bikeability (Horacek et al., 2012) X - X X
39 Walkability Checklist (WalkSanDiego, 2011) X X X X
40 Neighbourhood Walkability Checklist (Heart Foundation, 2011) X - X X
HASIL ANALISIS
- Klasifikasi Variabel Penilaian

Rancangan Kualitas
Keragaman
Kepadatan
No Metode Pemisahan Penggunaan
Jarak Trotoar Jalan Persimpangan Kendaraan Demografik Keamanan Kenyamanan
Lateral Lahan

1 Dixon, 1996 - X X X X X - X - -
2 Portland, 1993 (PEF) - X X X - - - - - -
3 Pikora et al., 2002 - X X X X - - X X X
4 Brownsonet al., 2004 - X X X X X X X - X
5 Boarnet et al., 2006 - X X X X X - X X X
6 Clifton et al., 2007 - X X X X X - X X X
7 Hall, 2010 - X - X X - - X - -
8 Wibowo et al., 2015 X X - X X - - - X X
9 Horacek et al., 2012 - X - X - - - - X X
10 Heart Foundation, 2011 - X - X - - - - X X
SIMPULAN DAN SARAN
Konsep walkability yang telah dikembangkan dalam dua dekade
terakhir dapat dijadikan kerangka acuan dalam meningkatkan
kegiatan berjalan kaki dan memecahkan berbagai permasalahan
transportasi di Indonesia;

Sepuluh metode yang didapat dari studi ini dapat menjadi alternatif
sementara untuk diaplikasikan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia,
karena hanya memerlukan sedikit penyesuaian;

Di masa mendatang masih dibutuhkan metode-metode penilaian


walkability yang dikembangkan berdasarkan kondisi dan kebutuhan
di Indonesia sehingga mampu memberi dampak yang optimal.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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Bahasa Indonesia Edisi Ketiga. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.
Boarnet, M. G., Kristen Day, Mariela Alfonzo, Ann Forsyth, dan Michael
Oakes. 2006. The Irvine-Minnesota Inventory to Measure Built
Environment: Reliability Tests. American Journal of Preventive
Medicine. 30 (2): 153-159.
Brownson, Ross C., Christine M. Hoehner, Laura K. Brennan, Rebeka A.
Cook, Michael B. Elliott, dan Kathleen M. Mcmullen. 2004. Reliability
of Two Instruments for Auditing the Environment for Physical Activity.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health. 1: 189-207.
City of Philadelphia. 2010. Philadelphia2035: Planning and Zoning for
a Healthier City. Philadelphia: Philadelphia Department of Public Health
City of Portland. 1993. The Pedestrian Environment Volume 4A.
Portland: 1000 Friends of Oregon Making the Land Use Transportation
Air Quality Connection.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
City of San Fransisco. 2008. Pedestrian Environmental Quality Index. San
Fransisco: San Fransisco Department of Public Health.
Clifton, K. J., A. D. Livi Smith, dan Daniel Rodriguez. 2007. The Development
and Testing of an Audit for the Pedestrian Environment. Landscape and Urban
Planning. 80 (1-2): 95-110.
Dannenberg, A. L., T. W. Cramer, dan C. J. Gibson. 2005. Assessing the
walkability of the workplace: A new audit tool. American Journal of Health
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Penataan Ruang Perkotaan. Semarang, 5 Juni 2014.
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of North Adams, Massachusetts. Pittsfield: Berkshire Regional Planning
Commision.
Emery, J., dan Crump, C. 2003. The WABSA Project: Assessing and Improving
your Communitys Walkability and Bikeability. Chapel Hill: The University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Frank, L. D., Michael J. Greenwald, Sarah Kavage, dan Andrew
Delvin. 2011. An Assessment of Urban Form and Pedestrian and
Transit Improvements as an Integrated GHG Reduction Strategy.
Washington: Washington State Department of Transportation.
Grosvenor, Tim. 2000. Qualitative Research in the Transport Sector.
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Heart Foundation. 2011. Neighbourhood Walkability Checklist.
(Online).
(http://www.heartfoundation.org.au/images/uploads/publications/Neig
hbourhood-walkability-checklist.pdf, diakses 29 Juli 2016)
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Quick, J. S. Morrell, S. M. Colby, K. K. Kattelman, M. S. Herrick, K.
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Leather, J., Herbert Fabian, Sudhir Gota, dan Alvin Meija. 2011. Walkability
and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities. Metro Manilla: ADB Sustainable
Development Working Paper Series.
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Indices. URISA Journal. 23: 5-19.
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Walkability and Pedestrian Safety. UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
Pemerintah Republik Indonesia. 2014. Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan
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Giles-Corti, dan R. J. Donovan. 2002. Developing a Reliable Audit
Instrument to Measure the Physical Environment for Physical Activity.
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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Penyusunan Naskah Ilmiah Fasilitas Pejalan Kaki. Bandung.
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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DAFTAR PUSTAKA
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SEKIAN DAN TERIMA KASIH

The true miracle is not walking on water or walking in air,


but simply walking on this earth.

- Thich Nhat Hanh