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SEJARAH FILSAFAT

Sejarah Ilmu Pengetahuan

Pemikiran filsafat banyak Pembagian periodisasi filsafat


dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan Barat zaman (Kuno, Abad
Pd dasarnya filsafat (Barat, India, Pertengahan, Modern, Kini)
Cina) muncul sifat yg religius Pembagian periodisasi filsafat
Di Yunani (mitos), India (Weda, Cina zaman (Kuno, Pembaruan,
Hindu), Cina (confusius) Neo-Konfusionisme, Modern)
Barat: mitos diganti rasio Pembagian periodisasi filsafat

India: tidak pernah lepas induknya


India periode (Weda,
Wiracarita, Sutra-Sutra, Skolastik)
Agama Hindu
Periode Filsafat Yunani sangat
penting menjadi acuan
Historisitas

Sejarah filsafat barat dibagi menjadi tiga, yaitu


zaman Yunani Kuno dengan ciri pemikirannya
bersifat kosmosentris
Zaman Pertengahan dengan ciri pemikirannya yang
bercorak teosentris
Zaman Modern dengan ciri pemikirannya yang
bercorak antroposentris
Zaman Kontemporer dengan ciri pemikiran
logosentris.
YUNANI - KUNO ABAD TENGAH ABAD MODERN ABAD KONTEMPORER

6SM 3SM - 6M 14M 14-15M 18M 19M 20M

STRUKTURALISME
RASIONALISME

NEOPOSITIVISME
FENOMENOLOGI
RENAISSANCE

AUFKLARUNG
THEOLOGIAE

POSITIVISME
KRITISISME
EMPIRISME

IDEALISME
LOGOS

ANCILLA
MITOS

FILSAFAT THEOLOGI ILMU CABANG FAKTOR HEURISTIK

BIOLOGI KOMPUTER
ASTRONOMI
AGAMA
FILSAFAT MATEMATIKA PARIWISATA
FILSAFAT
FISIKA
KIMIA DLL.
SOSIOLOGI
YUNANI KUNO

MITOS ..... - 6SM

LOGOS 3SM - 6M
FILSAFAT
Phylo = menyenangi
Sophia = bijaksana
MITOLOGI
Dongeng, Takhayul
Pertanyaan timbul
(ingin tahu)
DE-MITOLOGI
Dipikirkan
(secara kritis)

LOGOS
(ilmu)
Apakah ARCHE dari segala sesuatu yang ada ?
Thales (624 - 548 SM)
AIR
Anaximander (610 - 518 SM)
APEIRON
Anaximanes (590 - 518 SM)
UDARA
Phytagoras (580 - 500 SM)
BILANGAN
Demokritos (460 - 370 SM)
ATOM
SOCRATES (469 - 399SM)
Dialektika
PLATO (427 - 347 SM)
Rasionalisme

ARISTOTELES (384 - 322 SM)


Metafisika
Logika
Biologi
Empirisme
Abad 6 SM 0 M
Abad 0 6 M
Periode Filsafat Yunani Periode Kelahiran Nabi Isa
Ahli filsafatnya Thales Pertentangan Gereja
Menggunakan pola deduktif Filsafat mengalami
Kemunculan ilmu sangat kemunduran
berkembang Raja membatasi kebebasan
berfikir
ABAD PERTENGAHAN

ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE
DOGMA
DOGMA
DOGMA DOGMA
DOGMA

DOGMA ABAD KEGELAPAN DOGMA


BAGI ILMU PENGETAHUAN
DOGMA DOGMA
PERMULAAN ABAD MODERN

LEONARDO DA VINCI
COPERNICUS
RENAISSANCE KEPLER
GALILEO GALILEI
14 - 15 MASEHI
FRANCIS BACON

AUFKLARUNG VOLTAIRE

(PENCERAHAN) JJ. ROUSSEAU


MONTESQUIEU
IMMANUEL KANT
18 MASEHI
AGAMA DAN FILSAFAT MULAI DI PISAHKAN

AGAMA DI DASARI KEYAKINAN (KEIMANAN)

FILSAFAT DI DASARI OLEH OLAH PIKIR (SEKULARISASI)


RASIONALISME
EMPIRISME
KRITISISME
IDEALISME
POSITIVISME

TUMBUH ILMU-ILMU CABANG (MENINGGALKAN FILSAFAT)


BIOLOGI
ASTRONOMI
MATEMATIKA
FISIKA
KIMIA
SOSIOLOGI
SKEMA HUBUNGAN FILSAFAT DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN
perkembangan

Abad 6 M ditandai dengan runtuhnya mitologi dan


dongeng-dongeng.
Abad 6-16 M ditandai dengan kuatnya doktrin
teologis atau anciella theologia. Filsafat digunakan
untuk memperkuat keyakinan agama.
Abad 16 zaman modern yang ditandai dengan
renaissans merebaknya ilmu pengetahuan.
Abad 20 atau zaman pasca renaissans ditandai
dengan menguatnya pemikiran pasca modernis
Mythology

Aim of early Greek philosophers is to find


natural rather than supernatural explanations
for natural practices
Natural Philosophers

Nature of the physical world


Science
Thales 625BC 545BC Greek colony in Asia
Minor first know philosopher everything from
water single basic substance
Anaximander 610-546 BC all created things
are limited that which comes before and after
must be boundless - basic stuff could not be as
ordinary as water
Anaximenes 570-526 BC source of all things
must be air of vapour
Democritus

460-370 BC
everything was built up of tiny invisible blocks (p.
43)
Each block was eternal and immutable
firm and solid
not all the same different shapes and sizes
unlimited number
Called atoms, un-cuttable (p. 43)
How accurate is Democritus
theory to what we know today?

Atoms theory still exists


P. 84 the lego horse Platos idea of the
model plan World of ideas
Athens circa 450 BC

Cultural center of the Greek world. (p. 61)


Focus changed from natural philosophy to
the individual and the individuals place in
society. (p. 62)
Democracy evolved
Art of rhetoric saying things in a
convincing manner. (p. 62)
Prominent Philosophers

Sophist a wise and informed person (p. 62)


man and his place in society (p. 62)
No absolute norms for what was right or wrong. (p.
63)
Protogoras (485-410 BC) Man is the measure of all
things (p. 62)
Socrates

470-399 BC
there are norms
wrote nothing down
greatest influence on western thinking
taught in the city squares
known to us through Platos writings
we must use our reason to grasp
philosophical truths p. 65
feigned ignorance Socratic irony
Socrates
died because of his convictions
Plato

428-347 BC
Pupil of Socrates
theory of ideas
Myth of the cave
denies the reality of
the natural world
We must become
enlightened
Myth of the Cave

From The Republic


What we take in with our senses is not real,
but rather a poor copy of it we see only
shadows imprisoned by our senses the
shadows are less real than the actual
Should take in the world intellectually
Ignorance is likened to imprisonment
Plato and
Aristotle
Aristotle

384-322 BC
student of Plato
Elemental theory fire, water, wind, earth
Rejected Plato's world of ideas
Senses are important
Women as inferior
Medieval/Baroque

Machiavelli 1469-1527 control populace


politics, government - two books, The Prince
is still used today in politics (Stalin really liked
The Prince)
Spinoza 1632-1677 - in God (one
substance) tolerance and free thought
Rationalist Mystic
Hobbes 1588-1679 materialist natural
world political thinking - The Leviathan
The value or worth of a man is, as of all
things, his price.
THOMAS HOBBES
1588-1679

Alam semesta, segala yang ada, bersifat


korporeal, atau badani, yang memiliki dimensi
besaran panjang, lebar, dan kedalaman
Yang ada hanyalah materi,
Setiap benda bergerak, termasuk manusia,
adalah mesin
Proses mental merupakan gerakan materi yang
ada dalam kepala manusia.
Hobbes terpesona oleh gerak, khususnya setelah
mengunjungi Galileo.
Locke 1632-1704 father of empiricism
and liberalism, education. All mankind is
good and ought not to harm one another.
No mans knowledge here can go beyond
his experiences.
Hume 1711-1776 nothing is certain
(complexity), empiricist, take actions because
of morals
Leibniz 1646 1716 rationalist
borrowed reality There is a reason why
every fact is as it is and not otherwise.
calculus (Leibniz or Newton)
Existentialism/Modernism
Kierkegaard 1813-1855 father of existentialism -
individual finds own identity a problem mystery of
own existence
deBeauvoir - 1908-1986 French existentialist
Sartre - feminism
Sartre 1905-1980 fate doesn't exist man is
what he conceives himself to be Hell is other
people.
Descartes 1596-1650 father of modern
philosophy method of doubt - Cogito ergo sum - I
think therefore I am.
Camus 1913-1960 French writer absurd that
humans demand significance in an indifferent
universe - Man is the only creature who refuses to
be what he is.
Senses or Reason

Empiricists believe that we learn through


our senses; we learn based on observation,
experience ; we are born with a clean slate
(tabula rasa)
Rationalists believe one has to have an
understanding of ones self to learn Know
thyself; senses offer a limited world; rely on
truths, logic and intuition
Kant synthesized the two need reason and
the senses to learn