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Kinds of Forgery

Simple forgery
Simulated forgery
Traced forgery
Cut and Paste forgery
Simple forgery (spurious
signature)
A fraudulent signature in which
there was no apparent attempt of
simulation or imitation
Forger does not try to copy a
model but writes something
resembling we ordinarily call a
signature.
For this he used a false name and
Simulated forgery
It is a fraudulent signature which
was executed purely by
simulation rather than by tracing
the outline of a genuine
signature.
Also refers to the free-hand
drawing in imitation of model
Direct technique
Forger works directly with
ink.
Indirect technique
Forger works first with pencil
and afterwards covers the pencil
strokes with ink.
Traced forgery

Any fraudulent signature which


was executed by actually
following the outline of a
genuine signature with a writing
instrument.
Cut and paste forgery

A person attempts to
extract the signature
from one document
then place that
signature onto another
document claiming that
the second document is
Kinds of Tracing Process
Carbon Process
Indentation Process
Transmitted Light Process
Carbon process

The forger places the document


to be forged on the bottom,
inter-leave a piece of carbon and
places on top a document
containing the genuine
signature. Then traces over the
Indentation process
The document containing the
model signature is placed on top
of the forged document. The
forger traces with considerable
pressure over the genuine
signature using pencil, pen or
similar sharp pointed
Transmitted light process
The document to be forged is put
on top of the document
containing the genuine signature.
The two documents are
superimposed over a light source
on a transparent flat surface. The
forger traces the signature
outline, with either pencil or
Erasures, Alterations
and obliterations of
document
ERASURES
changing of documents by
removing certain parts.
ALTERATIONS
change in the meaning or
language of a document that is
made by one party without the
consent of the other
OBLITERATIONS
Detecting alterations, obliterations,
erasures and page substitutions
Alterations, obliterations and erasures
not visible to the human eye can often
be detected through use of
photography and other imaging
devices that utilize ultraviolet and
infrared wavelengths of light. Using
radiation filtered at various
wavelengths, an imaging instrument
such as a video spectral comparator
(VSC) can reveal writing that has been
added with a different ink, or has been
VIDEO SPECTRAL COMPARATOR