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Portal frame

Grace Henry
Midhuna Suresh
Driven by the need to
achieve low-cost
building envelope.
They are usually made
from steel, but can also
be made from concrete
or timber.
Portal frames can be defined as two-dimensional
rigid frames that have the basic characteristics
of A rigid joint between column and beam.

The main objective of this form of design is to

reduce bending moment in the beam, which
allows the frame to act as one structural unit.
Portal Frames are
generally used for single
storey construction which
require a large unobstructed
floor space i.e.,
B.Shopping Centres
They are very efficient for
enclosing large volumes,
therefore they are often
used forindustrial,
commercial applications as
well as for agricultural
Types of portal frame
Pitched roof symmetric portalframe
Generally fabricated fromUKB sectionswith a
substantial eaves haunch section, which may be
cut from a rolled section or fabricated from plate.
25 to 35m are the most efficient spans

Portalframe with internal mezzanine

Floor Office accommodation is often
provided within a portal frame structure
using a partial width mezzanine floor.

Crane portalframe with column brackets

Where a travelling crane of relatively low
capacity (up to say 20 tonnes) is required,
brackets can be fixed to the columns to support
the crane rails
Pitched Roof Symmetric Portal
Lancashire Waste
Portal Frame With Internal Mezzanine Floor
Waters Meeting Health Centre, Bolton
Tied portalframe
In a tied portal frame the horizontal
movement of the eaves and the bending
moments in the columns and rafters are

Mono-pitch portalframe
It is a simple variation of the pitched
roof portal frame, and tends to be
used for smaller buildings (up to 15 m

Propped portalframe
Where the span of a portal frame is large
and there is no requirement to provide a
clear span, a propped portal frame can be
used to reduce the rafter size and also the
horizontal shear at the foundations.
Rebottling Plant,
Mansard portalframe
A mansard portal frame may be
used where a large clear height at
mid-span is required but the eaves
height of the building has to be

Curved rafter portalframe

Portal frames may be
constructed using curved
rafters, mainly for architectural

Cellular beam portalframe

Rafters may be fabricated
fromcellular beamsfor aesthetic
reasons or when providinglong
Basic composition
The portal structure is designed in such a way that it has no
intermediate columns.
A portal frame building comprises a series of transverse
The primary steelwork consists of columns and pitched rafters.
Thelight gauge secondary steelworkconsists ofside railsfor
walls andpurlinsfor the roof.
Theroof and wall claddingseparate the enclosed space from
the external environment as well as
providingthermalandacoustic insulation.
Base joint for Portal
The legs or stanchions
of the portal frame
need connecting at the
bottom to a foundation.

Here we can see the

base joint connection in
Ridge joint for Portal

Shown here is a
ridge joint or apex
It is Important that
this joint is strong
hence the use of
wedge shaped
pieces called gusset
pieces to strengthen
and increase the
bolt area.
Again the knee joint must be strong to
support the roof loads and prevent bending. Knee joint for
Gusset pieces will be used to increase Portal Frame
strength, give greater bolt area and prevent
deflection under load.
Diagonal bracing
for Portal Frame

With all types

of frameworks we
must think on
stability i.e.
movement. To
help strengthen
the framework
and prevent
diagonal bracing
will be used.
Cladding rails for Portal

This slide shows the

cladding rails for
attaching the external
metal cladding panels
These rails can be
fixed horizontal or
vertical depending on
the way the cladding
panels are fixed.
Tie cables for
Portal Frame

These wire and tubular

ties are used to
prevent sagging of the
cladding rails which
can add considerable
force unto the joints of
the external cladding.
External wall detail

Here we see the finish

of the external cladding
panels with the lower
level facing brickwork.
The blockwork behind
creates a protective
wall or firewall.
Cost effectiveness
Saves time advantages
Capable taking loads

Speed and ease of erection

Building can be quickly closed in and made water tight.

Framework prefabricated in a workshop and not affected

by weather.

Site works such as drainage, roads etc can be carried

out until framework is ready for erection.

No weather hold up during erecting the framework.

Connected together in factories by welding and site

connections should be bolted.

Although steel is incombustible it has a poor resistance to fire as it bends easily

when hot.

Subject to corrosion
n method
Foundation in
situ concrete,
concrete slab
Column installation
From left
to right.
Rafter installation

Haunches and
Purlin and girt installation
Sheet installation
Final design- crane installation