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Chapter 29

Plant Diversity I:
The Colonization of
Land
AP Biology
Requirements for
Successful Life on Land
Supporting mechanism (vascular tissue,
lignin)
Absorptive structures (above & below
ground)
Conducting tissues (move fluids)
Anti-desiccation (drying out) adaptations
for body of plant (cuticle) & gametes
(pollen & spores)
Airborne gamete dispersal
General Characteristics
of Plants
Includes mosses, ferns, conifers,
flowering plants
Multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic
autotroph
Chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids
Cellulose
Starch
General Characteristics
of Plants, cont.
Alternation of generations (more next)
Most have stomata for gas exchange
(Liverworts the exception)
Secrete cuticle to reduce desiccation
Most have vascular tissue for bulk transport of
water and materials
Exchange of materials between adjacent cells
through opening in cell walls (plasmodesmata)
Most have seeds (embryo with food &
protective covering)
Alternation of
Generations
Gametes produced &
protected within
gametangia (non-
reproductive cells to
prevent desiccation & for
protection)
Fertilization of egg takes
place here (Female =
archegonium; Male =
antheridium)
Alternation of
Generations, cont.
Sporophyte & gametophyte are structurally
(look & develop) different (heteromorphic
( )
Both structures are multicellular (unlike
animals)
Sporophyte dominant in most species
Meiosis in sporophyte produces haploid
reproductive cells (spores)
Spores can develop into a new organism
without fusing with another cell
Proposed Ancestors of
Plants
Charophyceans are the green algae most related
to land plants
Several lines of evidence support this including:
Homologous chloroplasts, cell walls,
peroxisomes, sperm
Phragmoplasts microtubules form perpendicular
to cell plate and guide deposition of cellulose to
form wall
Molecular systematics
Charophyceans had a layer of sporopollenin to
prevent exposed zygotes from drying out until
they are in water again
Classified Into 2 Major
Groups
1. Nonvascular plants
(aka Bryophytes)
Bryophyta: mosses
Anthocrophyta: Hornworts
Heptophyta: Liverworts
2. Vascular Plants (aka Tracheophytes)
Seedless vascular plants (Pteridophytes)
Lycophyta: Lycophytes
Pterophyta: Ferns & Horsetails
Seeded vascular plants
Naked seeded plants
(Gymnosperms)
Coniferophyta: Conifers
Cycadophyda: Cycads
Gnetophyta: Gnetae
Ginkgophyta: Ginko
Flowering plants and
enclosed seeds
(Angiophyta)
Flowering plants
Nonvascular Plants:
Bryophytes
Gametophyte dominant form
Lack vascular tissues
Limits size (cant grow tall)
Rely on diffusion
Rhizoids analogous to roots; used for anchorage
Male flagellated sperm produced by the gametangium
(antheridium)
Female egg produced by the gametangium (archegonium)
Sporophyte produces haploid spores within sporangium
3 Divisions:
Bryophyta (mosses); ex: Sphagnum (peat moss)
Heptophyta (Liverworts); sexual and asexual reproduction
Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
Vascular Plants:
Tracheophytes
Key adaptations to success on land:
Seeds protect embryo & provide
food for initial growth
Pollen airborne dispersal;
Sporopollenin in walls of spores
Sporophyte dominant
Vascular tissues phloem & xylem;
specialization of parts of plant for
specific functions (true roots, stems,
and leaves)
Ligninfied cell walls supports plant
in air
Seedless Vascular
Plants
Division Lycophyta
Division Lycophyta
Club mosses
Many are epiphytes grow on other
plants but not parasitic
Sporangia produced on specialized
leaves for reproduction called
sporophylls
Most species are homosporous
produce a single type of spore that can
produce a gametophyte with antheridia
and archegonia
Heterosporous species have
sporophytes that produce separate
spores
Megaspores produce female
archegonia on female gametophyte
Microspores produce male antherdia on
male gametophyte
Seedless Vascular
Plants
Division Sphenophyta
Horsetail (Equisetum) only
extant genus
Homosporous
Silica in cell walls make
stems abrasive
Gametophyte is free-living;
can photosynthesize and
not dependent on
sporophyte for nutrients
Seedless Vascular
Plants
Division Pterophyta
Ferns dominant seedless vascular
plant
Large leaves (fronds) compound
with smaller leaflets
Leaves are megaphylls leaves
with branched vascular
tissues/veins
Homosporous
Sporangia develop on specialized
sporophylls
Sporangia grow in clusters (sori
( ) on
underside
Flagellated sperm require water &
fertilization of egg in archegonium
Sporophyte protected in
archogonium and emerges from
ground as fiddlehead