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BACCILLUS

Domain : Bacteria
Phylum : Firmicutes
Class : Bacilli
Order : Bacillales
Family : Bacillaceae
Genus : Bacillus
Species : Bacillus anthracis
Bacillus cereus
orical Interests
ical Interests
First pathogenic bacteria to be seen under the Microscope - 1849 Pollender
rst pathogenic bacteria to be seen under the Microscope - 1849 Pollender
First communicable Disease - Transferred Experimentally - Inoculation of infec
rst communicable Disease - Transferred Experimentally - Inoculation of infecte
- blood ( Davaine 1850 )
- blood ( Davaine 1850 )
First bacteria to be isolated in Pure Culture & shown to posses spores B. anthra
rst bacteria to be isolated in Pure Culture & shown to posses spores B. anthraci
- Robert Koch 1876
- Robert Koch 1876
First bacteria employed for preparation of attenuated vaccine - Louis Pastuer
rst bacteria employed for preparation of attenuated vaccine - Louis Pastuer
ENERAL
ENERALCHARACTERISTICS
CHARACTERISTICS
- Large , gram(+) bacilli, encapsulated, non-motile,
spore former -centrally located
Serpentine chains (+) Catalase positive
- Metabolically diverse - Strict aerobes & facultative anaerobes,
Psychrophilic, mesophilic, thermophiles,
Alkalophilic, Neutrophilic, and acidophilic
species.
- Formation of spores
In culture - aerobically & anaerobically
in nature ( Soil ) - shed by animals.
- Fresh specimen- stained gram (+)
With age - stained Gram(-) or variable.

- All species grow - 5% SBA (Sheep Blood Agar)


- Chocolate Agar, routine Culture media.
* PEA ( Phenylethyl Alcohol Agar) Useful for the isolation of
bacillus
from contaminated
specimens.
- Grow Well: at 35C x 24 hours in ambient air or in 5% CO2.
Bacillus anthracis
- Greek word = ANTHRAKIS COAL - coal-like or black lesions

- Anthrax - Disease of herbivores- goats, sheep, cattle, horses &


other animals.
- Occupational disease -veterinarians, butchers,
farmers, & mill workers.

- Humans infection- contaminated animals or animal products.


- B. anthracis - Capsulated organism Anthrax
- pXo2 Capsule Gene
- Non- capsulated is not virulent & does not induce
anthrax
in test animals.
Morphology:

- Large gram(+) non-motile, encapsulated spore former , square


cut ends
- Spore - centrally located
- Singly, in pairs, in short chains - entire chain may encapsulated
Long serpentine chains or String of pearls appearance.
- Capsulated - from infected tissues.
In vitro capsule not demonstrated

unless cultured on Bicarbonate containing


medium + 6% CO2.
- Spore formation In culture, soil, tissues & exudates of dead
animals NOT
in blood ,living tissues of animals.
CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS:
- Grow well - Most laboratory media.
- Optimal Temperature = 37C (15C - 40C)
- Facultative anaerobe- grows best aerobically On BAP at 37C
Non-hemolytic
- 5% BAP Characteristic colonial morphology
- Large, raised, grayish-white, plumose, with irregular
fringelike/
irregular edge = Medusa head Appearance or
hairlike curls.
= Swirling projections

-Colonies = Tenacious consistency, when edges are lifted can stand


upright
without support Characteristic of Beaten egg
whites.
- Transmitted Light Cut Glass appearance .
- Gelatin Stab Agar Gelatin is liquefied, growth resembles =
Inverted Fir Tree

- Virulent Strains of B. anthracis:


ANTIGENIC STRUCTURE
1. Capsular AG or Polypeptide Capsule
-HMW - D-Glutamic Acid or Poly-D-Glutamic acid.
- Antiphagocytic , virulence factor, NON-IMMUNOGENIC
- Three Genes : capA, capB, capC responsible for
synthesis of capsule,
carried on a
plasmid.

2. Polysaccharide Somatic Antigen or Polysaccharide Cell


Wall
- Contains N- acetylglucosamine & D- galactose
- Cross-reactivity Human blood Type A material &
Type 14 pneumococcus
polysaccharide.
- Antibodies produced is not protective.

. Complex Protein Toxin ( Exotoxin)


- Thermolabile & are ipoprotein.
- Three Protein Components :
a) Factor I or Edema Factor
Protective Antigen - Proteolytic activation
- binds to specific receptors
- membrane channel formation
- Mediates entry of EF & LF to cell

Edema Factor Adenylate cyclase + PA forms Edema Toxin


Lethal Factor + Protective Antigen forms Lethal Toxin
- Major virulence factor - Death in animals &
humans

pXO1 - encodes for the Anthrax toxin genes

pXO2 - encodes for the capsule gene


ANTHRAX primarily a disease of herbivores.
- Human become infected in one of Three Ways:
1. Cutaneous or Inoculation most common
2. Inhalation
3. Ingestion

CLINICAL SYNDROMES:
1. Cutaneous Anthrax 1-7 days
- Small papule at site of injection, ring of vesicles develops,
coalesce,
Erythematous ring.
- Small dark area at center of the ring ulcerates & dries
Depressed
- Black necrotic central area Black Eschar or Malignant
Pustule.
( 7-10 days )
- Lesions painless , no pus unless secondarily infected.
- Healing :1-2 weeks - Granulation dislodge and leaving a
scar.
- Complications : Sepsis - Meningitis
2. Inhalation Or Woolsorter Disease
2. Inhalation Or Woolsorter Disease
- Incubation period up to 6 weeks
- Incubation period up to 6 weeks
- Mediastinal lymph nodes
- Mediastinal lymph nodes
- Marked hemorrhagic necrosis edema Mediastinum
- Marked hemorrhagic necrosis edema Mediastinum
- CXR Pronounced Mediastinal widening
- CXR Pronounced Mediastinal widening
- Mimic viral respiratory infection
- Mimic viral respiratory infection
Rapidly progressive Severe pulmonary disease
Rapidly progressive Severe pulmonary disease
- Complications : Hemorrhagic pleural effusion
- Complications : Hemorrhagic pleural effusion
Sepsis
Sepsis
Bowel ulcerations
Bowel ulcerations
Hemorrhagic meningitis
Hemorrhagic meningitis
- Associated with higher mortality.
- Associated with higher mortality.
- 2001 Anthrax bioterrorism 22 cases
- 2001 Anthrax bioterrorism 22 cases
3. Gastrointestinal Anthrax
- Ingestion of poorly cooked infected meat
Manifestations: Abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, fever and
vomiting
- Associated with higher mortality.
PREVENTION AND TREATMMENT;
1. Vaccination of animal herds
2. Vaccination of humans Ava BioThrax - contains PA Toxigenic
strains
- Supernatant cell-
free culture
- 0,4 weeks , 6,12,18
months
- U.S Department of
Defense

TREATMENT:
1. Penicillin G
2. Alternative Drugs : Tetracycline and chloramphenicol
3. Streptomycin or gentamicin
4. Ciprofloxacin or Doxycycline setting of Potential exposure
( Bioterrorism )
- Up to 4 weeks
Note: Antibiotic does not change progression of disease only
prevents dissemination
cillus cereus
milar in morphology with B anthracis but are motile & is not susceptible to Peni
auses gastroenteritis associated with = FRIED RICE
her diseases: Traumatic eye Infection - Panopthalmitis
Catheter-associated sepsis
Rarely- Severe pneumonia
Mediated by 1 of 2 Toxins:
1. Heat-labile Enterotoxin = Diarrhea forms
2. Heat-Stable Enterotoxin = Emetic form

hree Toxins:
1. Necrotic toxin Heat labile enterotoxin
2. Cereolysin Hemolysis
3. Phospholipase C Lecithinase

cillus subtilis
A common laboratory contaminant
Associated with infections in immunocompromised patients.
COMPARISON OF EXOTOXIN PRODUCED BY BACILLUS
COMPARISON OF EXOTOXIN PRODUCED BY BACILLUS
CEREUS
CEREUS
CHARACTERISTICS DIARRHEAL TOXIN
CHARACTERISTICS DIARRHEAL TOXIN
EMETIC TOXIN
EMETIC TOXIN
BACILLUS CEREUS GROWTH CULTURE
REFERRENCES
1. Jawetz Medical microbiology
2. Medical microbiology Ellen Baron
3. Medical Microbiology Zinsser
4. MIMs Medical Microbiology
5. Microbiology Bauman
6. Microbiology Nester
7. Medical Microbiology - Chakraborty