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Submitted to the Institute Of Professional Studies
& Research, Cuttack
In partial fulfillment for the award of

Submitted By
Name of Internal Guide Name of External Guide
Mr. Bidhu Mr. Dheeraj Chaubey, HR
Bhusan Dash OFFICER

Approved by Utkal

The importance of human resource management, to large extent

depends on human resource development. Trained employees would be a
valuable asset to an organisation. The productivity, progress and
development of the organisation depends on training. The main aim of
providing training is to make the employees to reach the organisations
objectives and goals. For employees, training provides an opportunity of
learning and improving their work skills.

Training and development is a back bone for every organization. Without

proper training and development system it is quiet impossible to reach at
the top most level. This is a system which is necessary for an
organization. One organization cannot develop well without its man
power. And for proper maintenance of this man power, training and
development system should be implemented. It is a process of learning
to improve performance, skill development and improving knowledge at
work to increase productivity of the organization.

Training involves change in attitude, skills or knowledge of a person with

the resultant improvement in the behavior. For training to be effective it
has to be a planned activity conducted after a thorough need analysis
and target at certain competencies, most important it is to be conducted
in a learning atmosphere.

The Mangalam timber products ltd organization gave adequate

importance to training and development for their employees in their
organization. They used to collect feedback about training which helps
for the further implementations and changes. Most of the employees
prefer on the job training methods which helps them to improve their
work skills and productivity of the work.

Training is also necessary for the individual development and progress of

the employee, which motivates them to work for a certain organization
apart from just money. Training and Development helps in inculcating the
sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in
inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. Training and
Development helps to develop and improve the organizational culture
and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the
organization. Training and Development helps in improving upon the
quality of work and work-life.

I express my sincere thanks to Mr. Dheeraj Chaubey, Human

who was kind enough to give an opportunity to work under his
immense expertise. I sincerely thank to him for his valuable
suggestions, motivation and encouragement.

I sincerely express my thanks to my faculty Mr. Bidhu Bhusan

Dash, H.O.D of B.B.A department for his valuable guidance and
intellectual suggestions during this project.

I express my sincere thanks to our Principal Mr. Shakti Prasad

Mohapatra, for his continuous support and encouragement to
avail me this project work.

I would be failing in my duty if I dont express my profound

gratitude to the entire respondent who has spent their valuable
time to answer the questionnaire.

Finally, I sincerely express my thanks to my Parents, all my friends

and the other members for their continuous support and guidance.

( V. Neha Rao)

I, V. NEHA RAO student of Institute of Professional Studies And

Research , hereby declare that this project report entitled



is a original record of work done by me during the course of

internship for project work.
















Training and development plays a very important role in every
organization. It is an integral function of human resource
development. It is regarded as means of achieving the highest
level of efficiency form the employees by providing them
necessary skills needed for the job. The need for training and
development arises right from the initial stages of recruitment.
They are to be trained properly so that they can get a practical
experience of their work. The need for development arises when
the already trained employees required polishing their skills so
that they can be made suitable to serve the organization in a
multi-dimension way. There will be a number of ways of carrying
out an operation. By means of training the employee will be
trained to carry on the work in the most efficient manner.

Training is defined as The act of increasing the skills of an

employee for doing a particular job


Training is defined as Training is learning experience in that its

seeks a relatively permanent farm on the job.


Training and development is one of the key HR functions.

Most organizations look at training and development as an
integral part of the human resource development activity. The turn
of the century has seen increased focus on the same in
organizations globally. Many organizations have mandated
training hours per year for employees keeping in consideration the
fact that technology is deskilling the employees at a very fast

So what is training and development then? Is it really that important to

organizational survival or they can survive without the former? Are
training and development one and the same thing or are they different?
Training may be described as an endeavor aimed to improve or develop
additional competency or skills in an employee on the job one currently
holds in order to increase the performance or productivity.

Training adds value to the overall performance of the organization. It
enhances job related skills and also facilitates acquiring of new skills for
the employees. The most important asset of any organization is its
human resource.

Training aims at increasing the knowledge and skills of the employee

whereas organisational development on the other hand refers to overall
improvement of the organisation such as its structure, objectives,
policies and procedures including managers and employees. For training
to be effective it has to be a planned activity conducted after a thorough
need analysis and target at certain competencies, most important it is
to be conducted in a learning atmosphere.

Training is a process of learning to improve performance, skill

development and improving knowledge at work to increase productivity
of the organization.

Lots of time training is confused with development, both are different in
certain respects yet components of the same system. Development
implies opportunities created to help employees grow. It is more of long
term or futuristic in nature as opposed to training, which focus on the
current job. It is not only limited to the job avenues in the current
organisation but may focus on other development aspects also. Without
proper training and development system it is quiet impossible to reach
at the top most level. This is a system which is necessary for an
organization. One organization cannot develop well without its man
power. And for proper maintenance of man power, training and
development system should be implemented.

Development plays a significant role in providing an opportunity for the

development of human resources, technical and behavioral skills in the
organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

Lots of time training is confused with development, both are different

in certain respects yet components of the same system.
Development implies opportunities created to help employees grow.
It is more of long term or futuristic in nature as opposed to training,
which focus on the current job. It is not only limited to the job
avenues in the current organisation but may focus on other
development aspects also. Without proper training and development
system it is quiet impossible to reach at the top most level. This is a
system which is necessary for an organization. One organization
cannot develop well without its man power. And for proper
maintenance of man power, training and development system
should be implemented.

Development plays a significant role in providing an opportunity for

the development of human resources, technical and behavioral skills
in the organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal

Definition of training and development

e theoverallperformanceof organization.
Importance of training and development
Training and development is a branch of the human resource
function of an organisation. Training and development is
important because it leads to an optimum utilization of the
human resources of a firm.
For any organisation, business, society or country to grow
and fulfil its potential, training and development is a vital
and important tool towards achieving this goal.
Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the
knowledge base of all employees, but many employers
find the development opportunities expensive. Employees
also miss out on work time while attending training
sessions, which may delay the completion of projects.
The "stakeholders" in training and development are
categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training
and development are senior managers. The clients of
training and development are business planners. Line
managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and
performance. The participants are those who actually
undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human
Resource Management staff. And the providers are
specialists in the field.
Training enables the management to face the pressure of
changing environment. Training usually results in an
increase of quantity and quality of output.
Training enables employees to develop and rise within the
organization and increase their earning capacity.
Training instructs the workers towards better job
adjustment and reduces the rate of labour turnover an
Optimum Utilization of Human Resources - Training and
Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human
resource that further helps the employee to achieve the
organizational goals as well as their individual goals.
Development of Human Resources - Training and
Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad
structure for the development of human resources'
technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also
helps the employees in attaining personal growth.
Development of skills of employees - Training and
Development helps in increasing the job, knowledge and
skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the
Productivity - Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the
employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

Team spirit - Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work,
team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within
the employees.

Organization Culture - Training and Development helps to develop and improve the
organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture
within the organization.

Organization Climate - Training and Development helps building the positive

perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from
leaders, subordinates, and peers.
Quality - Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and

Health and Safety - Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety
of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

Morale - Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.
Image - Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.

Profitability - Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more

positive attitudes towards profit orientation
Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e.
Organization gets more effective decision making and problem
solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational

Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills,

motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that
successful workers and managers usually display.
Training and development refers to the practice of providing
training, workshops, coaching, mentoring, or other learning
opportunities to employees to inspire, challenge, and motivate
them to perform the functions of their position to the best of their
ability and within standards set by local, state, Tribal, Federal and
licensing organization guidelines.

Training and development activities provide all involved system of

care parties with the tools they need to develop professionally,
increase their knowledge, effectively work with families, and build
their capacity to perform the tasks associated with their positions
within the system of care.

Since a system of care operates within an existing human service

agency, it is expected that most human resource issues, such as
hiring, benefits, staff recognition, and performance appraisal
issues, would be handled within the agencys human resources

It would be important to make sure that system of care principles

are infused into the day to day practices of human resources
personnel. It is worth noting that many systems of care have
developed recognition and award programs for individuals who
have exceeded expectations in their system of care efforts
Training is one of the most profitable investments an organization
can make. No matter what business or industry you are in the
steps for an effective training process are the same and may be
adapted anywhere.

The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the

answers to the following questions:
-"Why" is training needed?
- "What" type of training is needed?
- "When" is the training needed?
- "Where" is the training needed?
- "Who" needs the training? and "Who" will conduct the
- "How" will the training be performed?

By determining training needs, an organization can decide

what specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes are needed to
improve the employee's performance in accordance with the
company's standards.

There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training

program. First, evaluations will provide feedback on the
trainer's performance, allowing them to improve themselves
for future programs. Second, evaluations will indicate its cost-
effectiveness. Third, evaluations are an efficient way to
determine the overall effectiveness of the training program
for the employees as well as the organization. The importance
of the evaluation process after the training is critical.
The need for training your employees has never been greater.
As business and industry continues to grow, more jobs will
become created and available. To be successful, all training
must receive support from the top management as well as
from the middle and supervisory levels of management. It is a
team effort and must implemented by all membersof the
organization to be fully successful

Steps of Training programme

Training programme is a time consuming process.Following

steps are usually considered as necessary.
2.Preparing the instructor or getting ready for the job
3. Preparingorthe
identify training
4. Presenting the operation
5.Try out the trainees performance
6.Follow-up or rewards and feedback

1.Discovering or identifying training needs

A training programme should be established only when it is felt
that it would assist in the solution of specific problems.
Identification of training needs must contain three types of

(a)Organizational Analysis: determine the organization's goals,

its resources and the allocation of the resources as they relate
to the organizational goals.

(b)Operations analysis: focuses on the task or job regardless of

the employee doing the job

(c)Man analysis: reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills a

person must acquire to contribute satisfactorily to the
attainment or organizational objectives

2.Preparing the instructor

The instructor is the key figure in the entire programme.He

must know both the job to be taught and how to teach it. The
job must be divided into logical parts so that each can be
taught at a proper time e trainee losing perspective of the
This becomes a lesson plan.For each part one should have in
mind the desired techniques of instruction, i.e., whether a
particular point is best taught by illustration ,demonstration of
3.Preparing the Trainee
The step consists of:

(a)Putting the learner at ease.

(b)Stating the importance and ingredients of the job and its
relationship to work flow;
(c)Explaining why he is being taught
(d)Creating interest and encouraging questions, finding out what
the learner already knows about his job or other jobs.
(e)Explaining the why of the whole job and relating it to some job
the worker already knows
(f)Placing the learner as close to his normal position as possible
(g)Familiarizing him with the equipment, materials, tools and
trade terms

4.Presenting the operations

This is the most important step in a training programme.

The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in
order to put across the new knowledge and operations. There are
various alternative ways of presenting the operation namely,
explanation, demonstration etc.

An instructor mostly uses the method of explanation. In addition

one may illustrate various points through the use of pictures,
charts, diagrams and other training aids. Demonstration is an
excellent device when the job is essentially physical in nature
.The following sequence of training may be followed:

(a)Explain the sequence of the entire job.

(b)Do the job step by step according to the procedure.
(c)Explain each step that he is performing.
(d)Have the trainee explain the entire job
Instruction should be given clearly , completely and patiently;
there should be an emphasis on key points and one point should
explained at a time. The trainee should also be encouraged to ask
questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understand
the job.

5.Try out the trainees performance

Under this the trainee is asked to go through the job several

timesslowly,explaining each step.

Mistakes are corrected, and if necessary, some complicated steps

are done for the trainee the first time.

Then the trainee is asked to do the job ,gradually building up skill

and speed. As soon as the trainee demonstrates that he can do
the job in the right way, he is put on his own.

The trainee, through repetitive practice, will acquire more skill

The final step in most training procedures is that of follow up.
The step is undertaken with a view to testing the effectiveness of
training efforts.

The follow up system should provide feedback on training

effectiveness and on total value of training system.

It is worth remembering that if the learner hasnt learnt ,the

teacher hasnt taught
Types of training programme in MTPL
Induction or orientation training
Job training
Promotional training
Refresher training
Apprenticeship training

Internship training
Induction or Orientation Training
As the name suggests, it is the method introducing a new
employee into the organization with a view to gaining his
confidence and developing in him a sense of co-operation.
It is training programme used to induct a new social setting of his
work. The new employee is introduce to his job situation and to
his co-employees. He is also informed about the rules, working
conditions, privileges of t and activities of the company.
The induction training not only helps personal adjustment of the
new employee to his job and work group but also promotes good
morale in the organization .

An induction programme should aim at achieving the following

(a)To build up the new employees confidence in the organization
so that he may become an efficient employee
(b)To ensure that the new employee may not from false
impression regarding his place of work
(c)To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty.
(d)To give information to the new employee about canteen, rules
and other facilities etc.
Job training
The object of job training is to increase the knowledge job wither
of workers about the job with which they are concerned, so that
that their efficiency and skills of performance are improved.

In job training, workers, are enable to learn correct methods of

handling machines and equipment avoiding accidents, minimizing
wastes etc.

Under this technique ,an employee is placed in a new job and is

how it may be performed.
It is primarily concerned with developing in an employee the skills
and habits consistent with the existing practices of an
organization and with orienting him to his immediate problems.

The employees learn the job by personal observation and practice

that are either difficult to explain or can be learned quickly by
watching and doing
The actual training follows a four-step process:

(a)Preparation of the trainee for instruction.

(b)Presentation of the instructions in a clear manner.

(c)Having the trainee try out the job to show that he has
understood the instructions.

(d)Encouraging questions and allowing the trainee to work alone

and the trainer should follow up regularly.
Promotional Training:
Many concerns follow a policy of filling some of the vacancies at
higher levels by promoting existing employees .This policy
increases the morale of workers .

When the existing employees are promoted to superior position in

the organization, they are required to shoulder new responsibilities

For this training to be given

Refresher Training:
With the passage of time, employees may forget some of the
methods, which were taught to them, or they may have become
outdated because of technological development and improved
techniques of management and production. Hence, refresher
training is arranged for existing employees in order to provide
them with an opportunity to revive and improve their knowledge.

According to Dale Yoder, Retraining(refresher training)programs

are designed to avoid personnel obsolescence.
Thus, refresher training is essential because

(a)Employees require training to bring them up-to-date with the

knowledge and skills and skills and to relearn what they have

(b)Rapid technological changes make even the most qualified

workers obsolete in course of time
(c)Refresher training becomes necessary because many new
jobs are created that are to be manned by the existing
Apprenticeship Training:

Apprenticeship training system is widely in vogue today in many

industries. It is a good source of providing the required personnel
for the industry.
Under this method, both knowledge and skills in doing a job or a
series of related jobs are involved. The apprenticeship
programmes combine on-the-job training and experience with
classroom instructions in particular subjects. Apprenticeship
training is desirable in industries which require a constant flow of
new Training
employees expected to become all-round craftsmen

Internship training is usually meant for such vocations where

advance theoretical knowledge is to be backed up by practical
experience on the job .

Under this method, the professional institutes enter into

arrangement with a big business enterprise for providing
practical knowledge to its students.

For e.g., engineering students are sent to industrial enterprises

and medical students are sent to hospitals for practical

In simple terms, training and development refer to the imparting of

specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee.

Training & Developmentis any attempt to improve current or

future employee performance by increasing an employees ability
toperformthrough learning, usually by changing the employees
attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.
Conventional 'training' is required to cover essential work-related
skills, techniques and knowledge, and much of this section deals
with taking a positive progressive approach to this sort of
traditional 'training'.

The need forTraining and Developmentis determined by the

employees performancedeficiency, computed as follows.

Training & Development Need = Standard Performance Actual

We can make a distinction among Training, Development .
Distinction between Training and
Training Developement
Applicationoriented TheoreticalOrientati
Job experience on
Specific Task in mind Classroom learning
Narrow Perspective Covers general
Training is Job concepts
Specific Has Broad
Training: Perspective
Education is no bar
Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. An
employee undergoing training is presumed to have had some
formal education
No training program is complete without an element of education.
Hence we can say that Training is offered to operatives.

It is a theoretical learning in classrooms. The purpose of education

is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning
and judgment. That anytraining and developmentprogram must
contain an element of education is well understood by
Any such program has university professors as resource persons
to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topics
proposed to discuss.
In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do
courses on part time basis.
CEOs are known to attend refresher courses conducted
bybusiness schools.
The education is more important for managers and executives
rather than low cadre workers.
Development means those learning opportunities designed to
help employees to grow.
Development is not primarily skills oriented. Instead it provides
thegeneral knowledgeand attitudes, which will be helpful to
employers in higher positions.

Development provides knowledge about business environment,

management principles and
TRAINING STRATEGY techniques, human relations, specific
industry analysis and
1. An assessment thecurrent
of the like is useful for better management of
A statement of purpose, outlining what is to be accomplished.
3. Identification of the training needs.
4. A statement of planning premises -significant assumptions,
constraints, and parameters.
5. A forecast statement of factors that might help or hinderthe
end results.
6. Desired behaviors are specified.
7. Desired competences are identified and specified.
8. Knowledge, skills, and characteristics desired are specified.
9. Description of the required training/development programmes.
10. Constraints like time,budgetand participants attitude are
11. Participants' characteristics are identified / listed.
12. Training objectives are defined / listed.
13. Training programcontents are outlined identifying topic areas
to be covered.
-specific concepts are listed
14.Selectionof instructor types ofspecialistsrequired.
15. Training Teachingmaterials, kind ofmaterialsrequired.
16. Training Methods required.
17. Evaluations methods to be used.
18. Training resources required
Training is a sub-system of the organization because the
departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance,
etc depends on training for its survival.
Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in
turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skill and attitudes


A System is a combination of things or parts that must work
together to perform a particular function. An organization is a
system and training is a sub system of the organization.

The System Approach views training as a sub system of an

organization.System Approachcan be used to examine broad
issues like objectives, functions, and aim.

It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages

in the process of training need analysis (TNA), formulating,
delivering, and evaluating.

There are 4 necessary inputs i.e. technology, man, material,

time required in every system to produce products or services.
And every system must have some output from these inputs in
order to survive.
The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the
organizations requirement. A system approach to training is
planned creation of training program. This approach uses step-by-
step procedures to solve the problems.
Under systematic approach, training is undertaken on planned
basis. Out of this planned
effort, one such basic model of five steps is system model that is
explained below.

The three model of training are:

A. System model

B. Instructional system development model

C. Transitional model

A.System Model:-
Thesystem modelconsists of five phases and should be repeated
on a regular basis to make further improvements. The
trainingshould achieve the purpose of helping employee to
perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in
System Model of training are as follows:

Analyze and identify

the trainingneeds i.e. to analyze the department, job, employees
requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn,
estimating training cost, etc.
The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of
which actual performance would be evaluated.
Design and provide training
to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives
of training, identifying.
This phase requires listing the activities in thetraining
programthat will assist the participants to learn, selecting
delivery method, examining the training material, validating
information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the
goals & objectives,

The learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.

B.Instructional system development model

Instructional System Development modelor ISD training model was made

to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-
days in the organization because it is concerned with the training
need on the job performance. Training objectivesare defined on
the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis
of the defined objectives individual progress is measured.
This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable
strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the
types of training objectives to be achieved.
The Instructional System Development model comprises of five

This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis, and
target audience analysis.


This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome,

instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant
after the training, types of training material, media selection,
methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training
program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e.
selection of content, sequencing of content, etc.

This phase translates design decisions into training material. It

consists of developing course material for the trainer including
handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course
material for the trainee including handouts of summary .

This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging

speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling,
lighting, parking, and other training accessories .


The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program
has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This
phase consists of Identifying strengths and weaknesses and making
necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to
remedy or improve failure practices

TheISD modelis a continuous process that lasts throughout

thetraining programme.

It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout

the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase
is an input to the next phase
C.Transitional Model

Transitional modelfocuses on the organization as a whole. The

outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the
organization on the basis of whichtraining modeli.e. inner loop
is executed.


focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to

achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells
that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. A
vision may include setting a role mode, or bringing some internal


explain the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the

position in the community. The reason of developing a mission
statement is to motivate, inspire, and inform the employees
regarding the organization. The mission statement tells about the
identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the
customers, employees, and all other stakeholders.


is the translation ofvision and missioninto communicable

ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is
independent of current industry environment. For example, values
may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc.
The mission, vision, and values precede the objective in the
inner loop.
This model considers the organization as a whole. The objective
is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then
thetraining modelis further implemented.

There are variousmethods of training, which can be divided in
tocognitive and behavioral methods.
Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method,
also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in
mind before giving training.


Cognitive methodsare more of giving theoretical training to

thetrainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach
provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal
information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc.
These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and
attitude by stimulating learning.
The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:


Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but

through different means.


The more future oriented method and more concerned with
education of the employees. To become a better performer by
education implies that management development activities
attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.

Management development method is further divided into two

The development of a manager's abilities can take place on the
job. The four techniques for on the job development are:


Coachingis one of thetraining methods, which is considered as

a corrective method for inadequate performance. According to a
survey conducted by International Coach Federation (ICF), more
than 4,000 companies are using coach for their executives.

These coaches are experts most of the time outside consultants.

Procedure of the Coaching

The procedure of the coaching is mutually determined by the

executive and coach. The procedure is followed by successive
counseling and meetings at the executives convenience by the

Understand the participants job, the knowledge, skills, and

attitudes, and resources required to meet the desired expectation
Meet the participant and mutually agree on the objective that has
to be achieved
Mutually arrive at a plan and schedule, At the job, show the
participant how to achieve the objectives, observe the
performance .

and then provide feedback

Repeat step 4 until performance improves
For the people atmiddle level management, coaching is more
likely done by the supervisor; however experts from outside the
organization are at times used for up and coming managers.
Again, the personalized approach assists the manger focus on
definite needs and improvement.


Mentoringis an ongoing relationship that is developed between

a senior and junior employee. Mentoring provides guidance and
clear understanding of how the organization goes to achieve its
vision and mission to the junior employee.
The meetings are not as structured and regular than in
coaching.Executive mentoringis generally done by someone
inside the company. The executive can learn a lot from
mentoring. By dealing with diverse mentees, the executive is
given the chance to grow professionally bydeveloping
management skillsand learning how to work with people with
diverse background, culture, and language and personality
Executivesalso have mentors. In cases where the executive is new
to the organization, a senior executive could be assigned as a
mentor to assist the new executive settled into his role.
Mentoring is one of the important methods for preparing them to be
future executives. This method allows the mentor to determine what
is required to improve mentees performance.
Once the mentor identifies the problem, weakness, and the area
that needs to be worked upon, the mentor can advise relevant
training. The mentor can also provide opportunities to work on
special processes and projects that require use of proficiency
Some key points on Mentoring
Mentoring focus on attitude development

Conducted for management-level employees

Mentoring is done by someone inside the company, It is one-to-

one interaction

It helps in identifying weaknesses and focus on the area that

needs improvement
For the executive,job rotationtakes on different perspectives.
The executive is usually not simply going to another

In some vertically integrated organizations, for example, where

the supplier is actually part of same organization or
subsidiary,job rotationmight be to the supplier to see how the
business operates from the supplier point of view.

Learning how the organization is perceived from the outside

broadens the executives outlook on the process of the
organization. Or the rotation might be to a foreign office to
provide a global perspective.

For managers being developed for executive roles, rotation to

different functions in the company is regular carried out.

An organized and helpful way to develop talent for

themanagement or executive levelof the organization is job
It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to
replace someone at the next higher level.

It is generally done for the designations that are crucial for the
effective and efficient functioning of the organization.
Benefits of Job Rotation
Some of the major benefits of job rotation are :

It provides the employees with opportunities to broaden the

horizon of knowledge, skills and abilities by working in different
departments, business units, functions, and countries
Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required
It determines the areas where improvement is required
Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber
for filling
JOB the position.TECHNIQUE(JIT)

Job Instruction Technique (JIT)uses a strategy with focus on

knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes

Procedure of Job Instruction Technique (JIT)

JIT consists of four steps:

Plan This step includes a written breakdown of the work to be

done because the trainer and the trainee must understand that
documentation is must and important for the familiarity of work. A
trainer who is aware of the work well is likely to do many things
and in the process might miss few things.

Therefore, a structured analysis and proper documentation ensures

that all the points are covered in the training program.

The second step is to find out what the trainee knows and
whattraining should focus on.

Then, the next step is to create a comfortable atmosphere for the

trainees i.e. proper orientation program, availing the resources,
familiarizingtrainee with the training program, etc.
In this step, trainer provides the synopsis of the job while
presenting the participants the different aspects of the work.
When the trainer finished, the trainee demonstrates how to do the
job and why is that done in that specific manner. Trainee actually
demonstrates the procedure while emphasizing the key points and
safety instructions.


This step actually a kind of rehearsal step, in which trainee tries to

perform the work and the trainer is able to provide instant
feedback. In this step, the focus is on improving the method of
instruction because a trainer considers that any error if occurring
may be a function of training not the trainee.

This step allows the trainee to see the after effects of using an
incorrect method.

In this step, the trainer checks the trainees job frequently after
the training program is over to prevent bad work habits from

There are many management development techniques that an

employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:
Sensitivity training

Sensitivity trainingis about making people understand about

themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in
them social sensitivity and behavioral flexibility.

Social sensitivityin one word is empathy. It is ability of an

individual to sense
what others feel and think from their own point of view.

Behavioral flexibilityis ability to behave suitably in light of

Procedure of Sensitivity Training
Sensitivity Training Program requires three steps:

Unfreezing the old values I

t requires that thetraineesbecome aware of the inadequacy of

the old values. This can be done when the trainee faces dilemma
in which his old values is not able to provide proper guidance. The
first step consists of a small procedure:

An unstructured group of 10-15 people is formed.

Unstructured group without any objective looks to the trainer for
its guidance
But thetrainerrefuses to provide guidance and assume leadership
Soon, the trainees are motivated to resolve the uncertainty
Then, they try to form some hierarchy. Some try assume
leadership role which may not be liked by other trainees
Then, they started realizing that what they desire to do and realize
the alternative ways of dealing with the situation
Development of new values

With the trainers support, trainees begin to examine their

interpersonal behavior and giving each other feedback. The
reasoning of the feedbacks are discussed which motivates
trainees to experiment with range of new behaviors and
values. This process constitutes the second step in the change
process of the development of these values.

Refreezing the new ones

This step depends upon how much opportunity the trainees get to
practice their new behaviors and values at their work place.
Transactional Analysisprovides trainees with a realistic and
useful method for analyzing and understanding the behavior of
others. In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided
by one person and a reaction to that motivation given by another
This motivation reaction relationship between two persons is a
Transactional analysiscan be done by the ego states of an

An ego state is a system of feelings accompanied by a related

set of behaviors.

There are basically three ego states:

It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of
behaviors, attitudes, and impulses which come to her naturally
from her own understanding as a child. The characteristics of
this ego are to be spontaneous, intense, unconfident, reliant,
probing, anxious, etc.

It is a collection of recordings in the brain of an individual of
behaviors, attitudes, and impulses imposed on her in her
childhood from various sources such as,

social, parents, friends, etc. The characteristics of this ego are

to be overprotective, isolated, rigid, bossy, etc.
It is a collection of reality testing, rational behavior, decision
making, etc. A person in this ego state verifies, updates the data
which she has received from the other two states. It is a shift from
the taught and felt concepts to tested concepts.

All of us evoke behavior from one ego state which is responded to

by the other person from any of these three states.
It is one of the oldest methods oftraining. This method is used to
create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes
through lecture.

A lecture can be in printed or oral form.Lectureis telling

someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the
knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a

Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When

thetrainerbegins the training session by telling the aim, goal,
agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that
means the trainer is using the lecture method.

Straight Lecture:

Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which

the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks
to a group about a topic.

However, it does not involve any kind of interaction between

thetrainer and the trainees. A lecture may also take the form
of printed text, such as books, notes, etc.

A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of

the lecture, and priorities and preferences of the order in which
the topic will be covered.

The specific objectives of the study are:

To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of workforce.
To examine the impact of training on workers.
To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training.
To find out new methods of training and development in MANGALAM TIMBER PRODUCTS

I have tried to take a view on the topic in a practical manner, so that the feedback can be
provided to the organization.


In this project I have tried to present details about the training and
development programs being presently followed in MANGALAM TIMBER
PRODUCTS LTD and the feedback, I collected from different employees during
my interaction with them.

The scope of training and development can be explained with the help of
following points

Exact position of performance of employees through their feedback

Development of the employees through various training and development
Developing altered of unbiased treatment to all employees

A Birla group company in a joint venture with the Government of

Orissa, Mangalam Timber Products (MTPL), is the pioneer in the
manufacture of medium density fibre boards. It went public in
Apr.'86. It introduced the technology for the first time in the
country under technical collaboration with G Siempelkamp,
Germany in 1987. Its brand name is Duratuff MDF, and the
product is manufactured using plantation timber / waste wood /
agro waste. The product is suitable for furniture, doors, door
frames, panelling, partitioning, cupboards, ceilings, etc. The
company has assumed a leadership role in the industry by
promoting social forestry projects and industrial plantations to
meet its requirements of raw materials. More than five mln trees
have been planted in non-cultivated barren lands, thereby
providing employment and earning opportunity to poor tribals in
the backward areas of Orissa. Since its inception, the company
found its proceedings tough due to various reasons, primary
amongst them being : acceptance of the new product by the
market and availability of raw materials, ie, wood fibres which is
derived from trees like eucalyptus. In 1993-94, the company
turned in a profit. In 1994-95, MTPL exported products worth Rs
7.08 cr to various countries including the UK. It has the ISI
certification for its products. Adverse market conditions and non-
availability of wood and timber from the Government of Orissa
resulting in high cost of timber, among other factors, have
resulted in losses and erosion of the company's net worth. MTPL
has submitted the revivial package to IDBI, the operating agency
appointed by BIFR.
The rehabilitation package seeks certain reliefs and
concessions, which inter-alia, included waiver of overdue
interest on term loans/Non-convertible debentures and also
one time settlement of major part of outstanding on account
term loans to institutions. During 2000-01, the company was
awarded ISO 9002 Certificate by M/s Det Norske Veritas (DNV)
- Netherlands and is pleased to inform that the company is the
only Medium Density Fibreboard Plant in India having ISO 9002
Certificate. The Formaldehyde plant which is mechanically
complete is expected to commence its production in the
current year. The trial run is being carried out.



Mangalam Timber Products Ltd., a part of the highly
diversified B. K. Birla Group of Companies, introduced
medium density fibre boards to India in 2985. The
company has its headquarters in Kolkata, India.

DURATUFF MDF is made at Mangalam Timbers Products'

state-of-the-art, automated manufacturing plant, mostly
out of specially selected timbers.

A continuous, computer-controlled process shapes them,

after which they are compressed at high heat and

What emerges is high quality fibreboard, uniformly thick

Currently thestable
and smooth, marketonleader in plain and pre-laminated
both surfaces.
MDF, Mangalam Timbers DURATUFF MDF is the
markets most preferred brand
Today DURATUFF MDF has various uses in homes and
offices, showrooms and factories even in sculptors
studios. It is widely used in making furniture and fixtures,
interior designing, appliance cabinets, partitions, photo-
lamination, carved handicrafts etc.


Mangalam Timber Products Ltd. shall optimize all available
resources, seek continuous value addition so as to effect
timely market offerings, elicit customer delight, and
thereby achieve enduring leadership in the targeted
market segments, while preserving natural forests and the
Mangalam Timber Products Ltd. shall attain leadership of
its chosen markets through value creation for all
stakeholders, fairness and transparency in all dealings,
and scrupulous observance of the laws of state and
nature alike, earning respect for business efficiency as
much as for corporate citizenship.

(ISO 9002:2000) (ISO 24002:2004)


With modern testing facilities in-house, and stringent
standards to meet, Mangalam Timber is fully geared to
ensure that every cubic mm of DURATUFF MDF
conforms to Bureau of Indian Standards specifications.

Its policy on quality is programmed to go beyond

compliance with applicable legal and other norms
towards five overarching, longterm commitments:

Upgrading technology to achieve zero defect quality in

product and performance.

Improving productivity and capacity utilisation for

enhanced customer satisfaction

Conservation of natural resources.

Steady growth of large scale plantation.

Proactive involvement of the entire workforce by

systematic awareness training
Plain Interior Grade MDF

Plain Exterior Grade MDF

Pre-laminated Interior Grade


Pre-laminated Exterior Grade


Plain Interior Grade MDF
Interior Grade is branded as DURATUFF - Super
Regular / Gold Premium. It is recommended for interior
application where the panel is not exposed to moisture
and high humidity.

Advantages :
Homogeneous structure and uniform properties ensure
equal strength in all directions

Absence of knots or grains

Has high screw retention strength on face and edges

Does not splinter or flake

Can be cut, stapled, turned and joined like Natural

Wood .It can also be laminated, veneered, lacquered,
painted, printed or coated with PVC.
Plain Exterior Grade MDF
Exterior grade is branded as DURATUFF X. It is
recommended for exterior application where the panel is
exposed to moisture and high humidity. It has high water
resistant properties. On Customer's specifications, the
boards can be treated to make them fungus & termite

Advantages :
Homogeneous structure and uniform properties ensure
equal strength in all directions

Dimensional stability in variable atmospheric conditions

Absence of knots or grains

Has high screw retention strength on face and edges

Does not splinter or flake

Can be moulded, profiled, routed, carved and grooved

like Natural Wood .It can also be laminated, veneered,
lacquered, painted, printed or coated with PVC
Pre-laminated Interior Grade MDF
Pre-laminated Interior Grade DURATUFF-MDF is branded as
LAMINA. It is available in variants of One Side Laminated
(OSL) and Both Side Laminated (BSL).

LAMINA is made from the finest quality MDF boards, which are
laminated with MF resin impregnated paper in a short cycle
press under programmed logic control quality system.

Advantages :
No risk of de-lamination

Resistant to abrasion, household chemicals, steam, cigarette

burns and cracking

Free from waves, air pockets or any other bonding defects

Unlike pre-laminated particle board and plywood, the edges

are smooth and hence it reduces the cost of finishing

No additional cost in finishing the surface of panel

Available in wide range of shades in pastel & wood grain

Pre-laminated Exterior Grade MDF
Pre-laminated Exterior Grade DURATUFF-MDF is branded as
LAMINEX. It is available in variants of One Side Laminated (OSL)
and Both Side Laminated (BSL).

LAMINEX is made from the finest quality MDF boards, which are
laminated with MF resin impregnated paper in a short cycle
press under programmed logic control quality system.

No risk of de-lamination
Resistant to abrasion, household chemicals, steam, cigarette
burns and cracking
Can be used where the panel is exposed to high moisture and
Free from waves,
air pockets or any other bonding defects
Unlike pre-laminated particle board and plywood,
the edges are smooth and hence it reduces the cost of finishing

No additional cost in finishing the surface of panel

Available in wide range of shades in pastel & wood grain
Our HDF (High Density Fibre) boards are available in variants of
plain and pre-laminated.

With superior moisture resistant properties, DURATUFF HDF is

recommended for exterior applications.
The Advantages of duratuff MDF

Perfectly smooth, even surface: -The surface stands for

flawless quality of material and technology free of defects such
as waviness, telescoping, air pockets or other forms of defective

Excellent workability:- DURATUFF MDF can be turned,

profiled, routed, carved and grooved just like wood. It also has
superior flexibility and screw-holding capacity. It facilitates mass
production, unlike pre-laminated particle boards and plywood.
Saves labour and time.

All-round durability:- Pre-laminated DURATUFF MDF has

powerful resistance against abrasion, household chemicals,
steam, cigarette burns and cracking.

Excellence of lamination:- The laminated decorative

paper forms an integral part of the board, and cannot be de-
laminated even under adverse usage conditions.

Super smooth edges:- Unlike those of pre-laminated

particle board and plywood, DURATUFF MDFs edges
substantially reduce the cost of finishing.

High versatility:- It can be laminated, veneered, lacquered,

painted, printed, or coated with PVC.
Applications of MDF
Computer tables and
TV tables
Audio cabinets
Beds and sofas
Shop counters and shelves
Wardrobes and cupboards
Kitchen cabinets and suites
Decorative doors and panels
Sculptures and mouldings
Table and desk tops
Packing boxes
Toys and slates
Photo laminations
(Carrom Board)


Mangalam Timber

South IndiaNorth India

West India
East India
Chennai Delhi Mumbai Kolkata
Madurai Chandigarh Pune Nabarangpur
Hyderabad Jaipur Ahmedabad
Visakhapatnam Guwahati
Bangalore Bhopal Patna
Cochin Raipu
Research refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define
research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent
information on a specific topic.
Research is an art of scientific investigation.
Systematized effort to gain new knowledge [Redman and Mary]
It is a voyage of discovery

Methodology can be defined as-
The analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates
employed by a discipline.
The systematic study of methods that are, can be or have been
applied within a discipline.
A particular procedure or set of procedures.

Methodology includes a collection of theories, concepts or ideas

as they relate to a particular discipline or field of inquiry:
Methodology refers to more than a simple set of methods; ] rather
it refers to the rationale and the philosophical assumptions that
underlie a particular study relative to the scientific method. This
is why scholarly literature often includes a section on the
methodology of the researchers. This section does more than
outline the researchers methods might explain what the
researchers ontological or epistemological views are.
Another key (though arguably imprecise) usage for methodology
does not refer to research or to the specific analysis techniques.
This often refers to anything and everything that can be
encapsulated for a discipline or a series of processes, activities
and tasks. Examples of this are found in software development,
project management and business process fields. This use of the
term is typified by the outline who, what, where, when, and why.
In the documentation of the processes that make up the
discipline, that is being supported by "this" methodology, that is
where we would find the "methods" or processes. The processes
themselves are only part of the methodology along with the
identification and usage of the standards, policies, rules, etc.
Data collection is of two types followed in the organization
while conducting study.

Primary data

Secondary data

1.Primary data

The primary data has been collected by means of personal

interviews with the help of questionnaire. A simple random
sample has been followed for picking up of respondents.
The questionnaire was used keeping in view the objectives
and proposed mode of analysis based on different
standards of measurement determined for evaluation of

2. Secondary data

Secondary data are generally published sources which have

been collected originally by someone else for some other
purpose. It is second hand information collected through
records available in the company. The information related
to training and development was collected through the
reference books from the college library and websites. The
information related to Jindal stainless steels ltd., was
collected from articles, websites and records available in
the company.

Supply chain is an advantage

Brand name MTPL
Customer loyalty
Advanced technology
Strong management


Online presence is lacking

News paper business-The decline of news paper and magazine
publishing and distribution will hurt revenue growth


Emerging market increase demand

New services
New markets could aide MTPL
New products


Government regulation of timber

Political risk
National wide competition
Bad economy could lower demand

The training process of the company is comparatively very good.

The controlling authority is some extent weak.

Training programmes are generally conducted for lower level.

The employees felt that the training should be on the job, as it has
an advantage of giving first- hand knowledge and experience under
actual working condition.

Trainees are not interested to attend the programme because the

trainings are during their leisure hours.

The employees agreed that the training needs are pre-discussed in

their organisation.

This creates some awareness about the training to the employees.

After analyzing the response of the employees and with the
knowledge of my observation and personal encounters with various
employees the following suggestions has been made to the
organization. I hope, they might help in promoting much more better
training techniques in their organization.

More training programs should be conducted to inculcate better work

culture among the employees, for this the employees should be given
on the job training so that the work done by trainee will help in the
productivity because, it is observed that most of the employees in
Mangalam Timber Products Ltd. are likely to attend on the job
training because, under this method, the individual is place on a
regular job and taught the skill necessary to perform that job; the
trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of qualified
instructor. On-the-job training has the advantage of giving first-hand
knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions.
Training must be given to the all the groups at all levels to improve
the work skills at all the levels of the work.

Training should be conducted regularly and results should be

observed by the management to implement necessary changes. The
management should frenquently monitor the output of the trainers
and trainee. More training programs should be conducted which
makes the employees to get rid of the bore in their work and helps
them to learn new things.

Training programs must conducted by specialized trainers who are

specialized in that field. So that it may increase the effectiveness of
employees and quality of study material must be improved; it must
be brief so that the employees participating in the training program
would understand it easily. The organization should further improve
its efficiency through motivation of their employees and by imparting
training to them with latest and more innovative techniques.

Few employees in MTPL Nabarangpur organisation does not agreed

that the instructor responds to their doubts. So, the instructor should
responds to the trainees doubts which helps them in inculcating
learning power and easy understanding. A very few employees
believes that, they had understood about the learning, sharing
information and enhancement about the training in their organisation.
T & D is an instrument and an asset through of MTPL is
gaining practical efficiency .MTPL is taking care of
Training & development centre well & the employees
have lots of expectations form the T&D cell .
They want maximum supports from their colleague to
implement the Training outcome. They want the
supervisor should keenly Monitor the performance of
employee as per training. Resources should be made
available , employee should be encouraged to share
learning outcome & step-by-step instructions should be
followed as the medium of instruction because all the
employees understood it very well.

Hence T & D should be managed by competent

professional,frequent arrangement of Lecture sessions
and training programme helps to understand new
methodology to adopt new techniques , & the work
pressure should be eases to practice and implement new
skill set.

Aswathappa, K., Human Resource Personal Management.

Public Personal Administration: S L Goel: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd
Training & Development: A Better way: Robert Hayden: Volume 52.

Annexure Questionnaire
Part 1 : Personal Details [ Tick ( ) the applicable options]

Gender: Male ( ) Female ( )

Age group: 18-25 [ ] 26-35 [ ] 36-45 [ ] 46 & above [ ]
Your association with MTPL: < 2 yrs [ ] 2-5yrs [ ] 6-10 yrs [ ] 11 & above [ ]
Current Department of Working:..
Training is organized:
(1) Quarterly [] (2) monthly [ ] (3) Half Yearly [ ] (4) Annually [ ] (5)every 2 years [ ]
Duration of Training Programme:
(1)5 days [ ] (2)5-10 days [ ] (3) 10-15 days [ ] (4)15-20 days [ ] (5) > 20 days [ ]
Academic Background: Vocational Training [ ] Diploma [ ] Graduate [ ] Post Graduate [ ]
others [ ]
Part 2 :
Research Details [ Tick ( ) the applicable options]
Kindly rate the following on a scale of 1 to 5, which you feel appropriate
1. My organization has a training and development policy which is applicable to all employees.
(1)Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

2. My Supervisor monitors employees whether they are doing their job as per the training
(2)Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

3. My Supervisor encourages employees to share the learning outcome.

(3)Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

4. My organization links training and development with companys business strategy.

(4)Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

5. My organization has full-fledged training and development department managed with competent
(1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
6. My supervisor supports the use of techniques learned in training that employees bring back
to their jobs.
(1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
7. My supervisor give employees the chance to tryout their training effectiveness on the job
(2) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
8. My supervisor helps employee to set realistic goals for performing their work as a result of
their training.
(3) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
9. My supervisor eases the pressure of work for a short time for employees to practice new
skills that are taught in training programmers.
(4) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
10. All kinds of Job aids (resources or technology) are available on the job sight to implement
learned in training.
(5) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
11. The equipment used in training is similar to the equipment found on the job.
(6) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
12. My colleague supports the use of training outcome on the job.
(7) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
13. The Employee who uses learning outcome of training is given preference for new
(8) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
14. The Step by Step instruction is the best way for training.
(9) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree
15. The Lecture sessions are the best way for training.
(1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

16. The Conference is the best way for training.

(2) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

17. The Discussion sessions are the best way for training.
(3) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

18. The Programmed instructions are the best way for training.
(4) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

19. Study Material should be provided before the training programmer.

(1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neutral (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree

(.......................... .......