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EP501-FIBER OPTIC

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

TOPIC 5: FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM DESIGN


TOPIC 5
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM DESIGN

LEARNING OUTCOME
At the end of learning session, students should:
5.1 know the transmission losses in fiber optic
cable
5.2 know the insertion and return loss in fiber
optic system
5.3 understand decibel, dBW and dBm in power
measurement
5.4 apply decibel, dBW and dBm in power
measurement problems
5.5 understand fiber optic system design.
5.6 understand optical link budget
5.7 understand power link and rise time budget
5.8 design link budget
5.1 5.2 Transmission
losses and Insertion
losses
Upon completion of this learning
session, the student should be able to:
1. Identify attenuation/loss & transmission
window
2. Describe types of transmission losses
3. Define Insertion loss and return loss
4. Describe types of insertion loss
DEFINITION OF
LOSS/ATTENUATION
The other common term used synonymously for
optical attenuation. Optical loss/attenuation is
measured in decibels or dB.
Attenuation also known as the reduction of the
optical signal intensity over a length of optical
fiber or components. Attenuation (or "loss") is
normally measured in two instances:
i. Fiber attenuation is normally measured per unit
length in decibels per kilometer (dB/km) which
due to absorption and scattering.
ii. Individual component attenuation (in dB loss) for
splitters/couplers, WDMs, connectors, both
mechanical and fusion splices, etc.
TYPE OF Absorption
Loss
LOSSES/ATTENUATION Material
Transmissio Scattering
n Loss Loss

Dispersion

Radiation
Loss in FO Loss

Coupling
Loss
Splicing
Loss
Insertion
Loss Connectors
Loss
5
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION
FIBER LOSS

O O RX
TX
A A

INSERTION LOSS
INSERTION LOSS
Medium and Devices

-simple link : point to point link-


TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION
DEFINE
Attenuation in fiber optic, also known as transmission loss, is the
reduction in intensity and amplitude of the light beam (or signal)
with respect to distance travelled through a transmission medium.

It measures the amount of light lost between input and


output.
Is defined as the ratio of optical input power to the
optical output power :

dB formula;
dBW=10 log(power
level/1W)
dBm= 10 log(power
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION

1 Absorption Loss

Defined as portion of attenuation resulting from the


conversion of optical power into another energy form
such as heat.
Absorption accounts for 3-5 percent of fiber attenuation.
Absorption can be limited by controlling the amount
of impurities during the manufacturing process.
There are two types of absorption loss that is :
i. Intrinsic
ii. Extrinsic
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION
i. Intrinsic Absorption
Is caused by the basic fiber-material properties i.e due to
material and electron absorption where:
Material absorption is a loss mechanism which results in the
dissipation of some of the transmitted optical power into
heat in the optical fiber (around 0.03 dB/km )
Electron Absorption is intrinsic absorption in the ultraviolet
region caused by electronic absorption. It occurs when a
light particle (photon) interacts with an electron and excites
it to a higher energy level.
Glass fibers have low absorption than plastic fibers thus
preferred for long haul communications.
To minimize intrinsic absorption
use ultra-pure glass and dopant chemicals to minimize
impurities
having clean fiber
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION
ii. Extrinsic Absorption
Is caused by unwanted particles or impurities such as
iron, nickel, chromium optical fibers, that are present
during the manufacturing process of fiber optic cables.
Its also call fiber contamination.
Also occurs when hydroxyl ions (OH) (due to presence
ofwater vapor) are introduced into the fiber.
The light signal is absorbed by natural impurities in
the glass.
To minimize extrinsic absorption:
use glass refining techniques such as vapor-phase
oxidation during the process of fiber manufacturing
which largely eliminates the effects of these
metallic impurities .
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION

2 Material Scattering Loss

Scattering is a general physical process where light are forced


to deviate from a straight line by one or more localized non-
uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Scattering caused by the interaction of light with density
fluctuations within a fiber.
Density changes is caused by the contamination of unwanted
materials such as dust and air bubbles causes in optical fibers
when optical fibers are manufactured.
Often called diffuse reflections.
Material Scattering scatters light out of the core.
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION
Material Scattering Loss
Rayleigh scattering causes 96 % of attenuation in optical fiber ( for both
regions mentioned before ).
As wavelength increase, Rayleigh Scattering decrease.
Short wavelengths are scattered more than longer wavelengths. Any
wavelength that is below 800nm is unusable for optical communication
because attenuation due to Rayleigh scattering is too high.
Material Scattering can be reduced by improved fabrication /
manufacturing
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION

Graph of attenuation vs wavelength


TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION

3 Dispersion

Dispersion Spreading of the optical pulse as it travels


along the fiber
Limits how fast information is transferred.
If the signal pulse rate is too fast, dispersion will cause the
pulses to overlap giving rise to distortion.
Two main factors which causes dispersion is, different
source wavelengths and modes
To reduce dispersion distortion, the number of modes the
fibre supports must be reduced. This is achieved by
reducing the diameter of the core.
Dispersion
There are 3 type of dispersion.
i. Modal Dispersion / Intermodal Dispersion
ii. Chromatic Dispersion / Intramodal Dispersion
iii. Polarization Mode Dispersion
Dispersion
i. Modal Dispersion / Intermodal Dispersion

Spreading of a pulse because different modes


(paths) through the fiber take different times,
i.e. light rays travelling in each mode will
travel a different distance they will arrive at
the output at different times.
Only happens in multimode fiber ; limits its
performance
As length fiber increase, modal dispersion
Dispersion
ii. Chromatic Dispersion /
Intramodal Dispersion
Is caused by the fact that
fibers transmit light of
different wavelengths
through different materials
at different speeds.
Occurs in both single mode
and multimode fiber
Larger effect with LEDs
than with lasers
A far smaller effect than
modal dispersion
Dispersion
As the pulse proceeds down the fiber, the light of
longer wavelength travels slightly faster and
spreads the pulse out as shown
can be removed by a 'dispersion compensator'.
using a specially prepared length of fiber that
has the opposite dispersion to that induced by
the transmission fiber, and this sharpens the
pulse so that it can be correctly decoded by the
electronics.
The effects of chromatic dispersion cannot be
totally stopped.
Dispersion
iii. Polarization Mode
Dispersion

With different polarization light travel at different


speeds, if the fiber is not perfectly symmetric at the
atomic level.
This could come from imperfect circular geometry or
stress on the cable, and there is no easy way to
correct it.
It can affect both single mode and multimode fiber.
although the single-mode fiber can sustain only one
transverse mode, it can carry this mode with two
different polarizations, and slight imperfections or
distortions in a fiber can alter the propagation
TRANSMISSION
LOSSES/ATTENUATION

4 Radiation

Radiation losses occur at the bends of Optical fibres.


The mode that propagates outside of bend is required to travel
faster than the mode that propagate inside the bend in order to
maintain the wavefront perpendicular to direction of propagation.
Hence, part of mode in cladding needs to travel faster than velocity
of light which is impossible.
As a result, the energy associated with this part of mode is lost
through radiation.
Radiation losses can exist due to the conversion of core modes to
non-propagating modes (cladding modes). This results in a
reduction in the carrying modes.
Radiation Losses are due to Macrobending and Microbending
Radiation
i. Macrobending Loss
Occurs when the fiber is bent into a large radius of
curvature relative to the fiber diameter (large
bends).
These bends become a great source of power loss
when the radius of curvature is less than several
cm.
May be found in a splice tray or a fiber cable that
has been bent.
Macro bend would not cause
significant radiation loss if it
has large enough radius.
Radiation
ii. Microbending Loss
Due to small discontinuities or imperfections in the fiber,i.e.
where exist the small-scale bends in the core-cladding
interface.
The small scale bends can develop:
due to local mechanical stresses
placed on the fiber, such as stresses
induced by cabling the fiber
by wrapping the fiber on a spool
or bobbin.
due to uneven coating applications and
improper cabling jacket surrounding the fiber.
Change the path that propagating modes take i.e low-order
modes becomes coupled with higher order modes.
Micro bends can cause 1 to 2 dB/km losses in fiber cabling
process.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)

1 Coupling Loss

Some of the common causes are


a) Diameter core mismatch
b) Longitudinal misalignment
c) Lateral misalignment
d) Angular misalignment
e) Fiber and rough/irregular
INSERTION LOSS (IL)

a) Diameter core mismatch

Diameter core mismatch Diameter Cable mismatch


2 cable that couple/connected must have the
same diameter of the core and cable.
The mismatch of core and cable diameter will
affect the light propagation.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)
b) Longitudinal misalignment

. This loss is also known as the separation of the


fiber end.
. The light propagate outside the core and affected
the light transmission.
c) Lateral misalignment

the fiber laterally misaligned, and the light


may be refracted or reflected outside the
fiber core.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)
(c) Angular misalignment

The fiber is placed together with a very


bad angle misalignment.
The light may be refracted outside the core.

v. Fiber and rough/irregular

Both of the fiber end is cleave badly, the rough and


irregular end of the fiber, caused the light refracted
outside the fiber core.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)

2 Splicing Loss

Splice process related parameters are those induced


by splicing methods and procedures.
The parameters include lateral and angular alignment,
contamination at the fiber end and core deformation
due to un-optimized heating & pressing.
These external parameters can be
controlled/minimized by improving skill of the
individual doing splicing and by automated fiber
alignment and fusion cycles.
It has been observed that splice loss between two
identical fibers is as high as 0.04 dB.
This excess loss is due to miss alignment and other
splicing process parameters.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)
Splice process related parameters are those
induced by splicing methods and procedures.
The parameters include lateral and angular
alignment, contamination at the fiber end and
core deformation due to un-optimized heating &
pressing.
These external parameters can be
controlled/minimized by improving skill of the
individual doing splicing and by automated fiber
alignment and fusion cycles.
It has been observed that splice loss between two
identical fibers is as high as 0.04 dB.
This excess loss is due to miss alignment and
other splicing process parameters.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)

Proper fiber end


Example of Splice Loss preparation
29
comparison
INSERTION LOSS (IL)
Other important parameter related to splice loss
is fiber end angle.
Proper fiber end preparation is the most
fundamental step to get acceptable splice loss.
Generally end angle less than two degrees gives
acceptable field splice loss.
End angle is dependent on condition of cleaver
and cleaver blade.
Typical end angle of well maintained cleaver is
around one-half degree.
It has been observed that these parameters can
give splice loss as high as 0.4 dB.
By controlling these parameters, acceptable field
splice loss can be achieved.
INSERTION LOSS (IL)

3 Connector Loss

Occur due to the bad condition of the connector-


[FC / LC / ST / FDDI] such as :
Dirt and dust around core.
Core fiber defect.
RECAP Intrinsi
Absorptio c
n Loss
Extrinsi
Material
c
Scattering
Transmission Loss Loss

Modal
Loss Coupli
in ng Dispersio
FO Loss n Chromat
ic
Insertion Radiation
Loss Loss
Polarizati
on Mode
Connecto Splicing Loss
rs Loss
Insertio
n
Loss

33
Fiber Attenuation-Typical
Specs
(TIA 568 Specs)
Fiber Type 850 nm 1300 nm 1550 nm
@
Wavelengt
h
Multimode 3 dB/km 1 dB/km NA
(3.5) (1.5)

Singlemode NA 0.4 dB/km 0.25 dB/km


Indoor (1/0.5) (1/0.5)
/outdoor
5.3 5.4 Understand and
apply decibel, dBW and
dBm in power
measurements.
Upon completion of this learning
session, the student should be able to:
1. Define dB, dBW and dBm
2. Apply and solve given problem related to
power measurement calculation.
dB and dBm
the units used for measuring attenuation of optical cables
and sensitivity of photo-detectors:
dB - decibel
dBm - decibel referenced to one milliwatt
The definitions of signal levels given in dB and dBm:

dB is a relative unit that represents a ratio.


dBm is an absolute unit that is referenced to
1mW

The unit dBm is devised because in practice, 1 mW is a


convenient reference point from which to measure power.
dBm is considered as an absolute unit a unit to measure
power.
dB dBm
dBm is almost exactly the
same as dB.
The only difference is that
there is a reference of :
1 Watt = 0 dB
1 mW = 0 dBm.
1W = 1000mW = 30dBm
So 1 watt is equal to
30dBm 0dB = 30 dBm.
Therefore to convert from
dB to dBm, just simply
need to add 30.
Prove that :
dBm - dBm = dB
Watt to dBW Watt to dBm

2W 2W
10 log 10 log
1W 1mW
10 log 2 2000mW
10 log
3.01dBW 1mW
10 log 2000
33.01dBm
Exercise 1
1. 33.01dBm = _____ Watt
2. 33.01dBW = _____ Watts
3. 50 dBm = ______ Watt
4. 500 mW = ______ dBm
5. -3dBm (-17dBm) =
_____
Exercise 2
Find the length of the link A. All fiber used
has a loss of 3.0 dB/km.
Input Loss = 2 Loss = output
= -10dBm dB Link A 4 dB = -31dBm

As the input power = -10dBm and the output


power = -31dBm, the difference in power level
is 21 dBm.
Total losses = 2 + 4 = 6 dB
The remaining loss at link A = 21dB 6dB = 15
dB, therefore at 3 dB loss per km, this means
that link A must be 5 km in length.
Exercise 3
An optical power of 1 mW is launched into an
optical fibre of length 100m. If the power
emerging at the other end is 0.3 mW,
calculate the fibre attenuation in dB/km.

10 Pout
Fibre attenuatio n in dB/km log( )
L Pin
10 0.3mW
log( )
0.1km 1.0mW
52.28dB / km
5.5 5.8 Understand fiber
optic system design
and optical link budget

Upon completion of this learning


session, the student should be able to:
1. Explain fiber optic system design
2. Describe and explain power link budget
and rise time budget.
3. Design link budget
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
DESIGN

O O RX
TX
A A

TX TRANSMITTER RX RECEIVER
OA OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

Medium and Devices

SIMPLE LINK : POINT TO POINT


LINK
Figure 5.1 : A diagram shows the basic components for a simple
link of Point-to-Point Link
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM

DESIGN
There are many factors that must be consider to
ensure enough light reaches the receiver.
Without the right amount of light, the entire system
will not operate properly.

Figure 5.2 : Important parameters to consider when specifying fiber


optic system.
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
DESIGN
Table 5.1: List of factors for evaluating fiber optic system design

SYSTEM FACTOR CONSIDERATION


System structure Typically pointto-point link

Transfer Mode / LED Multimode (MM)


Source Type LASER Multimode or Single mode
(SM)
Detector type PIN photodiode or APD photodiode

Information Coding technology WDM, CWDM,


capabilities DWDM
(modulation Code)
Operational MM 850nm, 1310nm
wavelength SM 1310nm, 1550 nm
Transmission System Complexity Increases with
distance Transmission Distance
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
Table 5.1: List of factors DESIGN
for evaluating fiber optic system design

SYSTEM FACTOR CONSIDERATION


Fiber loss factor Fiber loss generally has the greatest
impact on overall system performance.
The fiber strand manufacturer provides
a loss factor in terms of dB/km

Type of fiber optic Single mode (SM) or Multimode (MM)


Most SM fibers have a loss factor of
between 0.25 (@ 1550nm) and 0.35 (@
1310nm) dB/km.
MM fibers have a loss factor of about
2.5 (@ 850nm) and 0.8 (@ 1310nm)
dB/km.
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
Table 5.1: List of factors DESIGN
for evaluating fiber optic system design

SYSTEM FACTOR CONSIDERATION


Number and types Mechanical splice loss is generally
of calculated in a range of 0.7 to 1.5 dB
splices/connector per connector.
Fusion splices are calculated at
between 0.1 and 0.5 dB per splice.
Because of their limited loss factor,
fusion splices are preferred.
Receiver The ability of a fiber optic receiver to
Sensitivity see a light source. A receiving device
needs a certain minimum amount of
received light to function within
specification. Receivers are rated in
terms of required minimum level of
received light such as -28dBm.
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
Table 5.1: List of factors DESIGN
for evaluating fiber optic system design
SYSTEM CONSIDERATION
FACTOR
Margin This is an important factor. A system
can't be designed based on simply
reaching a receiver with the minimum
amount of required light.
The light power budget margin
accounts for aging of the fiber, aging
of the transmitter and receiver
components, addition of devices along
the cable path, incidental twisting and
bending of the fiber cable, additional
splices to repair cable breaks, etc.
Most system designers will add a loss
budget margin of 3 to 10 dB
EXAMPLE
SPECIFICATION OF FIBER LOSS FROM MANUFACTURER

Fiber Type Wavelengt Fiber Fiber Connector Splice Loss


h Attenuation Attenuation Loss
/km (1) per km (2)
Multimode 850nm 3.5 dB 2.5 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB
50/125um
1300nm 1.5 dB 0.8 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB

Multimode 850nm 3.5 dB 3.0 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB


62.5/125u
m 1300nm 1.5 dB 0.7 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB

Single 1310nm 0.4 dB 0.35 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB


Mode 9um
Single 1550nm 0.3 dB 0.22 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB
Mode 9um
FIBER OPTIC SYSTEM
DESIGN
Table 5.2: Example of specification of fiber loss from manufacturer

Fiber Type Wavelengt Fiber Fiber Connector Splice Loss


h Attenuation Attenuation Loss
/km (1) per km (2)
Multimode 850nm 3.5 dB 2.5 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB
50/125um
1300nm 1.5 dB 0.8 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB

Multimode 850nm 3.5 dB 3.0 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB


62.5/125u
m 1300nm 1.5 dB 0.7 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB

Single 1310nm 0.4 dB 0.35 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB


Mode 9um
Single 1550nm 0.3 dB 0.22 dB 0.75 dB 0.1 dB
Mode 9um
DEFINITION POWER BUDGET

The power budget is defined as the difference


between the minimum transmitter output and
the minimum receiver sensitivity.

Power Budget , PB = PTX - PRX

Power budget determines how much optical


power is available for losses in the link.
Power Link Budget

PTX O O PRX
A A

Total Losses + Power Margin

Figure 5.3 : Determination of power budget for a point-to-point link


Power Link Budget

Figure 5.4 : Optical Power Loss Model for point-to-point Link


POWER BUDGET
REQUIREMENT :
PRX PSEN

PRX PTX TLL P M + TG

where:
PTX is the range of optical power (transmitter) at the input of the optical link
given in dBm.
PRX is the range of sensitivity of the photo-detector (receiver) at end of the
optical
link - given in dBm.
TLL total loss of the passive components of the optical link,
i.e. attenuation of the fiber and optical connectors/splices - given in
dB.
TG total gain of optical amplifiers in the path - given in dB.
PM safety margin: 3 dB to 6 dB
Power Budget Requirements:
Definition : Power Budget : PRX > PSEN

PRX = Received Power


PSEN = Minimum Power at a certain BER
(receiver sensivity)
PTX = PRX + TLLTGAIN +
PMARGIN

PRX = PTX - TLL+TGAIN -


PTX = Transmitted Power
PMARGIN
PMARGIN 6 dB (around 3 8 dB)
CAUTION !!!
PRX in dBm or dBW
PTX in dBm or dBW
TLL in dB
TGAIN in dB
PMARGIN in dB
Example 1: Power Budget
Server
A
Measurement for LAN
Server
B
500 m

Using 850nm
PTx = -15 dBm PSEN = -25
dBm
Attenuation Coefficient, = 4.5 dB/km
Number of Splice = 0
Splice Loss = 0 dB
Connector Loss = 0.5dB
PMargin = 4 dB
Fiber Loss(Link Loss) = 4.5 dB/km X 0.5
km
= 2.25 dB
Connector Loss = 0.5 dB X 2
= 1.0 dB
Total Losses = 2.25 + 1.0
= 3.25 dB
Pmargin = 4 dB

PRX = - 22.25 dB

Power Budget, PRX PSEN !!


EXERCISE 1 -A fiber optic system has the
following information:

Transmitter Receiver
Output Power Sensitivity
(LVTXD-010- (LVRXD-010-
SMM Fibre Lite) SMM Fibre
= -14dBm Lite) = -26dBm

Calculate:
1. Power Budget
2. Total link losses.
3. If Power Margin = 6 dB,
identify this system is
good practice or not
EXERCISE 2 : Determine the receiver's
sensitivity of an optical link below:

where:
N transmitter , W amplifier , O receiver
Z connector , S splice
Given:

Tx power: 3 dBm
Connector loss: 0.15 dB
Splice loss: 0.15 dB
Amplifier gain: 10 dB Prx > -10.35 dB
Fiber optic loss: 0.2 dB/km The receiver should provide a
sensitivity better than -10.35 dBm
SYSTEM RISE TIME
Calculate the Total rise times
Tx, Fiber, Rx Tx Rise Time, TTX = normally given by manufactur
Rx Rise Time, TRX = normally given by manufactu
Calculate Fiber rise time, TFiber

Tfiber = D x x L Where : D = Dispersion


Coefficient
= Linewidth
L = Fiber Length

Tsys
Total Rise time, Tsys 1. 1 T TX
2
T RX
2
T FIBER
2

For a good reception of signal Tsys < 0.7 x


Pulse Width (PW)
PW = 1/Bitrate for NRZ
BANDWIDTH BUDGET

T T
O O RX
TX
A A

= T - T

Medium and Devices


Example 2: CalculateRise Time
Budget Measurement for Long Haul
Application
Tx rise time, TTX = 0.1 ns,
Rx rise time, TRX= 0.5 ns
Linewidth() = 0.15 Dispersion
nm, Coefficient, D = 18 ps/nm-km
Dispersion Coefficient, D = 18 ps/nm-km,
Fiber length = 150km
Bit Rate = Format = RZ
622Mbps,
SIMPLE CALCULATION.

Fiber rise time, TF Let say,


=Length x D x Bit Rate = STM 4 = 622
Linewidth() Mbps
= 150 km x 18 x 0.15 nm Format = RZ
= 0.4 ns
For Good Rise time Budget
Tsys < 0.7 x Pulse Width (PW),
Total Rise time, TSYS thus,
= 1.1 TLS2 + TPD2 + TF2
= 1.1 0.01 + 0.25 + Pulse Width (PW) = 1/(622x106)
0.16 = 1.6 ns
= 0.77 ns
0.77 ns < 0.7 x 1.6 ns

0.77 ns < 1.1 ns !! Good Rise


Time Budget!!
Let say,

Bit Rate = STM 16 = 2.5 Gbps


Format = RZ

Tsys < 0.7 x Pulse Width (PW)

Pulse Width (PW) = 1/(2.5x109)

= 0.4 ns

0.77 ns < 0.7 x 0.4 ns

0.77 ns 0.28 ns !!

Bad Rise Time Budget!!