Anda di halaman 1dari 88

Lymphatic System

Dr. Arlends Chris


Department of Histology
Medical Faculty
Tarumanagara University
Jakarta, 2008
Introduction
The body has a system of cells that has the
ability to distinguish self (the organisms own
molecules) from nonself (foreign substance)
the immune system.
Has the ability to neutralize / inactivate foreign
molecules and destroy microorganisms or other
cells.
Autoimmune disease the immune system of
individual reacts against its own normal body
tissues or molecules.
The cells of immune system,
Are distributed throughtout the body in the
blood, lymph and epithelial and connective
tissues;
Are arranged in small spherical nodules called
lymphoid nodules found in connective
tissues and inside several organs;
And are organized as differently sized organs
called lymphoid organs.
The wide distribution of immune system
cells and the constant traffic of
lymphocytes through the blood, lymph,
connective tissues and lymphoid organs
provide the body with an elaborate and
efficient system of surveillance and
defense.
The lymph system is made up of
the following:
Lymph: Colorless, watery fluid that travels through the
lymph system and carries white blood cells called
lymphocytes. Lymphocytes protect the body against
infections and the growth of tumors.
Lymph vessels: A network of thin tubes that collect lymph
from different parts of the body and return it to the
bloodstream.
Lymph nodes: Small, bean-shaped structures that filter
lymph and store white blood cells that help fight infection
and disease. Lymph nodes are located along the network
of lymph vessels found throughout the body. Clusters of
lymph nodes are found in the underarm, pelvis, neck,
abdomen, and groin.
Spleen: An organ that makes lymphocytes, filters the
blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells.
The spleen is on the left side of the abdomen near the
stomach.
Thymus: An organ in which lymphocytes grow and
multiply. The thymus is in the chest behind the
breastbone.
Tonsils: Two small masses of lymph tissue at the back of
the throat. The tonsils make lymphocytes.
Bone marrow: The soft, spongy tissue in the center of
large bones. Bone marrow makes white blood cells, red
blood cells, and platelets.
From: www.meb.uni-
bonn.de/cancer.gov/CDR0
000257993.html
Lymphatic System

Lymphatic Organs Lymph vessels

Lymphatic Tissues

Reticular tissue Free cells

Reticular fibers Reticular cells


The form of lymphatic tissue:

Diffuse lymphoid tissue


Lymphatic nodulus
Diffuse lymphoid tissues
The alimentary and respiratory tracts.
The simplest form of lymphoid tissues.
Infiltration of the lamina propria of mucous
membranes.
Not packed closely together and do not show
any special organization.
The reticular cells Close relation
The reticular fibers
Free cells:
Small lymphocytes (the most)
Hemocytoblast (lymphoblast)
Monocytes
Plasma cells (between the reticular cells and fibers)
Lymphatic nodulus
Vary in diameter (m mm or more).
The formation / structure:
Solitarius.
Nonencapsulated aggregations.
Encapsulated aggregations.
Primary nodules:
Unclear circumstance outline
Small lymphocytes
Cortex :
Closely packed small lymphocytes.
It may have an outer peripheral darker zone.
Medulla :
Germinal center / secondary nodule.
Develop in response to an antigenic.
Lymphoblast.
Large, medium and small sized lymphocytes.
Zona of rapid proliferation
The size of the center is an indication of level of the
immunological response.
THE LYMPH NODES /
LYMPHONODUS
Location : Feature:
Prevertebral region. Bean-shaped body.
Axillary regions. Ranging from 1 25 mm.
Inguinal regions. Convex contour.
Mesentery. Except at an indented region
the hilum/hilus (blood vessels
enter and leave the node, and
efferent vessels)
Afferent lymphatic vessel
penetrate the capsule at multiple
point on the convex surface.
The capsular material
trabeculae.
Lymphatic sinuses.
An outer / cortical: An inner / medullary:
Lypmh nodules Trabeculae branch
Anastomose to form
irregular,
anastomosing cords.

The connective tissue of the capsule also


penetrates the gland at the hilum.
Framework
Capsule consists:
Collagenous fibers with scattered elastic
fibers.
The capsule, hilum and trabeculae constitute
the collagenous framework.
Within the framework, there is a delicate
meshwork of reticular connective tissue,
comprising reticular fibers, reticular cells and
fixed macrophages.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
CORTEX
Development of the trabeculae and separation of
the cortex into compartments vary in nodes of
the body.
The nodules are separated from the capsule and
trabeculae by space lymph sinuses, throught
which the lymph circulates.
Surrounding the medulla except at the hilum.
The cortical nodules often contain germinal
centers (medium-sized lymphocytes;
lymphoblast; plasma cells)
Active phase the cells are produced and
pushed outward into a peripheral zone.
After a time, mitotic activity diminished.
inactive phase the nodule returns to its
homogeneous, resting appearance.
Region where B lymphocytes are concentrated.
Stimulation antigen proliferation of small
lymphocytes & cell plasma concerned specific
humoral antibodies
Paracortex
Small lymphocytes / T lymphocytes specific sellular
antibodies.
Venula
Medulla
Medullary cords.
Medullary sinuses.
B lymphocytes & plasma cells.
Lymph circulation
AFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS

MARGINALIS SINUSES

CORTICALIS SINUSES

MEDULLARY SINUSES

HILUS

EFFERENT LYMPHATIC VESSELS


From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
BLOOD VESSEL

MEDULLARY CORTICAL VENULES


CORDS NODULES
(PARACORTICAL
CORTEX)
ARTERIES
(HILUS)

TRABECULAE CONNECTIVE CAPSULE


TISSUE OF
TRABECULAE
NERVES

VASOMOTOR HILUS INTERIOR OF THE NODE


(MOSTLY)
MIGRATION OF T
LYMPHOCYTES
Lymphocytes that leave the venules
penetrate the paracortical zone
(intercellular or intracellular/transcellular
route) medullary sinuses efferent
vessels the thoracic duct the blood
vascular system.
FUNCTIONS OF LYMPH NODES
Production of lymphocytes
(lymphopoiesis).
Filter lymph.
Formation of antibodies.
Memory cells.
THE TONSILS
The tonsil are aggregates of
unencapsulated lymphoid tissue that lie in
close assosiation with a wet epithelial
membrane.
There are tonsillar groups:
The palatine tonsils.
Pharyngeal lymphoid
The lingual tonsil. ring of Waldeyer

The pharyngeal tonsil.


Fourth tonsillar group:
Tubal tonsils.
PALATINE TONSILS (faucial)
Features:
Paired
Ovoid masses
Location: beetwen the glossopalatine and
pharyngopalatine arches.
Lie in the connective tissue of the mucosa
and covered on their free surface by a
stratified squamous epithelium.
Tonsillar crypts
Primary crypt.
Secondary crypts.
Lymphoid tissue surrounds the crypts as a
diffuse mass.
The nodules may contain germinal
centers.
Small mucous glands
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
From: Lesson & Lesson, 1988.
LINGUAL TONSIL
Located in the root of the tongue, behind
the circumvallate papillae.
Simple pit / crypt.
Stratified squamous epithelium.
Infiltrations of the epithelium with
lymphocytes.
Lymph nodules (lymphonodulus) with
germinal centers.
Mucous glands.
PHARYNGEAL TONSIL
Accumulation of lymphoid tissue in the
median posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
The lymphatic tissue is similar with the
palatine tonsils.
The epithelium over the free surface is
folded, but no true crypts occur.
Pseudostratified epithelium with cilia and
goblet cells.
In the Adult stratified squamous
epithelium.
The epithelium is extensively infiltrated
with lymphocytes.
Mixed seromucous glands.
Hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil, with
consequent obstruction of the nasal
opening, is common and is known
clinically as adenoids.
TUBAL TONSIL
Lies around the pharyngeal orifice of the
pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube,
And constitues a lateral extension of the
pharyngeal tonsil.
Columnar epithelium with ciliated.
FUNCTIONS
Participate in lymphocyte production
Aid in the protection of the body against
invading bacteria, viruses, and other
foreign protein.
Foreign protein (antigens) stimulate the
production of antibodies.
On the other hand, epithelial erosion
would seem to enhance an invasion by
microorganisms and the tonsils are known
to be frequent portal of infection.
THE THYMUS
Lymphoepithelial organ.
Varies in size and development with the
age of the individual.
Maximum around puberty, after which it
become insconspicuous.
It has neither lymph nodules nor sinuses.
Two large lobes.
Extends from the root of neck into upper
part of the thorax, behind the sternum.
Composed of thousands of lobules.
Peripheral cortical and a central medullary
component.
A capsule is composed mainly of
collagenous fibers and some elastic fibers.
The inward extensions from the capsule
(septa) delineate the lobules.
The reticular cells, which support the
parenchyma, arise from entoderm.
From: Netter, 2006.
CORTEX
Thymocytes.
The epithelial reticular cells.
Retikular tissue (rare).
True macrophage in perivascular regions.
MEDULLA
Thymocytes.
The epithelial reticular cells.
Small and large lymphocytes.
Thymic corpuscles (of Hassal) (20 100 m).
It is acidophil and spherical or ovoid structures
composed of consentrically arranged epithelial
reticular cells.
The central cells are large and often show
evidence of hyalinization and degeneration into
a formless mass that may even undergo
calcification.
The corpuscle become increasingly.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
BLOOD VESSELS
From the internal thoracic and the inferior
thyroid arteries.
THE SPLEEN
The largest of the lymphoid organs.
Collagenous framework within which is
suspended a reticular network.
Surrounded by the peritoneum.
Trabeculae
Sinuses.
Hilus.
FUNCTION OF THE SPLEEN
They are not understood completely.
Hemopoietic organ.
Producing lymphocytes.
Produce myeloid element.
Separates plasma from the blood cells.
Great phagocytic capacity.
Production of antibodies.
WHITE PULP
Central artery, eccentric in position.
Small, medium and large size lymphocytes,
monocytes and plasma cells.
Between the white and red pulp are poorly
delineated marginal zone of diffuse lymphatic
tissue containing few lymphocytes and
numerous macrophages.
T Lymphocytes populated the periarteial sheath
B Lymphocytes are concentrated in the marginal
zones and in the nodules.
RED PULP
Infiltrated with all element of circulating blood.
Numerous venous sinuses.
Between the sinuses, the pulp appears as cellular cords
(splenic, or Billroths cords).
Small, medium and large size lymphocytes.
Monocytes also are fairly numerous.
Contains numerous plasma cells, granular leukocytes
and erythrocytes.
Megakaryocytes, myelocytes and erythroblasts.
These myeloid element are absent from the spleen in
adult humans, except in certain pathological conditions
when the spleen undergo myeloid metaplasia.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
From: Junqueira & Carneiro, 2005.
BLOOD VESSELS
The arteries enter the
spleen at the hilum
Terminal arterial
capillaries trabeculae
(trabeculae/interlobular
arteries) the splenic
parenchyma (central
arteries/arterioles)
Red Pulp Penicilli
vessels venous
sinuses pulp veins

trabecular/interlobular
veins Hilus the
splenic vein.
References
Copenhaver, Kelly & Wood. (1971). Baileys textbook
of histology. USA: William & Wilkins.
Junqueira & Carneiro. (2003). Basic histology text &
atlas. NY: McGraw Hill.
Lesson, Lesson & Paparo. (1998). Text/atlas of
histology. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Netter. (2006). Atlas of human anatomy. Philadelphia:
Saunders.
Putz & Pabst. (2006). Sobotta. Atlas der anatomie des
menschen. Munchen: Elsevier.
Quade, G. (2008). AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment
Retrieved: 3 April 2008. From: www.meb.uni-
bonn.de/cancer.gov/CDR0000257993.html