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MULTIPATH PROPAGATION
CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE
FORMS
RESPONSE OF TIME VARIANT MULTIPATH

CHANNEL
time spread introduced in the signal

t=t + 12
t = t0 t=t1+ 11 1 t=t1+ 13

## nature of multipath varies with time

t=t + 22
t=t2+
t = t0 + t=t2+ 21 2 23

t=t3+
t = t0 + t=t3+ t=t
31 3+ 32
t=t3+ 33
34

t = t0 +
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE

## time variant channel impulse response is given by:

h(t, )=n an(t) e-j2fc n(t) ) (t-n(t) )
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE (contd)
MULTIPATH PROPAGATION (contd)

Specular multipath

## Individual multipath components, say M , each with its own

amplitude and phase

Diffuse multipath

multipath which are infinitely low in power but there are infinitely
many of them.

## typically used to simulate the many multipath that arrive due to

scattering and diffraction

easier to deal with lots of multipath into the diffused type, rather than
specifying each individual multipath and its power.
link with static center frequency but with Tx / Rx in motion
Frequency shifts
The complex received baseband voltage is :

Put

## this is called the doppler shift. when one sends a frequency

fc, the received frequency of the signal has been shifted up
or down by this factor.

## each component contributes a complex sinusoid of

frequency to the sum Vtot .

## If there are diffuse multipath coming equally from all

directions, then the power spectrum of Vtot can be
determined to be :

## After transmission of signal over a fading channel, we will get

the power spectrum, which will be spread.

## larger the coherence time , slower the channel fluctuations.

Depending on transmitted signal bandwidth and doppler

## slow or fast fading deals with the rate at which the

channel is changing due to motion.

## It is independent of whether the channel is flat or

frequency selective.

## Slow fading : Tsymb <<Tc , Bs >> BD

fast fading : Tsymb >>Tc , Bs<<BD
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE
POWER DELAY PROFILE

## The squared magnitude of h() in the db domain is called

as the power delay profile p().
CHANNEL PARAMETERS
Mean excess delay : first moment of the PDP

of the PDP

## Maximum Excess delay (X dB): The time delay during

which multipath energy falls to X dB below the maximum.
tells us how long a multipath exists above a given threshold.
DELAY
coherence bandwidth :

## Flat fading: Bs << Bc , Ts >>

the channel has a constant gain and linear phase response over its
bandwidth.

## Frequency selective fading: Bs>>Bc ,Ts<<

multiple copies of the transmitted signal, which are attenuated and delayed
in time is obtained. The channel introduces intersymbol interference.

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