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MULTIPATH FADING

MULTIPATH PROPAGATION
CONSTRUCTIVE AND DESTRUCTIVE
FORMS
RESPONSE OF TIME VARIANT MULTIPATH

CHANNEL
time spread introduced in the signal

t=t + 12
t = t0 t=t1+ 11 1 t=t1+ 13

nature of multipath varies with time

t=t + 22
t=t2+
t = t0 + t=t2+ 21 2 23

t=t3+
t = t0 + t=t3+ t=t
31 3+ 32
t=t3+ 33
34

t = t0 +
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE

Transmitted signal : S(t) = Re {sl(t) ej2fct}

Received bandpass signal : r(t) = ann(t) s( t-n(t) )

r(t)= Re {[nan(t) e-j2fc n(t) sl(t-n(t) ) ] ej2fct}

lowpass received signal : rl(t) = ann(t) e-j2fc n(t) sl(t-n(t) )

time variant channel impulse response is given by:


h(t, )=n an(t) e-j2fc n(t) ) (t-n(t) )
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE (contd)
MULTIPATH PROPAGATION (contd)

Specular multipath

Individual multipath components, say M , each with its own


amplitude and phase

Diffuse multipath

multipath which are infinitely low in power but there are infinitely
many of them.

typically used to simulate the many multipath that arrive due to


scattering and diffraction

easier to deal with lots of multipath into the diffused type, rather than
specifying each individual multipath and its power.
DOPPLER FADING
link with static center frequency but with Tx / Rx in motion
Fading loss changes over time
Frequency shifts
The complex received baseband voltage is :

Put

di is the distance the ith multipath component travels


DOPPLER FADING (contd)

after the movement of move distance in move direction,


DOPPLER FADING (contd)

consider one component ,

we actually have not just a phase but a complex sinusoid of

this is called the doppler shift. when one sends a frequency


fc, the received frequency of the signal has been shifted up
or down by this factor.
DOPPLER FADING (contd)

each component contributes a complex sinusoid of


frequency to the sum Vtot .

For each frequency that is sent, many frequencies are


received.

If there are diffuse multipath coming equally from all


directions, then the power spectrum of Vtot can be
determined to be :
DOPPLER FADING (contd)

After transmission of signal over a fading channel, we will get


the power spectrum, which will be spread.

The frequency range where the power spectrum is non zero


gives the doppler spread.

coherence time is the inverse of the doppler spread.

It serves as a measure of how fast the channel changes in time

larger the coherence time , slower the channel fluctuations.


DOPPLER FADING EFFECTS
Depending on transmitted signal bandwidth and doppler
spread, signal may undergo slow fading or fast fading.

slow or fast fading deals with the rate at which the


channel is changing due to motion.

It is independent of whether the channel is flat or


frequency selective.

Slow fading : Tsymb <<Tc , Bs >> BD


fast fading : Tsymb >>Tc , Bs<<BD
CHANNEL IMPULSE RESPONSE
POWER DELAY PROFILE

ai is proportional to vi. |ai|2 is the power gain in that path.

The squared magnitude of h() in the db domain is called


as the power delay profile p().
CHANNEL PARAMETERS
Mean excess delay : first moment of the PDP

RMS delay spread: square root of the second central moment


of the PDP

Maximum Excess delay (X dB): The time delay during


which multipath energy falls to X dB below the maximum.
tells us how long a multipath exists above a given threshold.
FADING EFFECTS DUE TO TIME
DELAY
coherence bandwidth :

Flat fading: Bs << Bc , Ts >>


the channel has a constant gain and linear phase response over its
bandwidth.

Frequency selective fading: Bs>>Bc ,Ts<<


multiple copies of the transmitted signal, which are attenuated and delayed
in time is obtained. The channel introduces intersymbol interference.

A rule of thumb for a channel to have flat fading is <0.1 Ts


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