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KONSE Sistem

P Informasi
Geografis
DASAR
DEFINISI
Geographical Information System (GIS) atau dalam
istilah Bahasa Indonesia dikenal dengan Sistem
Informasi Geografis (SIG) merupakan seni, ilmu, teknik
dan teknologi yang diperlukan untuk menyelesaikan
masalah spasial (keruangan)
(Reddy, 2008)

KENAPA GIS?
Karena GIS dapat mengkombinasikan data geospasial
dan non-geospasial dari sumber data yang berbeda
dalam operasi analisis geospasial sehingga mampu
menjawab semua pertanyaan terkait keruangan.
Tipe pertanyaan yang dapat diselesaikan dengan GIS
(Kraak and Ormeling, 2010)
GIS SEBAGAI SISTEM INFORMASI

GIS berperan dalam pengambilan keputusan (Reddy,


2008)
TINGKATAN PEMANFAATAN GIS

Penggunaan
Lahan/Penutup
Lahan,
Kadastral,
Pertanian,
Hidrologi
The Four
Ms (Reddy,
Penaksiran 2008)
lingkungan,
jaringan
drainase,
model terrain,
model DTM,
dll.
GIS AS TOOL OR SCIENCE...?

GIS bukan hanya sebagai tool atau science, tetapi


GIS mencangkup tool to science

GIS as tool, involving the use of a particular


class of software, associated hardware tools, and
digital geographic data in order to advance some
specific purpose;
GIS as toolmaking, involving the advancement
of the tool's capability and ease of use;
the science of GIS, concerning the analysis of
the fundamental issues raised by the use of GIS.

By Wright et al. (1997)


HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

By DiBiase
(2006)
1. Influence geographic information technologies
HUBUNGAN
directly: GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN
. Cartography - the science and art of making maps
. Remote sensing - the science of Earth observation from
afar
. Geodesy - the science of accurate measurement of the
Earth
. Surveying - the science of accurate measurement of
features on the Earth
. Photogrammetry - the science of measurement from
photographs and images
. Image processing - the science of handling and analysis
of image data

2. Influence digital technology and information:


. Computer science - this includes databases,
computational geometry, image processing, and pattern
recognition
. Information science - Information science studies the
application and usage of knowledge in organizations,
HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

3. Concern the Earth's physical or human aspect:


. Geology
. Geophysics
. Oceanography
. Agriculture
. Biology, particularly ecology, biogeography
. Environmental science
. Geography
. Sociology
. Political science
. Anthropology
. Archaeology
HUBUNGAN GIS DAN DISIPLIN ILMU LAIN

4. Integrate knowledge within the context of the


Earth's surface:
. Geography
. Environmental science

5. Concern human understanding and its interactions


with machines:
. Psychology, particularly cognitive psychology,
environmental psychology
. Cognitive science
. Artificial intelligence