Anda di halaman 1dari 51

MINERAL

MINERAL
Bagian dari tubuh dan memegang
peran penting dalam
pemeliharaan fungsi tubuh, baik
tingkat sel, jaringan, organ
maupun fungsi tubuh secara
keseluruhan
Istilah mineral :
secara umum digunakan untuk
melambangkan semua unsur-unsur
anorganik, walaupun tidak semua unsur
merupakan mineral.

Karena itu mineral dan unsur dapat


dipertukarkan.
Istilah essensial pada mineral adalah jika
terjadi defisiensi mineral tertentu dalam
menu makanan secara konsisten akan
mengakibatkan terjadinya fungsi biologis
yang tidak optimal, dan gangguan fungsi
biologis tersebut dapat dicegah atau
dapat dipulihkan melalui pemberian
sejumlah mineral tersebut
WHO (1996) mengelompokkan
mikromineral berdasarkan essensialnya,
yaitu :

1Mikromineral essensial : I, Zn, Se, Cu,


Mo, Cr.
2Mikromineral yang kemungkinan essensial
: Mn, Si, Ni, B, V.
3Mikromineral yang berpotensi beracun,
tetapi kemungkinan mempunyai fungsi
essensial : Fluor, Lead, Cadmium,
Mercury, Arsen, Aluminium, Lithium, Tin.
Lima kelompok mineral
1Komponen utama molekul tubuh : C, H, O, N, dan
S; yang didapat dari air, lemak, karbohidrat dan
protein.
2Makromineral : Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl.
3 Jumlahnya dalam tubuh : < 0,01% atau 100 ppm
dari bobot tubuh
1.Mikromineral : Fe, Zn, Se, Mn, Cu, I, Mo, Co, Cr,
F.
2. Jumlahnya dalam tubuh : < 0,01% atau 100 ppm
dari bobot tubuh
Lima kelompok mineral (lanjutan)
1.Mikromineral yang terbukti essensial
untuk hewan, tetapi belum terbukti
essensial pada manusia : Arsen, Nickel,
Silikon, Boron, Cadmium, Lead, Lithium,
tin, dan Vanadium.
2.Unsur yang terdapat dalam pangan,
tetapi fungsi biologisnya belum jelas :
Aluminium, Antimony, Barium, Beryllium,
Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Mercury,
silver, Strontium, Thallium, dan Titanium
Perkiraan Komposisi Mineral Tubuh (dari bahan kering)
Mineral Persen

Karbon (C) 50
Oksigen (O) 20
Hidrogen (H) 10
Nitrogen (N) 8,5
Kalsium (Ca) 4,0
Fosfor (P) 2,5
Kalium (K) 1,0
Sulfur (S) 0,8
Natrium (Na) 0,4
Klor (Cl) 0,4
Magnesium (Mg) 0,1
Besi (Fe) 0,01

SumberMangan
: Linder(Mn)
(1992) 0,001
Iodium (I) 0,00005
Kriteria yang diusulkan untuk menetapkan sesuatu mineral
tergolong essensial (Groff, Gropper, Hunt, 1995) adalah :

1 Mineral tersebut terdapat dalam semua jaringan hidup


yang sehat.
2Kadarnya dari satu hewan ke hewan lain cukup konstan.
3Pengambilan mineral tersebut secara berulang dari tubuh
menyebabkan abnormalitas fisiologi dan struktural yang
sama, tidak tergantung dari spesies yang diteliti.
4Pemberian atau penambahan mineral tersebut dapat
mengurangi atau mencegah abnormalitas tersebut.
5Abnormalitas yang disebabkan oleh defisiensi selalu
diikuti oleh perubahan biokimia spesifik.
6Perubahan biokimia ini dapat dicegah atau diperbaiki
apabila defisiensinya dicegah atau diobati.
FUNCTIONS OF MINERALS

Minerals perform three broad types of functions for minerals:

1 Structural components of body organs and tissues, such as calcium,


phosphorus, magnesium, fluorine and silicon in bones and teeth, and
phosphorus and sulphur in muscle proteins.

2. Constituents of the body fluids and tissues as electrolytes


concerned with the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base
balance, membrane permeability and tissue irritability: sodium,
potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium in blood, cerebrospinal
fluid and gastric juice provide examples of such functions.

3. Catalysts in enzyme and hormone systems, as integral and specific


components of the structure and metalloenzymes, or as less
specific activators within those systems. Functional importance of
the metalloenzymes can be obtained from an examination of Table 3
Table 3. Some Important Metalloenzymes
Metal Enzyme Function

Iron Ferredoxin Photosynthesis


Succinate Aerobic oxidation of
dehydrogenase CHO
Copper Lysyl oxidase Lysine oxidation
Ceruloplasmin Iron utilization
Zinc Carbonic anhydrase CO2 formation
Alcohol dehydrogenase Alcohol metabolism
Carboxypeptidase
Protein digestion
Manganese Pyrovate carboxylase Pyruvate metabolism

Molybdenum Xanthine oxidase Purine metabolism

Selenium Glutathione peroxidase Removal of H2O2


In metallo-enzymes, the metal is firmly attached to
the protein moiety with a fixed number of metal
atoms per mole of protein.
The metal cannot be removed without loss of
enzyme activity and usually cannot be replaced by
any other metal.
In several zinc enzymes, the native zinc atoms can
be substituted by cobalt and cadmium without
complete loss of activity. Therefore, the individual
metalloenzymes are not confined to single metals.
Two of the mineral elements, iodine and cobalt, are
remarkable because their entire functional
significance can be accounted for by their presence
in single compounds---thyroxine and vitamin B12.
Bioavailabilitas
Proporsi mikromineral total dalam pangan,
makanan atau menu yang diutilisasi untuk
fungsi-fungsi tubuh normal, dan akan
tergantung pada bentuk kimianya dalam lumen
usus yang diberikan pada sel-sel absorptive
(dalam hal ini absorbabilitasnya).

Mikromineral tersebut harus dalam bentuk yang


dapat diambil oleh sel-sel mukosa
Pada beberapa mineral, terutama
besi, efisiensi penyerapan merupakan
jalur utama untuk mempertahankan
homeostasis.

Mineral lain, Zn dan Cu,


keseimbangan dipertahankan melalui
pengaturan ekskresi endogen.
Dengan demikian, ada dua hal yang
perlu dipahami dalam
bioavalabilitas mikromineral :
Bioavailabilitas yang diukur bukanlah semata-mata
milik atau sifat dari pangan atau makanan
melainkan respon seseorang terhadap menu atau
pangan,
Bioavailabilitas menggambarkan integrasi berbagai
komponen dari proses-proses dimana suatu zat
gizi menjadi tersedia secara biologis.
Mempertimbangkan berbagai faktor, Southgate menjelaskan
bahwa :

Bioavailabilitas = D.E/I .T.U

dimana:
D = proporsi mikromineral total yang
dikonversi ke bentuk yang dapat diserap.
E/I = rasio faktor pelancar terhadap faktor
penghambat penyerapan.
T = proporsi mikromineral yang ditransport.
U = proporsi mikromineral yang ditranspot
yang kemudian diutilisasi untuk fungsi-fungsi
metabolik normal.
Harus diingat :

Pada beberapa keadaan, proporsi yang


ditransport identik dengan proporsi yang
diutilisasi.

Pada beberapa mikromineral, proporsi


yang ditransport merupakan fungsi dari
status gizi seseorang.
Efisiensi penyerapan mikromineral dari
menu makanan :
Mikromineral Persen
Chromium <5
Copper 25 70
Haem iron 20 30
Inorganic iron 0 15
Manganese <5
Selenium 50 95
Zinc 5 - 50
Faktor pelancar dan penghambat penyerapan
mikromineral (Sandstrom, 1998) :

Mineral Pelancar Penghambat

Cr Histidin, asam nicotinat Fe, Zn

Cu Protein hewani, fruktosa Fitat, Fe, Zn

Fe Daging, vitamin C Fitat, poliphenol, Ca

Mn Ca, P, Fe, fitat

Se Thiol, vit.C Metionin, P, logam berat

Zn Protein hewani Fitat, Fe


Metode untuk menilai Bioavailabilitas
mikromineral (Fairweather-Tait, 1998) :
Chemical balance
Rate of repletion, growth rate
Plasma appearance
Isotope techniques :
a.Faecal monitoring
b.Whole body retention (gamma-emitting
isotopes)
c.Plasma appearance
d.Urine appearance (double lable method)
e.Hemoglobin incorporation (Fe)
In vitro techniques (e.g. solubility,
Determinan Bioavailabilitas
Bioavailabilitas zat gizi ditentukan oleh 3
tahapan dasar :

Absorbability
Transfer mukosa ke dalam sirkulasi
sistemik
Utilisasi dalam tubuh
Absorbability
Proporsi yang tersedia di lumen
untuk uptake kedalam sel mukosa
dipengaruhi oleh
- bentuk kimia
- komposisi makanan
- sekresi gastrik dan intestinal
- microflora usus
Utilisasi dalam tubuh
Dipengaruhi faktor
-Fisiologi
-status gizi
-intik zat gizi lain
-kehilangan endogen (urin, feses)
-bentuk kimia.
Transfer mukosa ke dalam
sirkulasi sistemik
Dikontrol oleh faktor :
-Fisiologi
-status gizi
-struktur dan fungsi sel mukosa.
Interaksi mineral

Interaksi mineral terjadi pada


ion-ion yang bermuatan sama
dan berukuran sama.
Jenis interaksi :

Interaksi antagonistik : keberadaan


salah satu mineral akan mengurangi
gerakan atau efisiensi biologi dari
mineral lainnya.

Cth. Interaksi Fe-Zn, Zn-Cu


Interaksi sinergistik : dua mineral
berperan secara komplementer.
Istilah sinergistik digunakan untuk menjelaskan
interaksi dimana satu mineral menghemat atau
menggantikan peran mineral lainnya; atau dua mineral
secara mutual (saling menguntungkan) memperlancar
fungsi biologi tertentu.
Cth. :
- Ni2+, Co2+, dan Mn2+ dapat
menggantikan kation asli pada beberapa
metalloenzim.
- Juga kerjasama kalsium dan strontium
dalam mineralisasi tulang
Interaksi Kombinasi :

Model interaksi mineral yang paling


sederhana adalah satu mineral dengan
satu mineral lainnya, yaitu satu mineral
melawan atau mendukung kerja mineral
lainnya. Apabila ada 3 mineral atau
lebih dalam suatu interaksi maka
kemungkinannya jauh lebih kompleks.
Contoh sederhana

yang interaksinya bersifat mutual adalah


kalsium, fluor, dan strontium, semuanya
berperan dalam meningkatkan kekuatan
mineral tulang.
Level Interaksi Mineral-mineral
(Solomons, 1988) :

Dalam makanan dan minuman.


Dalam saluran usus.
Cth. Fe-Zn.
Pada level jaringan.
Cth. Fe dlm makanan tinggi mengurangi kadar Cu dalam
hati.
Pada level transport dalam organisme.
Pada jalur eksresi
Metode Menilai Interaksi Mineral
(Solomons, 1988) :

Studi keseimbangan metabolik (metabolic


balance study).
Uji penyerapan makanan tunggal (single-
meal absorption tests).
Kadar mineral dalam jaringan dan cairan
biologi.
Respon fungsional.
Karakteristik Metabolisme Mikromineral
Secara Umum (Sandstrom, 1998) :

Penyerapan fraksional rendah.


Ekskresi intestinal endogen (Zn, Cu, Mn).
Penyerapan dan/atau ekskresi dibawah
pengaturan homeostatis.
Interaksi antara mikromineral (Zn/Cu, Fe/Zn,
Fe/Mn).
Pool tubuh utamanya adalah intraselular.
Indeks status mikromineral yang tersedia
sekarang tidak sensitif dan atau tidak spesiifik.
STUDYING ABSORPTION AND RETENTION OF
MINERALS USING BALANCE METHOD

In balance, the intake of the element via the feed


is compared to its excretion via the urine and
feces. Element (E) retained is determined by the
difference:
Efood Efeces = absorption;
Efood (Efeces Eurine) = retention
For poultry:
Efood Edroppings = retention
True absorption or true assimilation cannot be
determined by the balance method, since the
feces contain endogenous element.
Determination of endogenous losses is based on
the isotope dilution method.
DETERMINATION OF THE ABSORPTION OF MINERALS IN VARIOUS
SECTIONS OF THE
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT USING MARKERS

The inert label (marker) method greatly simplifies


determination of the apparent absorption, by eliminating the
need for a full collection of excreta.
It is based on the use of poorly assimilatable substances
---such as chromium oxide, polyethylene glycol, radioactive
cesium and yttrium, etc.
The magnitude of the absorption is determined from the ratio
between the element and label in the food and in the feces.
If the animals are killed at various intervals after the last
feed and their chyme is analysed, the apparent absorption of
the element in the various sections of the digestive tract can
be determined.

Calculations are carried out using the formula:


Concentration of marker in
feces/chyme
% apparent absorption = 100 x 1 - ------------------------------------------
Concentration of marker in food
STUDYING MINERAL METABOLISM
USING RADIOACTIVE INDICATORS

The radioisotopes of the elements are


introduced into the animal in indicator
amounts without raising the content of the
element under study in the feed or in the
tissues above its physiological level.

The use of radioactive indicators of elements


makes it possible to follow the distribution of
the elements concerned throughout the organs
and tissues, but it is not possible to determine
their concentration.
MINERAL ANALYSIS OF BLOOD

If blood drawn from the portal vein is


analyzed at various stages of digestion,
and the data obtained are compared
with the corresponding parameters of
peripheral blood, information can be
obtained on the dynamics of mineral
absorption in the stomach and intestine.
PERFUSING OF ISOLATED PARTS OF
RUMEN AND INTESTINE BY ISOTONIC
SOLUTIONS
This method is used in studying the ion transport
mechanisms across the intestinal wall, the role
played by various segments of the intestine in
absorption of minerals, the interaction of elements
during absorption and the effect of hormones and
metabolites on the absorption processes and
excretion of minerals from the blood, etc.
The inverted sacs are incubated in buffer
solutions containing various concentrations of the
element under study. This method has been
effectively employed, in particular, in clarifying the
mechanism of active transport of calcium across
the intestinal wall.
STUDY OF THE CONTENTS OF MACRO- AND
MICROELEMENTS IN THE CRITICAL ORGANS AND
TISSUES (LIVER, BONES, SKIN, ETC.), OBTAINED BY
SLAUGHTER OR BIOPSY

Reliable data will be obtained only if the


animal population is uniform and is
numerous enough (preferably no fewer than
5 animals per experiment), and if the
animals are properly selected by sex and by
weight. This is the preferred method for
when working with young animals.
The advantage of biopsy lies in the fact that
the content of microelements or enzymes
governing their metabolism can be
examined in the same animals at
physiologically different periods (growth,
pregnancy and lactation, etc.).
IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDY OF THE EFFECT
OF ADDED MICROELEMENTS ON THE ENZYME
ACTIVITY OF THE GASTRIC JUICE

Pure gastric juices are withdrawn from


the stomach, the pancreas and the
intestine of animals on various
dietary regimes. The enzyme activity
in gastric juices is studied after
adding various doses of
microelements to the incubated
medium.
Efek Kesehatan Mikromineral :

Umum : pertumbuhan, kematangan;


integritas sel; pertahanan kekebalan.
Spesifik : penyakit jantung koroner
(pertahanan antioksidan, metabolisme
lipoprotein, thrombogenesis, tekanan
darah); kanker (pertahanan antioksidan,
pertumbuhan dan replikasi sel);
osteoporosis (struktur tulang, jaringan
konektif).
DISCOVERY OF MINERAL ELEMENT
ESSENTIALITY
In 1874 Forster observed that the minerals in the ash of
tissues are required to support animal life.
This observation established the dietary essentiality of
mineral elements.
This requirement was distinct and beyond that
recognized for carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur, the
elements supplied by water, carbohydrate, fat and
protein. Except for vitamin B12, the dietary requirement
for mineral elements is also distinct from that of
vitamins.
Recognition of the physiologic significance of the mineral
elements has developed over a period of some 300
years, but the importance of most of the essential
elements has been recognized only during the twentieth
century.
Definisi

1. Term element refers to elements that


are not normally volatilized when their
organic matrix is ashed to remove
carbonaceous material.
2. Elements are substances that can not
be decomposed to simpler substances
nor formed by chemical union.
An essential element is one that
is required to support adequate
growth, reproduction and health
throughout the life cycle, when all
other nutrients are optimal.
The difficulty with this definition
arises in the interpretation of the
word adequate.
Under normal circumstances, an
element is clearly essential if a
distinct pathology results when it
Essentiality is less clearly defined when
there is only a small change in the rate of
growth, when the environment is
suboptimal, or when there is a microbial
infection.

Observed improvements in performance


upon supplementation with an element
may be due to changes in the intestinal
microflora, to a pharmacologic effect, or
to interaction with another element.
The list of essential mineral elements in
Table 2 is divided into two categories:

1. Whose essentiality has been confirmed by


evidence for an essential biochemical
mechanism, involving the element in a
catalytic or regulatory role;
2. Whose essentiality is suggested by
impairment of physiological function
only.
QUANTITATIVE INTAKE AND
PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
The physiologic effects of the essential mineral elements depend on the
level of intake.
There is a range of intake, the so-called safe and adequate range,
which provides optimal function.
At intakes progressively below this range there is graded decrease in
function until overt signs of deficiency appear.
At the same low dietary intake of an element, some organs and functions
are affected before others, depending on species and other conditions.
For example, copper deficiency adversely affects the cardiovascular
system in the pig and chicken before it affects the central nervous
system,
While in the sheep the nervous system is affected and little or not
damage occurs in the vascular system.
Signs of toxicity begin to appear when intake exceeds the safe and
adequate range.
For example, fluoride, selenium, arsenic, and lead have long been
considered to be toxic elements.
As a matter of fact, all of the essential elements are toxic, if consumed or
administered in excess, although the concentration at which toxicity
occurs varies widely.
2. Metode Rate of repletion,
growth rate
Metode ini ditawarkan karena metode pada
hewan dianggap sudah kurang tepat akibat
perbedaan spesies.

Masalah :
Masalah kode etik
Sulit mencari sukarelawan

Contoh :
Bioavailabilitas Fe dinilai dgn the Rate of Hb
repletion
Bioavailabilitas Zn dinilai dgn growth rate
3. Metode Plasma appearance

Banyak dipakai menilai bioavailabilitas


obat.

Diukur penampakan di plasma setelah


diberikan dosis mineral tertentu, lalu diukur
luas dibawah kurva.

Karena kandungan mineral didalam


makanan tidak sebesar dosis yang
diberikan, metode ini lebih cocok untuk
mengukur suplemen atau pangan-
4. Metode Isotope techniques

Radioisotop dan isotop sudah banyak


digunakan mempelajari
bioavailabilitas mineral.

Isotop stabil diukur dgn mass


spectrometric techniques
a.Faecal monitoring
b.Whole body retention (gamma-emitting
isotopes)
c.Plasma appearance
d.Urine appearance (double lable method)
5. Metode In Vitro
Banyak teknik in vitro yang digunakan untuk
menilai bioavailabilitas mineral (solubility,
dialysability, cell line).

Masalah :
Variabel yang berkaaitan dgn tubuh dihilangkan, padahal
penyerapan mineral banyak terkait dgn faktor Host.
Meski diupayakan seperti keadaan sebenarnya pada sel-
absorptive, tetap tdk mungkin sama dgn keadaan in vivo.
Isotop stabil diukur dgn mass spectrometric
techniques

a.Faecal monitoring
b.Whole body retention (gamma-emitting isotopes)
c.Plasma appearance
d.Urine appearance (double lable method)
e.Hemoglobin incorporation (Fe)
METHODS OF STUDYING THE
MINERAL METABOLISM

Methods of studying mineral


metabolism such as:
Absorption
Retention
Tissue metabolism and
Excretion of mineral elements