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Institusi pendidikan dan pengembangan ilmu kimia yang

bertumpu pada sumber daya lokal, memiliki nilai tambah dan
berwawasan lingkungan.
Materi dan
Apakah kimia?
Kimia adalah Ilmu yang mempelajari materi
dan perubahannya

Materi- Apapun yang menempati ruang dan

memiliki massa.
Perubahan Kimia- Perubahan yang menghasilkan
materi berbeda/baru.
Apakah materi dan energi ada

Materi adalah apapun yang memiliki massa dan

Energi merupakan materi yang bergerak
0 Kelvin dianggap suhu di mana materi tidak
Maka suhu berhubungan dengan massa yang

Di sekitar kita
Apapun yang ada di
ruangan,yang dapat dilihat,
disentuh, dibau atau
adalah materi.

Pada umumnya, materi sangat

kecil dikenali sebagai atom

Setiap materi dapat dalam 3
Padat, Solid
Cair, Liquid
Gas, Gas

Atoms and Molecules

Atoms are the tiny particles

that make up all matter.
In most substances, the
atoms are joined together in
units called molecules.
The atoms are joined in
specific geometric
Structure Determines Properties
The atoms or molecules have different
structures in solids, liquids, and gases
leading to different properties.

Matter: is it pure or impure

Zat murni Campuran

Komposisi tetap Komposisi bervariasi
Homogen Heterogen

Pure Substance = All samples are made of the same pieces in

the same percentages.
Mixtures = Different samples may have the same pieces in
different percentages.
Salt water
Heterogeneous Homogeneous
1. Made of 1. Made of
multiple multiple
substances, substances, but
whose appears to be
presence can one substance.
be seen. 2. All portions of
2. Portions of a a sample have
sample have the same
different composition
composition and properties.
and properties.

Matter Summary

Setiap materi memiliki sifat,
materi berbeda memiliki sifat berbeda
Physical Properties are the characteristics of matter
that can be changed without changing its
Characteristics that are directly observable.

Chemical Properties are the characteristics that

determine how the composition of matter changes as
a result of contact with other matter or the influence
of energy.
Characteristics that describe the behavior of matter.
H2O Physical verses H2O Chemical

Chapter One 13
Physical Properties
Melting Point Boiling Point

Electrical Thermal Magnetism

Conductivity Conductivity

Malleability Ductility Specific Heat

Color Order Taste

Solid Liquid Gas 14
Some Physical Properties of Iron
Iron is a silvery solid at room temperature with a metallic taste and
smooth texture.
Iron melts at 1538 C and boils at 4428 C.
Irons density is 7.87 g/cm3.
Iron can be magnetized.
Iron conducts electricity, but not as well as most other common
Irons ductility and thermal conductivity are about average for a
It requires 0.45 J of heat energy to raise the temperature of one gram
of iron by 1C.

Chemical Properties

Acidity Basicity

Inertness Explosiveness

Inflammable Flammable

Oxidizing Reducing 16
Some Chemical Properties of Iron
Iron is easily oxidized in
moist air to form rust.
When iron is added to
hydrochloric acid, it produces
a solution of ferric chloride
and hydrogen gas.
Iron is more reactive than
silver, but less reactive than

Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical
Salt is a white, granular solid = physical.
Salt melts at 801 C = physical.
Salt is stable at room temperature, it does not decompose
= chemical.
36 g of salt will dissolve in 100 g of water = physical.
When a clear, colorless solution of silver nitrate is added
to a salt solution, a white solid forms = chemical.

Matter has Properties, Matter can
also go through Changes
Changes that alter the state or appearance of the
matter without altering the composition are
called physical changes.
Changes that alter the composition of the matter
are called chemical changes.
During the chemical change, the atoms that are
present rearrange into new molecules, but all of the
original atoms are still present.

Is it a Physical or Chemical Change?
A physical change results in a different form of the
same substance.
The kinds of molecules dont change.
A chemical change results in one or more
completely new substances.
Also called chemical reactions.
The new substances have different molecules than the
original substances.
You will observe different physical properties because
the new substances have their own physical properties.
Phase Changes Are
Physical Changes
Boiling = liquid to gas.
Melting = solid to liquid.
Subliming = solid to gas.
Freezing = liquid to solid.
Condensing = gas to liquid.
Deposition = gas to solid.
State changes require heating or cooling the substance.
Evaporation is not a simple phase change, it is a solution
Quiz: is it a Physical or Chemical change

Evaporation of rubbing alcohol = physical.

Sugar turning black when heated = chemical.
An egg splitting open and spilling out = physical.
Sugar fermenting into alcohol = chemical.
Bubbles escaping from soda = physical.
Bubbles that form when hydrogen peroxide is
mixed with blood = chemical.

Separation of Mixtures
Separate mixtures based on different
physical properties of the components.
Physical change.
Different Physical Property Technique

Boiling point Distillation

State of matter (solid/liquid/gas) Filtration

Adherence to a surface Chromatography
Volatility Evaporation
Density Centrifugation and
Distillation: different boiling points

Filtration: different solubility's

Moving Matter has Energy. Motion is
related to temperature. All energy formulas
are relations between mass and temperature
Matter has 3 states States/Properties/Change
Matter has properties are all related to temperature
and how much you have
Matter can change

Law of Conservation of Mass
Antoine Lavoisier
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a
chemical reaction.
The total amount of matter present before a
chemical reaction is always the same as the total
amount after.
butane + oxygen carbon dioxide + water
58 grams + 208 grams 176 grams + 90 grams
266 grams = 266 grams
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
The total amount of energy in the universe is
constant. There is no process that can increase
or decrease that amount.
Note: neither Mass nor Energy are ever

The Fundamental Principle of the Universe is
From the Greeks to Newton to Quantum
Mechanics Energy is known as the capacity to do
work and is simply calculated by knowing the
mass and velocity of a particle.
The harder you swing an ax the faster you can
fall a tree.
Guess what happens when you walk into a wall .
005 mph or 500 mph