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The United States Education Amendment Act
(1990) defines a university as where teaching
and research are closely interdependent and
most of their teaching is done by people who
are active in advancing knowledge.
The research universities have often failed,
and continue to fail, their undergraduate
population, thousands of students graduate
without seeing the world famous professors
or tasting genuine research

Boyer Commission on Educating

Undergraduates in the Research University
all undergraduate students in all higher
education institutions should experience
learning through, and about, research and
inquiry. In undergraduate research, students
learn and are assessed in ways that come as
close as possible to the experience of
academic staff carrying out their disciplinary
research.(emphasis added)
Brief Biography
Professor (Emeritus) Oxford Brookes; Higher Education Consultant
BA Geography at University College London
School teacher training in UK then school teacher in British
Columbia Canada
Graduate School in Geography Madison Wisconsin
Long taught geography and China studies Oxford
Polytechnic/Oxford Brookes UK
Educational Developer Oxford Brookes
Consultant on Teaching-Research Relations UK Higher Education
Academy, QAA Scotland and institutions world wide
Loosely Coupled Based on this review we concluded that the common belief that
teaching and research were inextricably intertwined is an enduring myth. At best
teaching and research are very loosely coupled" (Hattie and Marsh, 1996)

At Arms length Students at arms length from the worlds of university research (Brew,

Individual Faculty : can experience links and tensions in resolving their teaching and
research roles . The context of the department , discipline ..shapes these
relationships. (Colbeck 1998).

Policy Separation heads of departments and other managers of staff time indicated
that, on a managerial level, it is more convenient for teaching and research
activities to be treated as separate activities. On an intellectual level, however,
academic managers would rather perceive the two to be synergistic. (Coate et al.
2001, p. 162)
There is growing evidence that when done well some
programs and activities appear to engage participants at
levels that elevates their performance across multiple
engagement and desired outcomes measures such as
persistence. They include first-year seminars, common
intellectual experiences, learning communities, service
learning, undergraduate research, study abroad and
other experiences with diversity, internships, and
capstone courses and projects. (Kuh, 2008, 14) emphasis

High Impact Activities

First-Year Seminars and Experiences
Common Intellectual Experiences
Learning Communities
Writing-Intensive Courses
Collaborative Assignments and Projects
Science as Science Is Done; Undergraduate
Diversity/Global Learning
Service Learning, Community-Based Learning
Capstone Courses and Projects
The aim is to increase the circumstances in which teaching
and research have occasion to meet

Increase the skills of staff to teach emphasizing the

construction of knowledge by students rather than the
imparting of knowledge by instructors ....

Ensure that students experience the process of artistic and

scientific productivity."
All undergraduate students in all higher
education institutions should experience
learning through, and about, research and
inquiry. We argue, as does much recent US
experience, that such curricular experience
should and can be mainstreamed for all or many
students through a research-active curriculum.
We argue that this can be achieved through
structured interventions at course team,
departmental, institutional and national
levels .
Reshaping the work of Griffiths (2004) , curricula can be
research-led, involving learning about current research in the discipline. Here the curriculum
focus is to ensure that what students learn clearly reflects current and ongoing research in their
discipline. This may include research done by staff teaching them.
research-oriented, developing students research skills and techniques. Here the focus is on
developing students knowledge of and ability to carry out the research methodologies and
methods appropriate to their discipline.
research-based, requiring students to undertake research and inquiry. Here the curriculum focus
is on ensuring that, as much as possible, students learn in research or inquiry mode. This means
that students become producers of knowledge not just consumers
research-tutored, engaging students in research discussions. Here the focus is on students and
staff critically discussing research in the discipline as, for example, in many seminar-based

Research-tutored Research-based

Engaging in Undertaking
research research and
discussions inquiry EMPHASIS
about current research and AND
research in the PROBLEMS
inquiry skills and
discipline techniques
Research-led Research-oriented


Curriculum design and the research-teaching nexus

Note for later reading

Disciplinary Case Studies Organised with Reference

to the Griffiths /Healey models
Handout pp 4-7
Dont get lost in whether this is good practice
/policy .Treat it as interesting practice/policy

Using the Griffiths /Healey models/typology where

would you place these case studies ?

Group A focus on Geography at UCL

Group B focus Engineering at Imperial
Dont get lost in whether this is good practice
/policy .Treat it as interesting practice/policy

Task :What general principles /policies for

departmental organisation do you see there ?eg
both ( in different ) ways involve all faculty ?
Group A focus on Geography at UCL
Group B focus Engineering at Imperial
Discuss teaching research relations in your
department focussing on some of these questions
and strategies
Consider the relevance of one or more of the case
studies to your departmental strategy.
Note in patic
2.1 Co-ordinated interventions in Zoology at University of
Tasmania, Australia p9
2.10 Research project-based teaching in engineering: a
departmental strategy at Taylors University, Malaysia p12
Note the typology on pp 12
Institutional Strategies to Link Teaching and
Research: A Framework
And case studies 13-17

For later reading!

Student as scholar Miami, US
Research intensive education Amsterdam,
Research based learning Tilburg, Netherlands
Research enriched learning and teaching - Sydney
Student as producer Lincoln, UK
Teaching Research Nexus McGill, Canada
Inquiry-based learning McMaster, Canada
Active learning Gloucestershire, UK
Consider the typology on page 17-18 and the case
studies pp 18-27
Which of these 19 strategies do you feel relevant to
this university /your roles..
Consider one or more of the case studies that
illustrate that strategy
Linking research and teaching:
Nature of the linkage between teaching and
research is complex and contested
Barnett (2003: 157) suggests that there are
many pressures that are pulling research
and teaching apart:
The twentieth century saw the university
change from a site in which teaching and
research stood in a reasonably comfortable
relationship with each other to one in which
they became mutually antagonistic
Linking research and teaching:
Conclusions; The work of Boyer
Ernest Boyer in Scholarship Reconsidered(1990) proposed that scholarship
include these four different categories:
The scholarship of discovery that includes original research that advances
The scholarship of integration that involves synthesis of information across
disciplines, across topics within a discipline, or across time;
The scholarship of application (also later called the scholarship of
engagement) that goes beyond the service duties of a faculty member to those
within or outside the University and involves the rigor and application of
disciplinary expertise with results that can be shared with and/or evaluated by
The scholarship of teaching and learning that the systematic study of teaching
and learning processes. It differs from scholarly teaching in that it requires a
format that will allow public sharing and the opportunity for application and
evaluation by others.
Linking research and teaching:
Conclusions; My perspective
Putting greater emphasis on actively
engaging students with research,
suitably adapted to recognise the
variation and complexity of
constructing knowledge in different
disciplines and in different types of
higher education is one way of re-
linking them.
Linking research and teaching:
Your Conclusions
In your groups agree on ONE statement
worth making to everybody here, about
the relevance of this agenda
/progressing this agenda at this
institution / your department(s)

Ensure you have one person ready to

speak for the group