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Power System

Protection
Fundamentals

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Agenda

Why protection is needed


Principles and elements of the protection system

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Power System and
Disturbances

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Power System Includes

Generators
Transformers

Primary Transmission

Secondary Transmission

Primary Distribution

Secondary Distribution

Substations etc

Protective Schemes depend on type and nature


of equipment to be protected
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Disturbances: Light or
Severe
The power system must maintain acceptable

operation 24 hours a day


Voltage and frequency must stay within certain
limits
Small disturbances
The control system can handle these
Example: variation in transformer or generator
load
Severe disturbances require a protection
system
They can jeopardize the entire power system
They cannot be Prof.O.V.Gnana
overcome by a control system
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Power System Protection
Operation during severe disturbances:
System element protection
System protection
Automatic reclosing
Automatic transfer to alternate power supplies
Automatic synchronization

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Electric Power System Exposure to
External Agents

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Damage to Main Equipment

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Protection and its
Characteristics

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Protection System

A series of devices whose main purpose


is to protect persons and primary electric
power equipment from the effects of faults

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Blackouts
Characteristics Main Causes
Loss of service in a Overreaction of the
large area or population protection system
region Bad design of the
Hazard to human life protection system
May result in enormous
economic losses

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Short Circuits Produce High
Currents
Three-Phase Line
a
b
c
I

Substation Fault

Thousands of Amps I
Wire

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Typical Short-Circuit Type
Distribution
Single-Phase-Ground: 7080%
Phase-Phase-Ground: 1710%
Phase-Phase: 108%
Three-Phase: 32%

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Balanced vs.
Unbalanced ConditionsI a
Ic
Ic

Ia

Ib
Ib
Balanced System Unbalanced System
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Decomposition of an
Unbalanced System

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Electrical Equipment Thermal
Damage t

Damage Damage Curve


Time

I
In Imd Short-Circuit
Rated Value
Current
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Mechanical Damage During
Short Circuits
Very destructive in busbars, isolators, supports,
transformers, and machines
Damage is instantaneous
Mechanical
Forces
f1 f2
i1
i2

Rigid Conductors f1(t) = k i1(t) i2(t)


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The Fuse

Fuse

Transformer

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Philosophy of protection

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Normal Operation
No failures of equipment
No mistakes committed by personnel
No effect of natural calamity on power system

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Prevention on Electric
Failures
Adequate insulation
Insulation Coordination
Overhead ground wires
Low tower footing resistance
Proper operation and maintenance procedures

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Mitigation of Electric Failures
when it occurs
Protection must be incorporated
Limit Isc
Promptly Disconnect Faulted Section
Investigate and send out an alert in case of incipient
fault

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Main Protection Requirements
Reliability
Dependability
Security
Selectivity
Speed
System stability
Equipment damage
Power quality
Sensitivity
High-impedance faults
Dispersed generation

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Protection System
Elements

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Protection System Elements
Protective relays
Circuit breakers
Current and voltage transformers
Communications channels
DC supply system
Control cables

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Three-Phase Diagram of the
Protection Team

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Components of a Protection
System

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The transducers i.e. CT and VT are used to reduce
currents and voltages to standard lower values. This helps
to isolate protective relays from high voltages of the
power system.
Protective relays detect and locate the fault and issue a
command to the circuit breaker to disconnect the faulty
element.
The following events happen once a fault occurs:
1)The relay connected to the CT and VT of the protected
circuit is actuated. This closes its contacts to complete the
trip circuit.
2)Current flows from the battery in the trip circuit.
3)The trip coil of CB is now energised. This enables the
opening operation of CB, which helps to isolate the faulty
element.
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Circuit Breakers

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Current Transformers

Very High Voltage CT


Medium-Voltage CT

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Voltage Transformers

Medium Voltage

Note: Voltage transformers


are also known as potential
High Voltage transformers
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Protective Relays

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Examples of Relay Panels

Microprocessor-
Based Relay

Old Electromechanical

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Protective Relays

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Function of Protective
Relaying
Primary Function:
Promptly remove any faulted section of system
from service
Secondary Function:
Provide information on location and type of fault,
which helps in expediting the repair process

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How Do Relays Detect
WhenFaults?
a fault takes place, the current, voltage,
frequency, and other electrical variables behave in a
peculiar way. For example:
Current suddenly increases
Voltage suddenly decreases
Relays can measure the currents and the voltages
and detect that there is an overcurrent, or an
undervoltage, or a combination of both
Many other detection principles determine the
design of protective relays

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Zones of protection

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Primary Protection

It is the first line of defense


CB is a/v for each power system element
Disconnection of faulted zone is possible by
tripping CB nearest to the fault
In case of overlapping of two adjacent zones
more than one CB may trip (including the
really required one)
Reliability is 95 to 100%

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Backup Protection

2nd Line of Defense


This works if the primary relay fails to trip CB
It operates after a time delay-this buys time
for the primary protection to operate

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Example: Station S

A C G I
X Y
B D H J

Assume that fault occurs at Station S


=>A,B and Y provide backup protection
Let there a fault be at DB

=>A,Y provide backup protection


Note: When backup relays functions=>major part of the
network is disconnected in comparison to the situation
when the primary relaying operates correctly

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Types of Backup Relay

Relay Backup
1. Local Back up scheme.
2. Main relay of CTs and PTs are duplicated.
Breaker Backup
1. Used when number of breakers are
connected to a busbar.
Remote backup
1. Located in neighboring station and provides
backup to entire primary protective scheme.
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If an area remains unprotected, it means that
any fault occuring in that area would not be
cleared at all and such an area is called
BLIND SPOT.
Overlapping of zones is allowed to avoid
unprotected (blind) areas.
For a fault occurring in the area of two
overlapped zone, the circuit breakers in both
the directions will isolate the faulted area.
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