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OXIDE

Shakti bhardwaj

Contents

Introduction

Uses

Structure

properties

methods of production

Process Flowsheet

Energy Balance

Equipment Design

Cost Estimation

Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

ETHYLENE OXIDE, ALSO CALLEDOXIRANE, IS THE

ORGANIC COMPOUNDWITH THEFORMULAC2H4O.

IT IS A CYCLIC ETHER.

IT IS A COLORLESS FLAMMABLE GAS WITH A

FAINTLY SWEET ODOR

IT IS A THREE-MEMBERED RING CONSISTING OF

TWO CARBON AND ONE OXYGEN ATOM.

BECAUSE OF ITS SPECIAL MOLECULAR STRUCTURE,

ETHYLENE OXIDE EASILY PARTICIPATES IN THE

ADDITION REACTION, OPENING ITS CYCLE, AND

THUS EASILYPOLYMERIZES.

ETHYLENE OXIDE ISISOMERIC WITH

ACETALDEHYDE.

TODAY ABOUT 9.6 X 106 TONES OF ETHYLENE

OXIDE ARE PRODUCED EACH YEAR WORLDWIDE.

Uses of ethylene oxide

alcohols

As a pharmaceutical intermediate it is

used in the synthesis of choline, thiamine

and procaine

In mixtures with carbon dioxide and

halogenated propellants, finds wide use as

a fumigant for food and cosmetics

Derivatives of EO (especially

ethylene glycol) are commonly used in the

plastics industry for manufacturing bottles

and to produce polyester fibers for

GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL USE OF

ETHYLENE OXIDE

STRUCTURE

PROPERTIES AND SPECIFICATION

Other names- epoxyethane, ethylene oxide,

dimethylene oxide,

oxacyclopropane

Molecular weight 44

Boiling point at 760 mm Hg, C (F) 10.5o C,

(50.9o F)

Freezing point, C (F) -111.3o

C ,(-168.3o F)

Flash point (TOC), C (F) <-18o

C, (<0o F)

Density at 4C (39.2F), g/ml

0.890

METHODS OF PRODUCTION

Ethylene oxide has been produced

commercially by two basic routes:

From ethylene chlorohydrin(2- chloro

ethanol).

Direct oxidation process.

implies, utilizes the catalytic oxidation of

ethylene with oxygen over a silver based

catalyst to yield ethylene oxide.

categories depending on the source of the

oxidizing agent.

PROCESS FLOWSHEET

Energy balance

RGY BALANCE

S: 1 HOUR OPERATION

GY BALANCE FOR THE REACTOR:

ucts from the reactor:

= 4250 kg = 96.59 kg moles

= 5409.06 Kg =193.18 kg moles

= 92330.29 kg =2885.32 kg moles

= 8500 Kg = 193.18Kg moles

= 5032.63 Kg = 179.71Kg moles

= 3477.24 Kg = 193.18 Kg moles.

reaction

C2H4 + O2 ------------------------------ C2H4O

Side reaction

C2H4 + 3O2 ----------------------------------- 2CO2 + 2H2O

Products

Consider feed entering at 25C:

Tref = 25C

T = 25 25 =0

(m*Cp*T)Reactants = 0

Q = heat released by exothermic reaction.

Tr is the reaction temperature = 280 C

HR = heat of reaction (E E.O) + heat reaction of the

side reaction

(m*Cp*T)products = [(m1*Cp1)E + (m2*Cp2)O2 +

(m3*Cp3)EO +

(m4*Cp4)CO2 + (m5*Cp5 )N2 + (m6*Cp6 )H2O]

[Tproducts - Tref]

T = [280 25] = 255 C

(m*Cp*T)products = [4250*1714.54 + 5409*2409.25 +

1065.6*5032 +8500*1046.88 + 92330*988.3 +

1858*3477][255]

= 3.37 *1010 Joules.

HR = 1.1058*1010 (for EO) + 1.37*1011 = 1.478 *

(m) water = 420000 Kgs.

280C -35C.

The removed energy is supplied to the recycle

stream.

The Cp values are calculated at the temperature of

35C.

[4250*1102.95 + 5409*1769.14 +92330.20*918.52 +

8500*858.23 + 5032.6*1040 +

3477.24*4180][35-25]

= 1.27*109 Joules.

(m*Cp*T)products entering the cooler = 3.37*1010

Joules.

Average density = 0.026*851.61 + 0.052*212.21+

0.77*435.36 +

0.052 *464.64 + 0.048*314.076 + 0.052* 993.719 =

157.61 Kg/m3

Work required in the compressor to increase the

pressure from 5-10 atms =

W1 = V*(P1- P2 ) = 3.82 * 108 Joules.

ENERGYThis

BALANCE TO THE

work will ABSORBER:

be added to the enthalpy.

In So

thethe

absorber the

increase in ethylene1.270*109

enthalpy= oxide is 3.82*108

completely

absorbed in the

Therefore, thewater

energyat leaving

25C. Only the energy is=lost

the compressor1

from the gases, 1.625*109

which areJoules.

not absorbed in the

absorbing liquid.

Energy loss from the absorber = 5340*1769.14 +

92330.156*918.52 +

21.2*1102.95 + 8493.6*858.23 + 5032.56*1040 =

1.06*108 Joules .

products = 1.546*109Joules

desorbed, the energy loss is the work done by the

compressor 1.

Because the desorber is working at pressure of 5

atm.

The energy leaving the desorber = 1.164*109 Joules

The energy lost in the desorber = 3.82*108 Joules.

COMPRESSOR2

The cooler is used to maintain the temperature of the

absorbing water

at 25C. In the compressor the fed stream is

compressed to 5 atms.

ENERGY BALANCE TO THE STRIPPER:

Energy leaving

In vaccuum stripperthe

thecompressor = 1.167*109

gases will be Joule

vapourized from

water. This is done at constant temperature.

So there is no energy balance for the stripper.

The energy leaving the stripper = 1.167*109 J

column = HF = 1.167*109 J

Temperature of the feed = 35C

From the T-x-y dia. for the Ethylene oxide (EO)-

water system.

The bubble point = 55C

Dew point = 93C

Enthalpy of the gas= HG=yEO*(CpEO*MEO*(TG-

TF ) + EO)

+ yH2O*(CpH2O*MH2O*(TG-TF

) + H2O)

M is the molecular weight of the species, y is the

mole fraction, is the latent heat of

vaporization of the components.

HG= 0.33*[2.17*44*(93-25)+44*461.45]+

0.67*[18*4.18*(93-

25)+2154.79]=37942.4KJ/Kmoles

HG = 1.427*106 J

Cooling water required in the condenser

M*Cp*T=1.427*106J

Water is getting cooled form 25C to 50C

M = 1.427*106 J/(4180*25)=13.65 Kg/hr

HD = yEO*[CpEO*MEO*(35-25)] +

yH2O*[CpH2O*MH2O*(35-25)]

Cp is liquid enthalpy.

HD = 39030.64 J HL0 =

39030.64 J

Condenser duty = QC = HG HL0 HD = 1.35*106 J

Enthalpy of the residue, Hw = 3600.33*4.18*(55-

35)= 301*103J

Reboiler duty = QB = D*HD + W*Hw - F*HF + QC =

1.17 *105 J

Equipment

design

DESIGN OF A SIEVE PLATE DISTILLATION COLUMN

FOR THE SEPARATION OF ETHYLENE OXIDE -WATER

MIXTURE

Distillation column pressure = 1 atmosphere

(absolute).

The feed entering is a mixture of 193.18 Kmoles of

water & ethylene-oxide.

The distillate is 99.9 mol% pure ethylene oxide

and the residue

will contain 0.1 mole%

ethylene oxide.

Detailed design: Basis 1Hour operation

Total pressure = PT =1.013 *105 Pascals.

Vapour pressure of water PW, Vapour pressure of

Ethylene oxide PEO.

All pressures in Pascals.

Liquid phase mole fraction of EO, x = PT - PW /PEO-

PW

Mole fraction of ethylene oxide in the feed, Xf = 95.133/

290.78 = 0.33

Mole fraction of the ethylene oxide in the distillate, xD

= 0.99

Let W be the number of moles of residue and xW be the

mole fractions of the ethylene oxide in the residue.

By material balance:

F= D + W

290.78 = 94.65+ W

Therefore, Residue W= 196.66 Kg moles.

Component material balance: F*xF = D*xD + W* xW

290.78* 0.33 = 94.65* 0.99 + 196.06* xW

Therefore, Xw = 0.012

Feed temperature = 35C

Molecular weight of Distillate, MD= 0.99*44 + 0.012*

18= 43.74

Molecular weight of Residue, Mw = 0.012*44 + 0.988*

From the T-x-y diagram Dew point = 93C Bubble

point = 55C

At 55C,

93C, the specific

latent heat

heatofvalues

evaporation of EO

of EO and and are;

water water

are; KJ/Kg K and 4.18 KJ/Kg K respectively.

2.17

461.45 KJ/KgK

Average and

CpL value of2154.79 KJ/Kg

the liquid K respectively.

= (2.17 + 4.18)/2= 3.175

KJ/Kg K

Enthalpy of liquid = HL = Cpl* MF * (TL TF) = 1687.83

KJ/K mole.

Enthalpy of vapour =

HG = yEO * MEO{CpEO X*(TG -TF) + EO} +

yH2O * MH2O{CpH2O * ( TG- TF) +H2O}

= 37438.09 KJ/ Kg mole.

The designe is considered at the temperature of the

Feed. HF = 0

(q) = HG HF/ HG HL = 37538.09 0/ 37538.09

1687.83 = 1.05

Slope of the q-line is q/ q-1= 21

The feed is sub-cooled.

From the equilibrium curve;

Intercept of the q-line = xD/Rm+1 = 0.88

Actual reflux ratio is 1.5 times the minimum reflux ratio

R =1.5 X 0.125=0.25

Intercept of the original q-line = 0.792

From the equilibrium curve; the total number of

theoretical trays in the distillation column = 6

(including reboiler)

Enriching section ,No. of trays = 2

Stripping section No. of trays = 3

L = L0, liquid flow rate.

L0 = R * D = 0.25 * 94.6 = 23.66 Kg moles.

Material balance on the enriching section: G = L + D

G is the vapour flow rate.

G = 23.66 + 94.65 = 118.31 Kg moles. L- L / F = q

L= (1.05 X 290.78) + 23.66 = 329 Kg moles

G- G/ F = q 1

G= 132.849 Kg moles

Let us assume;

Plate spacing = 600 mm

Hole diameter , dL = 5mm

Hole pitch, triangular = 15mm

Tray thickness = 3mm

triangular pitch)

Plate diameter is calculated as follows;

(L/G)*(L/G) = 0.06

Unf = Csbf (/20)0.2 (L- G/G)0.5

Unf = vapour velocity through net area at

flood, m/s.

Csb f = capacity parameter = 0.28

() = Liquid surface tension= 37.3

dynes/cm

Therefore, Unf = 2.7 m/s

c d

12% of Ac.

An = 1/ 2.7 = 0.37 m2

Ac = /4 X Dc2

Dc = 0.59 = 0.75 m. (Rounded for a standard value)

Ad = 0.12 X 0.4418 = 0.053m2

Active area Aa = Ac 2 X Ad = 0.3358 m2

Perforated area (Ap)

Weir length = 0.75 X Dc= 0.55 m; (0.6 m, approx. to

standard value)

Weir height, Lw = 50 mm

c = 2 sin-1 (Lw/Dc) = 106.26 ()= 180 - = 73.74

Area of coming zone, Acz = 2 X [0.6 X 50 X 10-3] = 0.06 m

Area of periphery waste,

Awz = 2{[/4 Dc2 /360]-[/4(Dc2 -0.12) /360]} = 0.004 m

Ap = Ac- 2 Ad Acz Awz = 0.2718 m2

Ah/Ap = 0.1

Ah = 0.2718 X 0.1 = 0.02718 m2

Column efficiency

The efficiency calculations are based on the average

conditions properties in each section.

Enriching section:

Average viscosity of the liquid is calculated by using

Kendall- Munroe equation.

m 1/3 = x1 11/3+x2 2 1/3

1 = viscosity of EO = 0.25 cp.

2 = viscosity of water = 0.857 cp

x1 & x2 are the corresponding mole fractions.

m = 0.41 cp.

Vapour phase viscosity m= yi Mi i1/2/ yi Mi1/2 =

0.0093 cp.

Liquid phase diffusivity, Wilke- Chang equation is used.

V= 46.4

= Association factor = 2.6

T = temperature in K.

DL = 3.775 * 10-5 cm2/sec.

Vapour phase diffusivity

DG = 10-3 * T1.75 (1/Mwater + 1/ MEO)0.5/ P *

[ vEO1/3 + vWater1/3] DG

= 0.188 cm2/sec.

Nscg = G/G*DG = 0.3

Same calculations are carried out for the stripping

section also.

The values are;

m = 0.324 cp

m = 0.011 cp

DL = 5.477 * 10-5 cm2/sec.

DG = 0.232 cm2/sec.

Nscg = 0.468

Operating pressure of the distillation column = 1

atmosphere.

= 101.3 K N/m2

Design pressure = 10 % more than the

operating pressure.

Design pressure, Pi = 1.1 * 101.3 K N/m2

= 0.113 N/mm2

Design temperature = 100 C

M.O.C. of the shell and the covers is Stainless

steel

18Cr/8Ni /Ti stabilized.

Design stress of the material at 100C = 150 N/mm2

Design of the covers to the column:

Standard ellipsoidal head with major axis: minor axis

= 2:1.

The minimum thickness required is given by the

formula

Thickness, e = Pi*Di/[2*J*f 0.2* Pi] +C

Pi = Design pressure = 0.113 N/mm2

Di = Inner diameter of the column = 750

mm

The weld joint is double welded butt joint and radio

graphed.

C = corrosion allowance given to the material = 2mm

(generally) Therefore, e = 0.113 * 0.75 /[2* 0.85* 150

0.2* 0.113]

= 2.3 mm.

The minimum required thickness of the cover is taken

as 6 mm.

Calculation of minimum thickness of the shell.

Thickness of the shell, ts = Pi*Di/[2*J*f Pi] + C

= 0.113 * 0.75/

[2*150*0.85 0.113]

= 2.5 mm

construction of the shell is 6 mm.

For stability of the shell the column is divided into

five parts and thickness is increased from top to bottom

of the shell, as 6 mm,

8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm & 14 mm respectively.

Stress analysis of the material of construction and

the column are carried with the assumptions stated in

the required location and the specification of the

material of construction.

Material of construction = Stainless steel 18Cr/8Ni-Ti

stabilized. Design stress of the material = 150

N/mm2

Density of the material = 7830 Kg/m3

Youngs modulus = 200000 N/mm2

Design pressure = 0.113 N/mm2

Corrosion allowance = 2 mm

Inner diameter of the column = 750 mm

Height of the column between the two tangent lines

= 9000 mm

Shell is butt welded with weld joint efficiency

= 0.85

Top disengaging section = 1000 meters

Bottom separation section = 2000 meters

Skirt height = 3000 mm

No of trays = 13

Tray spacing = 600 mm

Tray support rings =60 x 60 x 100 mm

Insulation = 50 mm thick

Mineral wool density = 130 kg/m3

Maximum wind velocity = 160 Km/hr

Seismic forces = Neglected

Tray loading excluding liquid = 1 KN/m2 of plate area

Tray loading including liquid = 1.2 KN/m2 of plate area

Stress analysis

Axial stress due to pressure = fap = Pi*Di/[4*(ts-C)]

= 0.113 * 750/[ 4* (10 - 2)

= 2.64 N/mm2

Stress due to the dead weight of the vessel:

Dead weight of the vessel =

Wv = Cv**m*Dm*g*(Hv + 0.8* Dm)* ts*10-3

Wv = total weight of the shell, excluding internal

fittings, such as plates.

Cv = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles,

man ways etc.

Thickness of the wall = ts.

m = density of the vessel

material, Kg/m

Dm =mean diameter of the

vessel

= (Di + ts*10-3), m

For a steel vessel; Wv = 240*Cv *Dm *(Hv + 0.8*

Dm)

Hv = 9000 mm, Cv = 1.15, ts = 10 mm, Dm = 760

mm

Wv = 240*1.15*0.76*(9 +

0.8*0.76)*10

= 20153.74 N

Stress due to dead weight of the vessels,

fd = 131723.38 N/m2.

Stress due to the weight of the plates

Plate area, ap = /4 * Di2 = 0.411 m2

Weight of the plate = m*t*ap; t is the

thickness of the plate.

= 101.5 N

Approximate volume of insulation =

*9*0.75*50*10-3

Weight of insulation = 1.06 * 130 *

9.81

= 1351.8 N

The weight of the insulation is doubled to account

the extra fittings.

Stress due to insulation + extra fittings, fins = 2550.

56 N/m2

Total dead weight = 20153.74 +

1321.1+ 2703.6

= 24178.44 N

Total stress due to dead weights = 0.136 N/mm2

The maximum compressive stress will occur when the

vessel is

not under pressure.

Design of the skirt- support for the vessel.

shell welded to the base of the vessel.

to the foundations. Skirt support is recommended for

vertical vessels, as they do not impose concentrated

loads on the shell; they are particularly suitable for use

with tall columns subject to wind loading.

the dead-weight loads and bending moments imposed

on it by the vessel; it will not be under the vessel

pressure.

Cost estimation

COST ESTIMATION FOR THE PROPOSED

ETHYLENE OXIDE PLANT

The capacity of the plant = 100 TPD

The operating hours per day = 24

Operation days per year = 300 days

The total production per year = 30000 T

For an ethylene oxide plant installed in 1990 the total

capital cost was $ 43 million for a capacity of

50000 T/year.

Here the capacity is 30000 T/year.

CN = C*(R)x

R = 30000/50000 = 0.6

The power factor = (x) = 0.78

Therefore CN = $ 28.9 million

M&S Cost index value for the year 1990 = 924

M&S Cost index value for the year 2011 = 1519.2

Cost in 2011/cost in 1990 = Cost index in2011/ Cost

index

Therefore cost in 2011 =$

47.5 million

Converting the cost into the Indian currency = 212

Crores.

($1 = Rs 44.6/- in 2011).

In 2011 the total capital cost of the ethylene oxide

plant with capacity 30000T/year

= 212 Crores.

= 0.85* 212 =

180.20 Crores.

Working-capital investment (20-10% of the total

capital investment) =

0.15*212= 31.80 Crores.

Fixed capital investment = Direct Costs + Indirect

Costs

Direct costs :-Assumed as 77.5% of Fixed-capital

investment

= 0.775*180.2=

139.66 Crores.

(Equipment + Installation + Instrumentation + Piping

+ Electrical

+ Insulation + Painting (50-60% Fixed-capital

investment)

Direct Costs =

38.41+15.36+6.91+7.68+8.45+15.36+38.41

+ 8.83 = 139.41 Crores.

involved with material and labour of actual

direct costs)

The assumed value is 10 % direct cost = 13.94

res.

Contingency (5-15% of fixed capital investment)

The assumed value is 1% of the Fixed-capital. = 1.80

res.

Manufacturing cost = direct production costs +

d charges + plant

rhead costs

Fixed charges (10-20% of the total

duct cost)

estment

and 3% of the building value

= 18.48 Crores.

Local taxes (1-4% Fixed-capital investment)

= 7.21 Crores.

Total product cost = 29.91/0.2 = 149.55 Crores.

(about 60% of the total product cost)

= 89.73 Crores.

Manufacturing cost = 89.73 + 29.91 + 14.96

= 134.60 Crores.

Total product cost = 149.55 Crores.

Seller is given a commission of 10% of the market

selling price.

Therefore, the price of ethylene from the factory =

60 /Kg

Total selling price/year = 60*300*100*1000

= 180 Crores.

Total income = Gross earning Total product cost

= 180 149.55 =

30.45 Crores.

Total profit before depreciation and taxes = 30.45

Crores.

Depreciation = 18.48 Crores.

Total profit after depreciation = 30.45 - 18.48 =

11.97 Crores.

Total profit after 46% taxes = 6.464 Crores.

Fixed-capital investment = 180.20 Crores.

Payout period = 4 years

= Fixed-capital investment/ [(Net profit

after tax/year) + (Depreciation)]

= 180.20/[18.48 +

6.464] = 4years

CONCLUSION

ethylene oxide production from ethylene & oxygen,

is cost feasible. In this project work we had used

continuous process instead of batch process by the

help of little modification in the earlier process.

Cost estimation for this process is also feasible.

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