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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools


6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Machinability of
Metals
Unit 28

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Permission required for reproduction or display.
28-2

Objectives
Explain the factors that affect the
machinability of metals
Describe the difference between
high-carbon steel and alloy steel.
Assess the effects of temperature
and cutting fluids on the surface
finish produced
28-3

Machinability
Ease or difficulty with which metal can be
machines
Measured by length of cutting-tool life in
minutes or by rate of stock removal in
relation to cutting speed employed (depth of
cut)
28-4

Grain Structure
Machinability of metal affected by its
microstructure
Ductility and shear strength modified
greatly by operations such as annealing,
normalizing and stress relieving
Certain chemical and physical modifications
of steel improve machinability
Addition of sulfur, lead, or sodium sulfite
Cold working, which modifies ductility
28-5

Results of (Free-Machining)
Modifications
Three main machining characteristics
become evident
Tool life is increased
Better surface finish produced
Lower power consumption required for
machining
28-6

Low-Carbon (Machine) Steel


Large areas of ferrite interspersed with
small areas of pearlite
Ferrite: soft, high ductility and low strength
Pearlite: low ductility and high strength
Combination of ferrite and iron carbide
More desirable microstructure in steel is
when pearlite well distributed instead of in
layers
28-7

High-Carbon (Tool) Steel


Greater amount of pearlite because of
higher carbon content
More difficult to machine steel efficiently
Desirable to anneal these steels to alter
microstructures
Improves machining qualities
28-8

Alloy Steel
Combinations of two or more metals
Generally slightly more difficult to machine
than low-or high-carbon steels
To improve machining qualities
Combinations of sulfur and lead or sulfur and
manganese in proper proportions added
Combination of normalizing and annealing
Machining of stainless steel greatly eased
by addition of selenium
28-9

Cast Iron
Consists generally of ferrite, iron carbide,
and free carbon
Microstructure controlled by addition of
alloys, method of casting, rate of cooling,
and heat treating
White cast iron cooled rapidly after casting
hard and brittle (formation of hard iron carbide)
Gray cast iron cooled gradually
composed by compound pearlite, fine ferrite,
iron carbide and flakes of graphite (softer)
28-10

Cast Iron
Machining slightly difficult due to iron
carbide and presence of sand on outer
surface of casting
Microstructure altered through annealing
Iron carbide broken down into graphitic carbon
and ferrite
Easier to machine
Addition of silicon, sulfur and manganese
gives cast iron different qualities
28-11

Aluminum
Pure aluminum generally more difficult to
machine than aluminum alloys
Produces long stringy chips and harder on
cutting tool
Aluminum alloys
Cut at high speeds, yield good surface finish
Hardened and tempered alloys easier to
machine
Silicon in alloy makes it difficult to machine
Chips tear from work (poor surface)
28-12

Copper
Heavy, soft, reddish-colored metal refined
from copper ore (copper sulfide)
High electrical and thermal conductivity
Good corrosion resistance and strength
Easily welded, brazed or soldered
Very ductile
Anneal: heat at 1200 F and quench in water
Does not machine well: long chips clog
flutes of cutting tool
Coolant should be used to minimize heat
28-13

Copper-Based Alloys: Brass


Alloy of copper and zinc with good corrosion
resistance, easily formed, machines, and cast
Several forms of brass
Alpha brasses: up to 36% zinc, suitable for cold
working
Alpha 1 beta brasses: Contain 54%-62% copper
and used in hot working
Small amounts of tin or antimony added to
minimize pitting effect of salt water
Used for water and gas line fittings, tubings,
tanks, radiator cores, and rivets
28-14

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze


Alloys of copper and tin which contain up to
12% of principal alloying element
Exception: copper-zinc alloys
Phosphor-bronze
90% copper, 10% tin, and very small amount of
phosphorus
High strength, toughness, corrosion resistance
Used for lock washers, cotter pins, springs and
clutch discs
28-15

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze


Silicon-bronze (copper-silicon alloy)
Contains less than 5% silicon
Strongest of work-hardenable copper alloys
Mechanical properties of machine steel and
corrosion resistance of copper
Used for tanks, pressure vessels, and hydraulic
pressure lines
28-16

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze


Aluminum-bronze (copper-aluminum alloy)
Contains between 4% and 11% aluminum
Other elements added
Iron and nickel (both up to 5%) increases strength
Silicon (up to 2%) improves machinability
Manganese promotes soundness in casting
Good corrosion resistance and strength
Used for condenser tubes, pressure vessels, nuts
and bolts
28-17

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze


Beryllium-bronze (copper and beryllium)
Contains up to 2% beryllium
Easily formed in annealed condition
High tensile strength and fatigue strength in
hardened condition
Used for surgical instruments, bolts, nuts, and
screws
28-18

Effects of
Temperature and Friction
Heat created
Plastic deformation occurring in metal during
process of forming chip
Friction created by chips sliding along cutting-
tool face
Cutting temperature varies with each metal
and increases with cutting speed and rate of
metal removal
28-19

Effects of
Temperature and Friction
Greatest heat generated when ductile
material of high tensile strength cut
Lowest heat generated when soft material of
low tensile strength cut
Maximum temperature attained during
cutting action
affects cutting-tool life, quality of surface finish,
rate of production and accuracy of workpiece
28-20

High Heat
Temperature of metal immediately ahead of
cutting tool comes close to melting
temperature of metal being cut
High-speed cutting tools
Red hardness: turn red when cutting metal
Occurs at temperatures above 900 F
Edge breaks down beginning at 1000 and higher
Cemented-carbide cutting tools
Use efficiently up to 1600 F
28-21

Friction

Kept low as possible for efficient cutting


action
Increasing coefficient of friction gives
greater possibility of built-up edge forming
Larger built-up edge, more friction
Results in breakdown of cutting edge and poor
surface finish
Can reduce friction at chip-tool interface
and help maintain efficient cutting
temperatures if use good supply of cutting
fluid
28-22

Factors Affecting Surface Finish


Feed rate
Nose radius of tool
Cutting speed
Rigidity of machining operation
Temperature generated during machining
process
28-23

Surface Finish
Direct relationship between temperature of
workpiece and quality of surface finish
High temperature yields rough surface finish
Metal particles tend to adhere to cutting tool and
form built-up edge
Cooling work material reduces temperature
of cutting-tool edge
Result in better surface finish
28-24

Effects of Cutting Fluids


Perform three important functions
Reduce temperature of cutting action
Reduce friction of chips sliding along tool face
Decrease tool wear and increase tool life
Three types of cutting fluids
Cutting oils
Emulsifiable (soluble) oils
Chemical (synthetic) cutting fluids
28-25

Cutting Fluids
Generally used for machining steel, alloy steel,
brass and bronze with high-speed steel cutting
tools
Not used with cemented-carbide tools
If used, great quantities of cutting fluid are applied to
ensure uniform temperatures to prevent carbide inserts
from cracking
Not generally used with cast iron, aluminum, and
magnesium alloys
Good results have been found in some cases