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PowerPoint to accompany

Technology of Machine Tools

6th Edition

Krar Gill Smid

Machinability of
Unit 28

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Permission required for reproduction or display.

Explain the factors that affect the
machinability of metals
Describe the difference between
high-carbon steel and alloy steel.
Assess the effects of temperature
and cutting fluids on the surface
finish produced

Ease or difficulty with which metal can be
Measured by length of cutting-tool life in
minutes or by rate of stock removal in
relation to cutting speed employed (depth of

Grain Structure
Machinability of metal affected by its
Ductility and shear strength modified
greatly by operations such as annealing,
normalizing and stress relieving
Certain chemical and physical modifications
of steel improve machinability
Addition of sulfur, lead, or sodium sulfite
Cold working, which modifies ductility

Results of (Free-Machining)
Three main machining characteristics
become evident
Tool life is increased
Better surface finish produced
Lower power consumption required for

Low-Carbon (Machine) Steel

Large areas of ferrite interspersed with
small areas of pearlite
Ferrite: soft, high ductility and low strength
Pearlite: low ductility and high strength
Combination of ferrite and iron carbide
More desirable microstructure in steel is
when pearlite well distributed instead of in

High-Carbon (Tool) Steel

Greater amount of pearlite because of
higher carbon content
More difficult to machine steel efficiently
Desirable to anneal these steels to alter
Improves machining qualities

Alloy Steel
Combinations of two or more metals
Generally slightly more difficult to machine
than low-or high-carbon steels
To improve machining qualities
Combinations of sulfur and lead or sulfur and
manganese in proper proportions added
Combination of normalizing and annealing
Machining of stainless steel greatly eased
by addition of selenium

Cast Iron
Consists generally of ferrite, iron carbide,
and free carbon
Microstructure controlled by addition of
alloys, method of casting, rate of cooling,
and heat treating
White cast iron cooled rapidly after casting
hard and brittle (formation of hard iron carbide)
Gray cast iron cooled gradually
composed by compound pearlite, fine ferrite,
iron carbide and flakes of graphite (softer)

Cast Iron
Machining slightly difficult due to iron
carbide and presence of sand on outer
surface of casting
Microstructure altered through annealing
Iron carbide broken down into graphitic carbon
and ferrite
Easier to machine
Addition of silicon, sulfur and manganese
gives cast iron different qualities

Pure aluminum generally more difficult to
machine than aluminum alloys
Produces long stringy chips and harder on
cutting tool
Aluminum alloys
Cut at high speeds, yield good surface finish
Hardened and tempered alloys easier to
Silicon in alloy makes it difficult to machine
Chips tear from work (poor surface)

Heavy, soft, reddish-colored metal refined
from copper ore (copper sulfide)
High electrical and thermal conductivity
Good corrosion resistance and strength
Easily welded, brazed or soldered
Very ductile
Anneal: heat at 1200 F and quench in water
Does not machine well: long chips clog
flutes of cutting tool
Coolant should be used to minimize heat

Copper-Based Alloys: Brass

Alloy of copper and zinc with good corrosion
resistance, easily formed, machines, and cast
Several forms of brass
Alpha brasses: up to 36% zinc, suitable for cold
Alpha 1 beta brasses: Contain 54%-62% copper
and used in hot working
Small amounts of tin or antimony added to
minimize pitting effect of salt water
Used for water and gas line fittings, tubings,
tanks, radiator cores, and rivets

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze

Alloys of copper and tin which contain up to
12% of principal alloying element
Exception: copper-zinc alloys
90% copper, 10% tin, and very small amount of
High strength, toughness, corrosion resistance
Used for lock washers, cotter pins, springs and
clutch discs

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze

Silicon-bronze (copper-silicon alloy)
Contains less than 5% silicon
Strongest of work-hardenable copper alloys
Mechanical properties of machine steel and
corrosion resistance of copper
Used for tanks, pressure vessels, and hydraulic
pressure lines

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze

Aluminum-bronze (copper-aluminum alloy)
Contains between 4% and 11% aluminum
Other elements added
Iron and nickel (both up to 5%) increases strength
Silicon (up to 2%) improves machinability
Manganese promotes soundness in casting
Good corrosion resistance and strength
Used for condenser tubes, pressure vessels, nuts
and bolts

Copper-Based Alloys: Bronze

Beryllium-bronze (copper and beryllium)
Contains up to 2% beryllium
Easily formed in annealed condition
High tensile strength and fatigue strength in
hardened condition
Used for surgical instruments, bolts, nuts, and

Effects of
Temperature and Friction
Heat created
Plastic deformation occurring in metal during
process of forming chip
Friction created by chips sliding along cutting-
tool face
Cutting temperature varies with each metal
and increases with cutting speed and rate of
metal removal

Effects of
Temperature and Friction
Greatest heat generated when ductile
material of high tensile strength cut
Lowest heat generated when soft material of
low tensile strength cut
Maximum temperature attained during
cutting action
affects cutting-tool life, quality of surface finish,
rate of production and accuracy of workpiece

High Heat
Temperature of metal immediately ahead of
cutting tool comes close to melting
temperature of metal being cut
High-speed cutting tools
Red hardness: turn red when cutting metal
Occurs at temperatures above 900 F
Edge breaks down beginning at 1000 and higher
Cemented-carbide cutting tools
Use efficiently up to 1600 F


Kept low as possible for efficient cutting

Increasing coefficient of friction gives
greater possibility of built-up edge forming
Larger built-up edge, more friction
Results in breakdown of cutting edge and poor
surface finish
Can reduce friction at chip-tool interface
and help maintain efficient cutting
temperatures if use good supply of cutting

Factors Affecting Surface Finish

Feed rate
Nose radius of tool
Cutting speed
Rigidity of machining operation
Temperature generated during machining

Surface Finish
Direct relationship between temperature of
workpiece and quality of surface finish
High temperature yields rough surface finish
Metal particles tend to adhere to cutting tool and
form built-up edge
Cooling work material reduces temperature
of cutting-tool edge
Result in better surface finish

Effects of Cutting Fluids

Perform three important functions
Reduce temperature of cutting action
Reduce friction of chips sliding along tool face
Decrease tool wear and increase tool life
Three types of cutting fluids
Cutting oils
Emulsifiable (soluble) oils
Chemical (synthetic) cutting fluids

Cutting Fluids
Generally used for machining steel, alloy steel,
brass and bronze with high-speed steel cutting
Not used with cemented-carbide tools
If used, great quantities of cutting fluid are applied to
ensure uniform temperatures to prevent carbide inserts
from cracking
Not generally used with cast iron, aluminum, and
magnesium alloys
Good results have been found in some cases