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Lecture Presentation

Unit 7
Day 6

Chemical
Equilibrium

James F. Kirby
Quinnipiac University
Hamden, CT
Edited by M. Day
2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Warm Up
TAKE OUT: Lab Notebook and Lab
Handout
MAKE NEW SECTION: Intro Activity
Results
WORK TOGETHER: With Lab Partner to
Analyze the Results

TIME: 12 MINUTES

WHEN DONE: Share which Lab Station


you plan to start at (A, C, D, or E) Equilibrium

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Agenda
COMPLETE: All 4 Lab Stations
Homework: Explanation AND AP Review
Questions
Use Background section of lab, class
website, internet resources, and
remind.com)

Equilibrium

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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
A. HIn (aq) H+ (aq) + ln-(aq)

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)


Procedure Observations Explanation
Initial color of water and
bromothymol blue

Add 0.1 M HCl

Add 0.1 M NaOH

Additional drops of HCl


and NaOH Equilibrium

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Equilibrium

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Equilibrium

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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
C. [Co(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4HCl (aq) + Heat [CoCl4]2-(aq) + 6H2O(l)
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) Add Cobalt Complex Ion Color
Information Somewhere on Procedure
Procedure Observations Explanation
Add 6.0 M HCl drops (tube
A)
Add 0.1 M AgNO3 drops
(tube B)
Add distilled water drops
(tube C)
Add 5-6 grains CaCl2 to
tube C
Test tube C placed in ice
water bath for 2-3 minutes

Equilibrium
Test tube C placed in hot
bath for 2-3 mins
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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
D. 2CO2 (g) + H2O (l) CO2 (aq) + H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)

Procedure Observations Explanation

Initial color of solution

Pull back on syringe to


decrease pressure

Push syringe to increase


pressure

Equilibrium

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E. Mg(OH)2 (s) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O (l)


Procedure Observations Explanation
Initial color of milk of
magnesia and
universal indicator

Add 1 drop of 3 M HCl


with constant stirring

Additional drops of 3 M
HCl

Additional drops of HCl


and NaOH Equilibrium

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Clean Up for the
Next Group!

Equilibrium

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Applications of LeChateliers
Principle
COMPLETE: All 4 lab stations
WRITE: Observations
(Explanation is homework)

TIME: 10-12 minutes per station

WHEN DONE: CLEAN UP FOR


NEXT GROUP Equilibrium

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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
A. HIn (aq) H+ (aq) + ln-(aq)

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O(l)


Procedure Observations Explanation
Initial color of water and Solution is green The green color shows
bromothymol blue that the pH of distilled
water is between 6 and
7.6, and the indicator is
a mix of Hln and I-
Add 0.1 M HCl Solution turned yellow
pH < 6.0
Add 0.1 M NaOH Solution turned green
and finally ended on
blue, pH > 7.6
Additional drops of HCl Solution changes from
and NaOH yellow (with HCl) to Equilibrium
blue (with NaOH)
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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
C. [Co(H2O)6]2+(aq) + 4HCl (aq) + Heat [CoCl4]2-(aq) + 6H2O(l)
Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s)
Procedure Observations Explanation
Add 6.0 M HCl drops Solution turned blue
(tube A)
Add 0.1 M AgNO3 drops White solid precipitate
(tube B) and solution turned pink
Add distilled water drops Solution turned pink
(tube C)
Add 5-6 grains CaCl2 to Crystals dissolved and
tube C solution turned blue
Test tube C placed in ice Solution turned pink
water bath for 2-3
minutes
Test tube C placed in hot Solution turned blue
bath for 2-3 mins Equilibrium

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Lab Report: Procedure, Data, Discussion of Theory
D. 2CO2 (g) + H2O (l) CO2 (aq) + H+(aq) + HCO3-(aq)

Procedure Observations Explanation


Initial color of solution Green color = pH 4.4
Pull back on syringe to Solution turned teal, pH =
decrease pressure 4.8
Push syringe to increase Solution turned green,
pressure pH = 4.4

Equilibrium

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E. Mg(OH)2 (s) Mg2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)

H+(aq) + OH-(aq) H2O (l)


Procedure Observations Explanation
Initial color of milk of Purple solution with white White solid is undissolved
magnesia and solid suspended in liquid Mg(OH)2. Purple color is from
universal indicator the universal indicator and
shows that some of the OH-
ions are present b/c purple =
pH > 10
Add 1 drop of 3 M HCl Solution immediately turned
with constant stirring pink with more stirring pink
color turned orange, green,
then blue
Additional drops of 3 M Solution immediately turned
HCl pink; slower change to the
blue-green end color
Additional drops of HCl Solution immediately turned
and NaOH pink; color remained pink and
Equilibrium
solution not cloudy
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Change in Reactant or Product
Concentration
If the system is in equilibrium
adding a reaction component will result in some
of it being used up.
removing a reaction
component will
result in some if it
being produced.

Equilibrium

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Change in Volume or Pressure
When gases are involved in an equilibrium,
a change in pressure or volume will affect
equilibrium:
Higher volume or lower pressure favors the
side of the equation with more moles (and
vice-versa).

Equilibrium

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Change in Temperature
Is the reaction endothermic or
exothermic as written? That matters!
Endothermic: Heats acts like a reactant;
adding heat drives a reaction toward
products.
Exothermic: Heat acts like a product;
adding heat drives a reaction toward
reactants.

Equilibrium

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An Endothermic Equilibrium

Equilibrium

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An Exothermic Equilibrium
The Haber Process for producing
ammonia from the elements is exothermic.
One would think that cooling down the
reactants would result in more product.
However, the activation energy for this
reaction is high!
This is the one instance where a system in
equilibrium can be affected by a catalyst!

Equilibrium

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Catalysts
Catalysts increase the rate of both the forward
and reverse reactions.
Equilibrium is achieved faster, but the equilibrium
composition remains unaltered.
Activation energy is lowered, allowing equilibrium
to be established at lower temperatures.

Equilibrium

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