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MANAGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

7th EDITION

CHAPTER 8
BASIC SYSTEMS CONCEPTS AND TOOLS

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THE SYSTEMS VIEW

What is a system?

System: sekumpulan komponen yang harus saling


bekerja untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu.

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THE SYSTEMS VIEW

Each piece needs to be well-designed, but the pieces also need


to work well together

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THE SYSTEMS VIEW

Seven key system elements:


1. Boundary
2. Environment
3. Inputs
4. Outputs
5. Components
6. Interfaces
7. Storage

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SYSTEM BOUNDARY

Pilihan untuk menarik batas atau membuat batasan


(boundary) bergantung pada faktor-faktor sebagai berikut:

Apa yang bisa dikontrol .


Cakupan apa yang bisa dikelola dalam waktu tertentu.
Dampak adanya perubahan batasan.

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COMPONENT DECOMPOSITION

Proses yang dilakukan untuk membagi sebuah sistem kedalam beberapa


subsistem dinamakan sebagai dekomposisi hirarkis.

Ada lima tujuan penting dari dekomposisi hirarkis dari sebuah sistem yang
diantaranya adalah:
1. Untuk memahami kompleksitas dari sebuah sistem.
2. Untuk menganalisis atau merubah bagian dari sistem.
3. Untuk mendesain dan membangun setiap subsistem pada waktu yang berbeda.
4. Untuk mengarahkan perhatian, dekomposisi ini memperbolehkan kita untuk
berfokus hanya pada komponen yang serius saja.
5. Untuk mengijinkan komponen sistem untuk beroperasi secara lebih
independen.

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INTERFACES
Interface merupakan merupakan inti sebuah kontrak dari sebuah
sistem dan lingkungannya atau diantara dua subsistem.

Fungsi dari sebuah interface antara lain adalah:


Memfilter atau melakukan pembuangan dari data yang tidak
perlu
Melakukan Coding atau decoding
Pendeteksian eror dan pengkoreksian
Melakukan buffering
Untuk keamanan dimana interface menolak permintaan yang
tidak diautorosisasi
Summarizing

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THE SYSTEMS VIEW

Organizations as systems

Four fundamental components in an organization:

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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN (SA&D)

SA&D didasarkan pada proses pendekatan sistem untuk


menyelesaikan masalah.

Terdapat dua prinsip utama:


Choose an appropriate scope
Logical before physical

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BUSINESS PROCESSES

Business Process: Chain of activities required to achieve an


outcome -- such as order fulfillment or materials acquisition

Sistem informasi yang digunakan untuk memfasilitasi


restrukturisasi dan menjaga proses bisnis.

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IDENTIFYING BUSINESS PROCESSES

Menurut Peter tajam (1997), identifikasi proses bisnis inti


perusahaan adalah tugas utama dari suatu analisis.

EVALUASI

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BUSINESS PROCESS REDESIGN (BPR)
IT sebagai Penyedia BPR
Mengorganisasikan proses bisnis lebih kepada output.
Membagi tugas diantara mereka yang menggunakan output
untuk melakukan suatu proses bisnis.
Mengintegrasikan pengolahan informasi ke dalam pekerjaan
yang menghasilkan informasi.
Membuat perusahaan virtual yang mempunyai sumberdaya
terpisah secara geografis seakan mereka terpusat.
Menghubungkan kegiatan secara pararel atau bersamaan
bukan mengintegrasikan hasilnya
Memiliki orang-orang yang melakukan pekerjaan membuat
semua keputusan, dan membiarkan kontrol dibangun ke
dalam memantau proses dari sistem.
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SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)

3 SDLC Phases:

Figure 8.8
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STRUCTURED TECHNIQUES

mengembangkan dan merencanakan teknik untuk mewakili


kebutuhan system

penerapan pemakai

System development methodology

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ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

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PROCEDURE- ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

Context Diagram

Diagrams system with regard to other entities and


activities with which it interacts

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PROCEDURE- ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

Data Flow Diagram (DFD)

Diagrams the flows of information through the system

Four symbols represent:

- External Entity
- Data Flow
- Process
- Data Store

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PROCEDURE- ORIENTED TECHNIQUES:
TOP-LEVEL DFD EXAMPLE

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PROCEDURE- ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD)


- Used to define relationships among entities

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PROCEDURE- ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

Physical To-Be Model


Draft Layout of screen interface design

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OBJECT- ORIENTED (O-O) TECHNIQUES
Primary advantages:
- Facilitates object reuse & quick prototyping

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OBJECT-ORIENTED CONCEPTS

Encapsulation
- An object contains data and related operations
- Allows loosely coupled modules and reuse

Inheritance
- One class of objects can inherit characteristics from
others

Polymorphism
- The ability to treat child objects the same as parent
objects (i.e., call methods exactly the same)

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OBJECT-ORIENTED TECHNIQUES

Unified Modeling Language (UML)

A set of standardized techniques and notations for O-O


analysis and design

Examples of UML diagrams:


- Use Case diagram
- Sequence diagram
- Class diagram

UML
UML Diagrams
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UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML)

Use Case Design


- Represents the interaction of users with the system

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UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML)

Sequence Diagram
- Captures the messages that pass between objects

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UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE (UML)

Class Diagram
- Represents each objects attributes, methods, and
relationships with other objects

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS CONTROLS

Controls can be built into an information system, to mitigate some


business risks, throughout the SDLC process.

Three types of control mechanisms


- Management policies
- Operating procedures
- Auditing function

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SYSTEMS CONCEPTS SUMMARY

Systems Thinking is a hallmark of good management in general.

Systems characteristics are important for IS work:


- Determining the system boundary
- Component decomposition
- Designing a system interface

Structured techniques are still most common, but Object-Oriented


techniques (including UML) have become more prevalent

Systems controls need to be identified and implemented throughout


the systems development cycle
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