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Design & Engineering

MODULE 1
Introduction
2

Design and its Objectives

Design Constraints and Design Functions

Role of Science, Engineering & Technology in design.

Engineering A Business Proposition

Design - Form, Function and Strength

Functional and Strength Designs


How to initiate creative designs?
3

Initiating the Thinking process

Need identification

Problem Statement

Market survey- customer requirements

Design attributes and objectives

Ideation, Brain storming

Solutions and Closing on Design


DESIGN
4

DESIGN

Starting Point of Engineering

Why do we design??
Furniture you bought
..!
Dress you brought..!
Your Mobile phones ..!
Beauty of constructions ..!
Controlling traffic!
Power transmission ..!
Automobile industry !!!
Design in
Nature
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Consider you have a steel wire

What you can do with it?


Design is a dynamic process it keep improving products

Improvements in
Functioning
Strength
Durability
Effectiveness
Economy
Comfort & Ergonomics
Aesthetics
There is no ultimate designs !!!

Still you got a chance on everything around you !


You are the Superhero
How Design?
Through Human activities resulting from
Observations and identify the problem
Experimentations
Logical thinking and Judgment
Organizing results under general principles
Application of principles
Manipulations
How to observe ?

The Greatest Designer.?


NATURE
IS

FULL OF INFINITE
CAUSES
THAT HAVE
NEVER OCCURRED IN
EXPERIENCE

- LEONARDO DA VINCI
Cact
us

Plants

Cree
per
Marble
Water
Rock

Sedimentary
Rock

Quartz
Materials
Sand

Coal
Potter-wasp nest

Plasticity /
Brittility /
Rigidity
1 3
2

4
5 6 7

8 9 1
0 1
1

Elasticity / Plasticity /Brittility /


Rigidity
Transportation
Wheel
Fan Blade
Safety / Helmet / Packing
Cradle

Ham Ham
mock mock
2 5
1

4
Water conveyance (Pipe/Hose)

6
Injection
Brush
Tunnel
Log
bridge

Brid
ge
Shapes
Plantain
calyx /
Boat /
Vessel
Fur
cover

Fur
coat
Thorn / Pin /
Nail
Shelter /
Mushroom /
Umbrella
Root / Spring
/ Binding
and so, Humans learned design
basically from the Nature
and he continues to do so

Its there in your blood !!!


Let's Design
DESIGN
51

Engineering design can be defined as the process of

designing a system, component or process to meet the


desirable needs.
Iterative decision making process

Classified as:

Adaptive Design
Development Design
New design
ADAPTIVE DESIGN
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ADAPTIVE DESIGN
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Creation of a design process based on existing

similar process
May require short period

Slight modification
DEVELOPMENT DESIGN
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Designer may start from an existing design

Final outcome may vary significantly!!!

Design of automatic gear system, developed


from manual gear box transmission
NEW DESIGN
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Attributes to the creativity of the designer

Not inherited from any of the existing designs

Generation of new concepts

Design of Aeroplane
CHARACTERISTICS OR ASPECTS OF DESIGN
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CHARACTERISTICS
57

Objective : a feature or behaviour that the design should

exhibit
Constraint : a limit or restriction on the designs

behaviours or attributes
Function : a specific thing a designed device or system is

expected to do
Means : a way or method to make functions happen

Form : how a design look like


EXAMPLE - LADDER
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Objective Portable, Lightweight

Constraint Cheap

Function Support a given load, must not conduct electricity

Means Wooden, Aluminum or fibreglass?

Form Step ladder


OBJECTIVES OF DESIGN
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To identify the need of the user

To do research and know about the various possibilities

of problem solving.
To fix and formulate a working principle of the solution.

To complete the product design within the affixed time

period.
To reduce the cost of the design process.

To reduce the complexity of the component.


OBJECTIVES OF DESIGN
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To increase the efficiency of the component.

To increase the ergonomic features of the designs there by

making it more user friendly.


To increase the safeness of the component under various

static and dynamic conditions.


To make an eco-friendly material

To create a self-sustainable component.

Most objectives depend upon manufacturability, end product & end-user.


DESIGN OBJECTIVES
61

Important aspect to be understood before initiating design.

Objectives are often not what design should do, but what
design should be.

Objectives are normally expressed verbally.

Portable drilling machine


DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
62

Design objectives and Constraints are related, but different.

Objectives allows us to have wider choices.

(Wider Design Space)

Constraints limit the choices in design.

Design constraints can be defined as the limits


posed on a design process.
DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
63

An engineer has to carefully understand these constraints

and work out a design that fits the situation.


Many times these constrains can be considered as yes or

no types.
Examples:

Should a design work at high temperature?

Should the product be portable?

Should it meet the environmental regulations?


Functional Constraints
Overall Geometry size, width, space, arrangement
Motion of parts type, direction, velocities, acceleration, kinematics
Forces involved load direction, magnitude, load
Energy needed heating, cooling, conversion, pressure
Materials to be used flow, transport, properties
Control system electrical, hydraulic, mechanical, pneumatic
Information flow inputs, outputs, form, display
Safety Constraints

Operational direct, indirect, hazard elimination


Human warnings, training
Environmental land, sea, air, noise, light,
radiation, reaction, transport
Quality Constraints

Quality assurance regulations, standards,


codes
Quality control inspection, testing, labeling
Reliability design life, failures, statistics
Manufacturing Constraints

Production of components factory limitations, means


of production, wastes
Purchase of components supplier quality, reliability,
quality control, inspection
Assembly installation, foundations, bolting, welding
Transport material handling, clearance, packaging
Timing Constraints

Design schedule project planning, project control


Development schedule design detailing, compliance
tests
Production schedule manufacture, assembly, packing,
transport
Delivery schedule delivery date, distribution network,
supply chains
Economic Constraints
Marketing analysis size of market, distribution, market segments
Design costs design team computing, information retrieval
Development costs design detailing, supplier costs, testing costs
Manufacturing cost - tooling, labor, overhead, assembly, inspection
Distribution costs - packing, transport, service centers, spare parts,
warranty
Resources time, budget, labor, capital, machines, material
Ergonomic Constraints

User needs type of operation, instructions, warnings


Ergonomic design man-machine relationships,
operation, height, layout, comfort, lighting
Ecological Constraints

General environmental impact impact on


natural resources, social resources
Sustainability political and commercial
consequences, implications for following
generations
Material selection solid, liquid, gas, stability,
protection, toxicity
Working fluid selection fluid, gas, flammability,
toxicity
Aesthetic Constraints
Customer appeal shape, color, texture, form, feel,
smell, surprise and delight features
Fashion culture, history, trends
Future expectations rate of change in technology,
trends, product families
Life-Cycle Constraints

Distribution means of transport, nature and


conditions of dispatch, rules, regulations
Operation quietness, wear, special uses, working
environments
Maintenance servicing intervals, inspection, exchange
and repair, cleaning, diagnostics
Disposal recycle, scrap
Legal/Ethical Constraints
Regulations OSHA
Ethics public safety, health, welfare and integrity
Intellectual Property patents, trademarks, copyrights
Summary

Think about CONSTRAINTS

Plan for them

Put them into the design


DESIGN FUNCTIONS
76

This is about the specifics, the design is planned to do.


The drill should work in high humidity ( in rain)
The drill should switch off if the load exceeds.

Some of the functions can lead to constraints.

( specifying the maximum load)


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Research function
78

These functions involve

identifying the need for the product,


defining the working principle,
collection of data required for the following processes
research on better alternates etc.

usually starts right after the incubation of the idea

and it is mainly used to enhance the idea


Engineering functions
79

Engineering functions typically involve the main product

design.
usually a 3D model and it is developed using various

designing software packages.


The process also incorporates cost estimation, production

design, concept design, simulation, analysis, check for safety


etc.
This stage is directly responsible for the proposed functioning

of the product.
Manufacturing functions
80

These functions include elements of production such as


Casting
Forming
Assembly
determination of tools
cost controlling
obtaining labourers
purchasing of raw materials etc.
This step creates the physical end product from a virtual

design.
Quality control functions
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These functions typically involve regulation of


products, as per the design,
check for safety
check for dimensioning
check for anticipated working
design auditing
energy auditing etc.
Commercial functions
82

These deal with the cost and service related aspects of a

process.
These include the
relationship with the clients
Marketing
Sales
Logistics
Warehousing
human resources etc.
DESIGN MEANS
83

Approaches to make it function as proposed

One may look at other drill designs

At times do some small survey of similar activities

Do some research to see the workability

Borrow some features from other designs


DESIGN FORM
84

Design form is a profile (or) shape or a configuration of a

product.
Forms are classified into two groups based on the visual

perception.
They are:
A two dimensional form to specify a surface by width and length.
Three dimensional form to specify depth, width and length.
85

A three dimensional form design deals with three

major attributes.
Positional continuity - hard edge formed when two
surfaces intersect
Tangential continuity - circular arc formed when there is a
smooth transition between the two intersecting surfaces
Curvature continuity - smoothest possible continuity
between two surfaces
Different forms - same function
Telephone
Automobiles
Gate
design a new form for a pen?
92

SCIENCE!

ENGINEERING!!

TECHNOLOGY!!!
93
Science Engineering and Technology

Science gives the Principle for temperature measurement


-Thermal expansion of solids and liquids
Engineering uses this principle to design a thermometer

Technology allows to realize the thermometer.


95

Advances in science offer new capabilities, new

materials, new processes through engineering to


produce advances in technology.
Advances in technology, provide scientist with new

capabilities to probe the natural world , to record,


manage and analyze data and to model complex
systems with greater precisions.
Engineering- A business Proposition
96

Engineering is not all about designing things.

Engineering is not a curiosity shop to try different products,


processes, technology etc.
Engineering is Business - to succeed it has to pay back.
An automobile company would involve automobile, mechanical,
electrical as well as production engineering.
So once a business proposal is set, it is almost impossible to achieve
it without engineering.
Functional Design
98

Functional design only focuses on the function rather

than appearance, components, software/hardware, or


anything else.

Usually, the functional design makes sure that the products

functionality is considered before building it.

For the final product to be fully functional, both the client and

end user should be consulted before the design process.


The functional design helps the engineers to eliminate the mistakes

at the early stage of the product design.


For example, the engineers use a software CAD which is useful in

designing various components.


Functional design also allows the user with a feedback system.

For example, in the case of a car, if the doors are not closed properly, the

driver gets a signal through sensors.


This could be made possible only because of functional design.

The designer should have the vision of the function before designing the

door.
A prototype could be used for transition of functional design to such a

system design.

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Functional and Strength Designs
100

Function and Strength are the two important aspects of any


design.

Software designs are always functional.

Designs in electronics are predominantly functional.

However most designs consider these two aspects often


together.

Engineers tend to be more oriented towards strength designs


FUNCTION

STRENGTH

FUNCTION &
STRENGTH
Desirable qualities of a Design Engineer
103
To identify the need of the user

To do research and know about the various possibilities of problem solving.

To fix and formulate a working principle of the solution.

To complete the product design within the affixed time period.

To reduce the cost of the design process.

To reduce the complexity of the component.

To increase the efficiency of the component.

To increase ergonomic features of designs - making it more user friendly.

To increase safeness of component

To make an eco-friendly material

To create a self-sustainable component.


Better Definition....!!!!
107

Design is conceiving and giving form to artifacts that solve


problems or meet the needs

Conceiving in this context means imagining, visualizing a solution to a

problem or need.

Form means shape, physical appearance, formulation or a procedure.

Artifacts:An object produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool,

weapon, or ornament of archaeological or historical interest.

Artifacts in design could be a product, software, building, dress, a process, a

dam, graphics etc.


INITIATING THE CREATIVE DESIGN
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INITIATING THE CREATIVE DESIGN
109

INVENTION OF WHEELS!!
VELCRO
110
VELCRO
111
VELCRO
112
INITIATING THE CREATIVE DESIGN
113

Design of a business model or the design of a software.

If one encounters a totally new problem, the solution ought

to be termed as creative !

If one solves the problem differently with an improvement

then also it can be termed as creative.


INITIATING THE CREATIVE DESIGN
115

ROOMBA ROBOT FOR AUTOMATIC


VACCUM CLEANING
CRATIVE DESIGN PROCESS
116
GENERAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK
117
INITIATING THE THINKING PROCESS FOR
DESIGNING A PRODUCT OF DAILY USE
118

Identify need

Developing problem statement

Compare existing analogical situations

Customer requirement

Defining attributes and objectives

Ideation

End solution
NEED IDENTIFICATION
119

Design starts with need identification.


Whose need? User , Client or Designer;
Designer Boeing or Airbus
Client- Air India or IndiGo
User: Passengers
At times the user, the client and the customer could be the
same or different.
User - The entity that has the need to use the design.
DESIGNER, CLIENT, USER
120
NEED IDENTIFICATION
121

For any Design to be taken up, there should be a need gap or a


problem that needs a solution.

This gap or need could be identified by the user, an observer or by an

organization.

Is design same as invention?

When you design a new product with a novel idea it could be an

invention.

All inventions require design to realize them.


Post -it by 3M Company
NEED IDENTIFICATION
123

Often need or need gap are only vaguely identified by the user.

Design requires clearly defined needs.

This is termed as Problem definition and identification of

Design goals.

Problem definition is easier when the user is the designer.

Otherwise we need market survey and informal


interviews.
NEED IDENTIFICATION
124
Preliminary research on customer needs - Marketing & Design Professionals

Gathering information from the users

Interviews - one-to-one meeting - done by marketing and sales peoples


or account teams -done at customers place
Focus Groups 8-12 members
Customer complaints telephone, letter, email, thirdparty websites
Warranty data
Surveys email, telephone or in person
PROBLEM STATEMENT
125

PROBLEM ANALYSIS

PROBLEM CLARIFICATION
PROBLEM STATEMENT
126

Problem statement-

Students need an easy way to take their books to school

Who are the students?

What is meant by easy?

Make the problem definition as best as possible.

Identify the Product attributes/functions and assign


weightages
PROBLEM STATEMENT
127
MARKET SURVEY
128

Identification and Defining the Problem


Market Survey/Research Objectives
Design of the Survey
Samples
Data collection
Data Analysis
Survey outcome
Design Objectives and Attributes
129

Objectives :- These are the desired deliverables from the design.


They often include design attributes and operation that the user
wants in the design.

Constraints:- These could be from the product angle, user


angle, regulatory angle, or from the scientific/technical angle.

Functions:- are entities a design is supposed to do.

Requirements:- are specifications (functional or non


functional) that are specified by the user/ standards.
Design Attributes
130

Presently many products rule the markets based on


their soft attributes like novel design, styling and
the image they bring to the user.

Aesthetics Perception Style

Feel, Form Cheap Contemporary

Texture, Colour Delicate


IDEATION
131

Ideation is the process which allows to evaluate

current ideas, create new ideas and improve an


idea with other benefits.
This process is very important in the process of concept

development, innovation and creativity.


The major goal of ideation should not be developing lots of

idea, but the goal should be to develop a single idea


with a best solution to satisfy the customer needs.
IDEATION
132

Best idea generation technique, useful in arriving at


new idea is....

BRAINSTORMING!!!
BRAINSTORMING
133

Brainstorming is a group creativity technique in which a group

of people are allowed to discuss about a problem and to find a


solution and conclusion for the problem in a limited
period of time.

To stimulate various ideas, the people are divided into groups.

All groups come up with different ideas to solve the problem.

The facilitator collects the ideas from the groups and conducts

voting on each idea among the groups.


BRAINSTORMING
134

After the voting is done, the top ranked ideas are discussed

among the group members.


In brainstorming, if there is a criticism for any idea then

that idea is put on hold.


The brainstorming group keeps a target for time and with

some pressure to attain the large number of ideas.


The participants are awarded with incentives for their

unique ideas.
BRAINSTORMING
135
Advantages of Brainstorming
136

It is highly motivating

It promotes spontaneity and creativity

It increases focus on the task

It is sufficient and productive

It provides a developing solution to the problem.


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IDEATION TECHNIQUES

ARRIVING AT A SOLUTION AND CLOSING ON


TO THE DESIGN NEEDS
138

Evaluation is the final process in conceptual design in


arriving at the solution.

Evaluation based on feasibility of the design

Not feasible

Conditional Feasible

Feasible
139

Evaluation based on availability of technology

(i) Is the technology available in practice?


(ii) Can the technology be developed with known
sources?
(iii) Are the functional parameters identified?
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Evaluation based on customer requirements

The requirements of the customers are compiled into


questions and are addressed to each ideas/concepts.
It is used to eliminate concepts which are unable to
meet the customer requirements.
DESIGN A SAFE LADDER
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142

Asking questions is an integral part of the design process.

Aristotle noted long ago that knowledge resides in

the questions that can be asked and the answers


that can be provided.
By looking at the kinds of questions that we can ask, we

can articulate the design process as a series of design


tasks.
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Establish a clients objectives


Why do you want another ladder?
How will the ladder be used?
What market we are targeting?

Identify the constraints that govern the design


What does safe mean?
Whats the most youre willing to spend?
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Establish functions that the design must perform and


suggest means by which those functions can be performed
Can the ladder lean against a supporting surface?

Must the ladder support someone carrying something?


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Establish specifications for the design


How much weight should a safe ladder support?

How high should someone on the ladder be able to reach?

Generate design alternatives


Could the ladder be a stepladder or an extension ladder?

Could the ladder be made of wood, aluminium, or fibreglass?


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Objective tree for the design of safe ladder
147
Sketch an innovative improved design
148

SOAP DISH