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Simple Harmonic


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10.1.1 State the conditions necessary for an object to
oscillate with SHM;

A body executing SHM always vibrates about fixed position.

Its acceleration is always towards the mean position.
The magnitude of acceleration is always directly
proportional to its displacement from the mean position. i.e.,
acceleration will be zero at mean position and maximum at
extreme position.
Its velocity will be maximum at mean position and zero at
extreme position.

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10.1.2 explain SHM with Ball and bowl example;

When the ball is at mean position O, that is , at the centre of

the bowl , net force acting on a ball is zero. In this position
weight of the ball acts downward and is equal to the upward
normal force of the surface of the bowl. Hence there is no
motion. Now if we bring the ball to position A and then
release it, the ball will start moving towards the mean
position O due to restoring force caused by weight. At
position O the ball gets maximum speed of the ball
decreases due to the restoring force which acts towards the
mean position. At the position B , the ball stops for while and
then again moves towards mean position O under then
action of the restoring force. This To and Fro motion of the
ball continues about the mean position O till all energy is
lost due to friction.
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Explain that damping progressively reduces the
amplitude of Oscillations;
Damping Oscillations
Damping is process in which amplitude of body goes on
Vibratory motion of ideal system in the absence of any
friction or resistance continues indefinitely under the action
of restoring force. Practically in all system, the force of
friction retards the motion, so the system do not oscillate
indefinitely. The friction reduces the mechanical energy of
the system as time passes, and the motion is said to be
damped. This damping progressively reduces the amplitude
of the vibration of motion.

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10.2.2 Describe that waves are means of energy
transfer without transfer of matter;

Waves play an important role in our daily life.

It is because waves are carrier of energy and
information over large distance. Waves require
some oscillating or vibrating source. Here we
demonstrate the production and propagation
of different waves with the help of vibratory
motion of object.

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10.2.4 Identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical

Longitudinal wavesare waves in which the displacement of the

medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to,
the direction of propagation of the wave. Mechanical longitudinal
waves are also calledcompression wavesorcompression waves,
because they produce compression andrarefactionwhen traveling
through a medium, andpressure waves, because they produce
increases and decreases in pressure.
Example: Longitudinal waves include sound waves (vibrationsin
pressure, particle of displacement, and particle velocity
propagated in anelasticmedium) and seismicP-waves(created
by earthquakes and explosions). In longitudinal waves, the
displacement of the medium is parallel to the propagation of the
wave. A wave along the length of a stretchedSlinkytoy, where the
distance between coils increases and decreases , is a good
visualization. Sound waves in air are longitudinal, pressure waves.

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Atransverse waveis a moving wave that consists
of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right
angled) to the direction of energy transfer. If a
transverse wave is moving in the positivex-
direction, its oscillations are in up and down
directions that lie in theyzplane.
Example: Transverse waves are waves that are
oscillating perpendicularly to the direction of
propagation. If you anchor one end of a ribbon or
string and hold the other end in your hand, you can
create transverse waves by moving your hand up
and down.
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10.3.1 Describe properties of waves such as reflection,
refraction and diffraction with the help of ripple tank;

About Ripple Tanks:

Ripple tanks provide a useful means by which
to study wave phenomena. Through ripple tanks, many
properties of waves can be investigated. During this lab,
you will observe diffraction and interference, reflection and

To learn to recognize wave characteristics (reflection,
refraction, diffraction and interference).
To analyze wave patterns in water.

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Ripple tank
Light source

Wave generator

Plexi glass blocks

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Refraction occurs when waves change speed and
direction as they pass from one medium to another or
experience the frictional effects of objects in its
surroundings. When water waves transition from the
deep waters of the open ocean to the beaches, the
waves slow down due to friction with the bottom. The
wavelength will decrease as well. However, the
frequency will not change. Depending on the direction
of the wave and the transition up to the beach, the wave
may change direction. Jetties and other manmade
objects such as piers are other examples that will cause
the direction of waves to change. Natural objects such
as sandbars will do the same. In the event of a sandbar,
the wave will return to the same wavelength and speed
as it had prior to coming into contact with it.

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The law of reflection states that the angle of incidence is
equal to the angle of reflection. Note that the angle of
incidence and angle of reflection are both determined
relative to the normal with the surface that the wave
reflects off of. The normal is an imaginary line that is drawn
perpendicular(90 degree) to the surface.

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Diffraction is characterized by a spreading out of the wave
as it passes through a narrow opening such as those
associated with ports where they offer protection from the
open ocean. You will note that a linear wave becomes
rounded when it passes through a narrow opening, such as
seen at points A and B in the diagram below.

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10.4.1 define the term speed(v) , frequency(f) ,
wavelength (),time period(T) , amplitude , crest ,
trough , cycle , wave front , compression and

Speed (v): Speed is distance traveled per unit of time.

Frequency (f): The number of vibrations or cycles of a

vibrating body in one second is called its frequency. It is
reciprocal of time period. i.e., f=1/T

Wavelength (): The distance between two consecutive

crests or troughs.

Time period (T): The time taken by a vibrating body to

complete one vibration is called time period.

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Amplitude: The maximum displacement of vibrating body on
either side from its mean position is called its amplitude.

Crests and Troughs: In transverse wave, the highest points

and lowest points of the particles of the medium from the mean

Cycle: One complete vibration of a wave.

Wave front:

Compression: Where the loops of the spring are close together.

Rarefaction: It means (expansions), where the loops are

spaced apart.

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10.4.2 Drive the equation V=f

V= /t

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