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Faculty of Science

Physics Department
101 Physics for Engineers

Particle
Kinematics
and
Kinematics
Describes motion while ignoring the
agents that caused the motion
For now, will consider motion in one
dimension
Along a straight line
Will use the particle model
A particle is a point-like object, has mass
but infinitesimal size
Figure 2.1 A car moves
back and forth along a
straight line.

Positio
n
Displacement Distance is nonzero.

Defined as the change in


position during some time
Displacement is
interval zero
Represented as x
x = xf - xi
SI units are meters (m) x
can be positive or negative
Different than distance
the length of a path
followed by a particle
Average Velocity


x
vaveragett
x x
fi
The average velocity is rate at which
the displacement occurs

The dimensions are length / time [L/T]


The SI units are m/s
Is also the slope of the line in the
position time graph
Average Speed
Speed is a scalar quantity
same units as velocity
total distance / total time
The average speed is not
(necessarily) the magnitude of the
average velocity
Instantaneous Velocity
The limit of the average velocity as
the time interval becomes
infinitesimally short, or as the time
interval approaches zero
The instantaneous velocity
indicates what is happening at
every point of time
Instantaneous Velocity,
equations
The general equation for
instantaneous velocity is
x dx
v x lim
t 0 t dt
The instantaneous velocity can be
positive, negative, or zero
Instantaneous Velocity,
graph
The instantaneous
velocity is the slope
of the line tangent
to the x vs. t curve
This would be the
green line
The blue lines show
that as t gets
smaller, they
approach the green
line
Instantaneous Speed
The instantaneous speed is the
magnitude of the instantaneous
velocity
Remember that the average speed
is not the magnitude of the
average velocity
Average
Acceleration is the rate of change of the
Acceleration

velocity

Dimensions are L/T2


SI units are m/s
Instantaneous
Acceleration
The instantaneous
acceleration is the
limit of the
average
acceleration as t
approaches 0
v x dv x d x
2
a x lim 2
t 0 t dt dt
Instantaneous Acceleration --
graph
The slope of the
velocity vs. time
graph is the
acceleration
The green line
represents the
instantaneous
acceleration
The blue line is the
average
acceleration
Acceleration and
When an objects velocity and acceleration are in
Velocity

the same direction, the object is speeding up


When an objects velocity and acceleration are in
the opposite direction, the object is slowing down
Freely Falling Objects
A freely falling object is any
object moving freely under the
influence of gravity alone.
It does not depend upon the initial
motion of the object
Dropped released from rest
Thrown downward
Thrown upward
Acceleration of Freely
Falling Object
The acceleration of an object in free fall
is directed downward, regardless of the
initial motion
The magnitude of free fall acceleration
is g = 9.80 m/s2
g decreases with increasing altitude
g varies with latitude
9.80 m/s2 is the average at the Earths
surface
Acceleration of Free Fall,
cont.
We will neglect air resistance
Free fall motion is constantly
accelerated motion in one
dimension
Let upward be positive
Use the kinematic equations with
ay = g = -9.80 m/s2
Free Fall Example
Initial velocity at A is upward (+)
and acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2)
At B, the velocity is 0 and the
acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2)
At C, the velocity has the same
magnitude as at A, but is in the
opposite direction
The displacement is 50.0 m (it
ends up 50.0 m below its
starting point)
Motion Equations from
Calculus
Displacement
equals the area
under the velocity
time curvet
vxn tn vx (t )dt
f
lim
tn 0 ti
n

The limit of the


sum is a definite
integral
Kinematic Equations
General Calculus Form
dv x
ax
dt
t
v xf v xi a x dt
0

dx
vx
dt
t
x f xi v x dt
0
Kinematic Equations
Calculus Form with
The integration form of v v gives
Constant Acceleration f i

v xf v xi a x t

The integration form of xf xi gives


1
x f xi v xi t a x t 2

2
Linear Momentum
The linear momentum of a particle
or an object that can be modeled as a
particle of mass m moving with a
velocity v is defined to be the product
of the mass and velocity:
p=mv

The terms momentum and linear momentum
will be used interchangeably in the text
Linear Momentum, cont
Linear momentum is a vector quantity
Its direction is the same as the direction of v
The dimensions of momentum are ML/T
The SI units of momentum are kg m / s
Momentum can be expressed in
component form:
px = m vx py = m vy pz = m vz
Newton and Momentum
Newton called the product mv the
quantity of motion of the particle
Newtons Second Law can be used
to relate the momentum of a particle
to the resultant force acting on it
dv d mv dp
F ma m
dt dt dt
with constant mass
Newtons Second Law
The time rate of change of the linear
momentum of a particle is equal to the
net force acting on the particle
This is the form in which Newton presented
the Second Law
It is a more general form than the one we
used previously
This form also allows for mass changes
Applications to systems of particles are
particularly powerful