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DRUG STUDY

CEFUROXIME
Generic Name:
CEFUROXIME

Brand Name:

ZOLTAX

Classification:

ANTIBIOTIC

Mechanism of action

Cefuroxime axetil has activity in the presence of


some -lactamases, both penicillinases and
cephalosporinases, of gram-negative and gram-
positive bacteria.
Side effects and adverse effect
Chills

diarrhea

fever

general feeling of illness or discomfort

headache

itching of the vagina or genital area

pain during sexual intercourse

rigidity

sweating

thick, white vaginal discharge with no odor or


with a mild odor
Indication
Susceptible mild to moderate infections including
pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis,
bronchitis, acute otitis media; uncomplicated skin
and skin structure, UTIs, gonorrhea; early Lyme
disease

Contraindication
Cefuroxime products are contraindicated in
patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin
group of antibiotics.
FUROSEMIDE
Generic Name
Furosemide

Brand Name

Lasix

Classification

Loop diuretic

Mechanism of Action

Inhibits the pump that co-transports sodium,

potassium, and chloride out of the thick


ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Thus, the
ability of the nephron to dilute urine is lost.
Adverse Effects
Fluid and electrolyte imbalance.

Rashes, photosensitivity, nausea, diarrhoea,


blurred vision, dizziness, headache, hypotension.
Bone marrow depression (rare), hepatic
dysfunction.
Hyperglycaemia, glycosuria, ototoxicity.

Potentially Fatal: Rarely, sudden death and


cardiac arrest. Hypokalaemia and magnesium
depletion can cause cardiac arrhythmias.
Indications
Oral, IV: Edema associated with CHF, cirrhosis,

renal disease
IV: Acute pulmonary edema

Oral: Hypertension

Contraindications

Severe sodium and water depletion,


hypersensitivity to sulphonamides and
furosemide, hypokalaemia, hyponatraemia,
precomatose states associated with liver
cirrhosis, anuria or renal failure.
Addisons disease.

Nursing considerations

Name confusion has occurred between


furosemide and torsemide; use extreme caution.
AMLODIPINE
Generic Name
amlodipine

Brand Name

Norvasc

Drug classes

Antianginal drug

Antihypertensive

Mechanism Of Action

Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist


(calcium ion antagonist or slow-channel blocker) that
inhibits the transmembrane influx of calcium ions
into vascular smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
Adverse effects
CNS: Dizziness, light-headedness, headache,
asthenia, fatigue, lethargy
CV: Peripheral edema, arrhythmias

Dermatologic: Flushing, rash

GI: Nausea, abdominal discomfort

Indications

Angina pectoris due to coronary artery spasm


(Prinzmetals variant angina)
Chronic stable angina, alone or in combination
with other agents
Essential hypertension, alone or in combination
with other antihypertensives
Contraindications and cautions
Contraindicated with allergy to amlodipine,
impaired hepatic or renal function, sick sinus
syndrome, heart block (second or third degree),
lactation.
Use cautiously with CHF, pregnancy.

Nursing considerations
Name confusion has been reported between
Norvasc (amlodipine) and Navane (thiothixene);
use caution.
GLIMEPIRIDE

Generic Name
Glimepiride

Brand Name

Amaryl

Drug Class

Hypoglycimec

Mechanism Of Action

Glimepiride primarily lowers blood glucose by


stimulating the release of insulin from pancreatic beta
cells. Sulfonylureas bind to the sulfonylurea receptor in
the pancreatic beta-cell plasma membrane, leading to
closure of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel,
thereby stimulating the release of insulin.
SIDE EFFECTS
severe skin rash, itching, redness, or irritation;
pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, fever,
unusual weakness;
numbness or tingly feeling;

trouble breathing;

feeling like you might pass out;

dark urine, clay-colored stools;


Indication
Treating type 2 diabetes in patients who cannot

control blood sugar levels by diet and exercise


alone. It is used along with diet and exercise. It
may be used alone or with other antidiabetic
medicines.
Contraindication

Contraindications. Its use is contraindicated in


patients with hypersensitivity to glimepiride or
other sulfonylureas.
Nursing Responsibilities:

a.Give drug 30 min before breakfast

b.Monitor urine or serum levels frequently to

determine drug effectiveness and dosage


c.Avoid alcohol while using this drug
FERROUS SULFATE
Generic:
Ferrous sulfate

Brand Name:

Ferrous sulfate

Classification:

Enzymaticmineral and Iron preparation.

Mechanism of action

Elevates the serum iron concentration which

then helps to form High or trapped in the


reticuloendothelial cells for storage and eventual
conversion to a usable form of iron.
SIDE EFFECTS
Constipation;
dark or green stools;

diarrhea;

loss of appetite;

nausea;

stomach cramps, pain, or upset;

vomiting.
INDICATIONS
Prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemias.

Dietary supplement for iron.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity

Severe hypotension.

Nursing considerations

Use cautiously on long-term basis

Keep in mind that GI upset may be related to dose.

Between-meal doses are preferable, but can be given


with some foods, although absorption may be decreased.
Enteric-coated products reduce GI upset but also reduce
amount of iron absorbed
Be aware that oral iron may turn stools black. Although

this unabsorbed iron is harmless, it could mask melenas.


Monitor hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and

reticulocyte count during therapy, as ordered


KETOANALOGUES
Generic Name
Essential Amino Acids

Brand Name

Ketosteril

Drug Class

Ketoanalogs; Essential amino acids

Therapeutic Actions

Normalizes metabolic process, promotes recycling

product exchange. Reduces ion concentration of


potassium, magnesium and phosphate.
Indications
Protein energy malnutrition

Prevention and treatment of conditions caused by


modified or insufficient protein metabolism in
chronic renal failure
Contraindications

Allergy and hypersensitivity to any content of


this drug
Hypercalcemia

Disturbed amino acid metabolism

Caution use for patietn with phenylketonuria


Nursing Considerations
Evaluate for any contraindications

Take drug as prescribed

Warn the patient about possible side effects and

how to recognize them


Give with food if GI upset occurs

Frequently assess for hypercalcemia


VITAMIN B COMPLEX
GENERIC NAME:
VITAMIN B COMPLEX

BRAND NAME(S):

Nephro-vite, Nephrocaps, Triphrocaps

A dietary supplement for certain patients with


high blood levels of homocysteine or kidney
failure, or those who are on dialysis or do not
receive the proper amount of vitamins from their
diet.
Do NOT use vitamin b complex/ vitamin c/
biotin/ folic acid if:
you are allergic to any ingredient in vitamin b
complex/vitamin c/biotin/folic acid

Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with


vitamin b complex/vitamin c/biotin/folic acid. Tell
your health care provider if you are taking any
other medicines, especially any of the following:

Hydantoins (eg, phenytoin) or levodopa because


their effectiveness may be decreased by vitamin b
complex/vitamin c/biotin/folic acid